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International Journal of Sustainable Design (5 papers in press)
Uncertainties in Socially Responsible Design: A Consequentialist Approach by Anders Haug, Jacob Busch Abstract: In recent decades, a plethora of books and papers on socially responsible design has emerged. This literature, however, is far from having solved the environmental and social problems faced by the world today. More specifically, although socially responsible design initiatives may have the best intentions, they often have minimal, if any, positive impact. A central reason for this is the uncertainties associated with the effects of such designs, which is also often used as an argument against initiating more ambitious projects. To be able to choose a more ambitious path, we need to better understand the uncertainties associated with socially responsible designs and to reconsider the ethical assumptions guiding our choices. This issue is addressed by defining a framework for understanding uncertainties associated with such projects and by arguing for a consequentialist ethics to govern socially responsible design. Keywords: socially responsible design; sustainable design; design ethics; uncertainty; risk; product design.
DIY MATERIALS FROM POTATO SKIN WASTE FOR DESIGN by Carlo Santulli, Carla Langella, Clarita Caliendo Abstract: This work concerns the creation of a wall display for fruits, made in a DIY material structure, as the result of a material tinkering process over waste to enable understanding possible application in a design context. The material and object is obtained starting from potato skins, as an example of waste very frequent in the food processing chain, in most local contexts. The display is specifically designed in a double layer configuration, partially translucent, colored with food dyes and aromatized during the experimentation phase to ensure its suitability to the purpose. Some basic characterization tests were also performed to allow for the possible development of a customized product from this material demonstrator. The process, in giving some value to a typical and very diffuse food chain waste, would therefore guarantee the upcycling of the relevant refuse. The structure is intended for application into a context of farm holiday site and aimed at presenting local products, ideally coming from the very farm fields involved. Keywords: Potato skin waste; material tinkering; fruit display; DIY material.
CONCEPTUALIZING A POSITIONING FRAMEWORK FOR SMART CITIES IN AN EMERGING ECONOMY by Bikramjit Rishi, Archit Kacker Abstract: In June 2015, the Smart Cities Mission was launched in India and it was considered as Prime Minister Narendra Modis pet project. The plan was to rejuvenate 100 cities into Smart Cities in India. But before getting into the work of smart city, it is vital for us to understand the concept of smart city and how this could be applied in the Indian Context. The study synthesizes the existing literature to drive the meaning of smart city and designing a positioning framework. Majorly all the literature sources have searched out to find out the relevant literature by using the terms like smart city, framework for a smart city/cities, meaning of a smart city, smart city design and so on. A literature map has been created to drive the positioning framework. The study found out that the word Smart City arouses different sentiments in the mind of people. The concept of a smart city is so huge that there is no globally accepted definition. The study proposes six frameworks can be applied to understand the positioning of a smart city; these frameworks are Smart Technology, Smart Economy, Smart Governance, Smart Mobility, Smart Environment, and Smart Community. Each framework has certain characteristics that form the actual parameters based on which the work needs to be done. However, these parameters are not independent of each other; rather, there exists a level of interconnectivity between them. Existing literature only defines the smart city but do not provide a positioning framework which can help in ranking the cities on the basis of framework data. These rankings can be helpful for builders to invest and for consumers to buy properties in an emerging market like India. rnrn Keywords: Smart City; Positioning; Smart Technology; Smart Governance; Smart mobility.
Environmental assessment in the conceptual design phase of new product development by Marcelo Ruy, Dario Alliprandini, Gabriela Scur Abstract: Many studies have shown the importance of incorporating environmental issues into the process of new product development (NPD). However, a critical review of the existing literature on this subject reveals a lack of methods and tools used to evaluate environmental criteria during the initial phases of product design, specifically, the conceptual design phase and concept selection stage. The objective of this manuscript is to present a framework for the environmental evaluation of product concepts based on design for environment (DfE), with an emphasis on tangible products. The proposed framework could enhance the effectiveness of implementing DfE strategies in the product development process, especially in the conceptual design phase. The framework was based on DfE strategies related to the physical dimension of products and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). This is one of the very first studies to present a framework for selecting a concept that best meets DfE criteria from a product life cycle perspective and offers the potential to be expanded to multiple manufacturers. Keywords: conceptual design; concept environmental assessment; DfE strategy; eco-design; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP).
Investigating the Effect of Sewage Corrosive Agents on Surface Corrosion and Porosity of Cement Concrete and Sulfur Concrete Structures by Mohammad Reza Sabour, Ghorban Ali Dezvareh Abstract: The corrosion phenomenon causes an enormous economic and ecological damage over billions of dollars every year around the world. The nonlinearity of the corrosion process is an important problem for a researcher who is trying to predict the remaining life of the structures used in the sewage network. The purpose of this study was to conduct experiments to investigate and accurately determine the effect of different parameters and sewage environment on the behavior of sulfur concrete and conventional concrete as the constructor material of sewage structures and to compare the behavior of these types of concrete.rn For evaluating the corrosion behavior of concrete samples, porosity factor was measured. By analyzing the SEM, EDX, EDS images, a non-dimensional index called Hole Index Ratio (HIR) was determined by matching the images before and after the experiments and the empty space surface ratio to the initial level. Duncan test was used to determine the conditions of the test and the reasonableness of the data. Response Surface Methodology and Historical data module were used for modeling. Finally SEM pictures were analyzed for both laboratory and field experiments. rnIt can be concluded that the main cause of the destruction of pipes made of cement concrete, in the simulated or laboratory sewage environment, chemical corrosion is the result of the reactivity of sulfuric acid condensed in sewage gases or biogenic acid derived from microbial activity by sulfur oxidizing bacteria. While in very similar laboratory and field conditions, sulfur concrete exhibited very high resistance to chemical corrosion. The only minor factor of the minor weakness in it and in biological pilot is the elemental sulfur metabolism in the surface layer of the concrete and the depth penetration of the bacteria and the crack occurrence due to the breakdown of the sulfur bond with aggregate material. It should be noted that under the real conditions and the presence of microbial competition between bacteria and the unfavorable conditions for the Thiobacillus thiooxidans bacteria, this malignant effect is far less and is negligible. Keywords: Concrete Corrosion; Sewage network; Hole Index Ratio; Sulfur Concrete; microbial corrosion; Thiobacillus thiooxidans.