International Journal of Sustainable Development (14 papers in press)
Bike-sharing acceptance through the lens of the theory of routine mode choice decisions
by Siti Norida Wahab, Muhammad Iskandar Hamzah, Xiaoqiao Ye, Hareeah Vrindavaneshwaree
Abstract: This paper aims to provide insight into factors affecting bike-sharing acceptance among Malaysians. Through a quantitative survey, data were collected from 120 commuters residing in the Klang Valley. The findings indicated that safety, comfort, and enjoyment are the decisive determinants of bike-sharing acceptance. Meanwhile, availability and costs have no significant impact. Based on the findings, bicycle distributors and competent authorities in Malaysia should focus on improving the comfort of service, bicycle infrastructure, and a network that would support the growth of bicycle usage, especially in urban communities. The theory of routine mode choice decisions served as the underpinning theory to predict bike-sharing acceptance. Since limited studies have been carried out on the Kuala Lumpur public bicycle-sharing program, this study is among the first to contribute on the subject. The current study provides a platform for future empirical bike-sharing studies in Malaysia as a greenhouse-friendly and sustainable transportation mode.
Keywords: bike-sharing; sustainable transport; low carbon mobility; theory of routine mode choice decisions.
The willingness to pay for urban parks amenities: the economic value of Bois Sainte Anastasie in Yaound
by André Melachio Tameko, Laurent Ndjanyou
Abstract: This paper, through the contingent valuation method and the referendum format, values the preferences of the users of Bois Sainte Anastasie park in Yaound
Keywords: urban green space; contingent valuation method; willingness to pay; certainty calibration; parametric approach; nonparametric approach.
The role of governments in sustainable consumption: the perception of Brazilian experts
by Verônica Macário Oliveira, Carla Regina Pasa Gomez, Suzanne Érica Nobrega Correia
Abstract: The purpose of this article was to analyse the roles of governments to promote sustainable consumption in the perception of Brazilian specialists. In terms of methodological procedures, the research was carried out among 40 Brazilian specialists on the topic, using the Policy Delphi to identify the relevance of the papers identified in an extensive bibliographic survey of national and international basis. The results point out the concern of specialists when it comes to issues related to environmental regulation and inspection as being the main aspects associated with structuring. That context being favourable to the sustainability of consumer practices, elements that should be linked to instruments that promote greater consumer awareness and the use of public procurement as an example of sustainable practices for society. The technique was applied in two rounds, as the research participants maintained, in the second round, the relevance trend attributed to the sustainable consumption promotion papers obtained in the first round.
Keywords: sustainable development; sustainable consumption; public policy; sustainable development goals; environmental issues; macrostructural changes; intersectoriality; market changes; producers and consumers.
Weedy rice and the sustainability of alternative establishment methods
by Serge Svizzero
Abstract: Given its dependence and influence on the environment, and its importance for food security, several initiatives aim to improve the sustainability of rice cultivation. The most widespread recommendation is a switch from hand transplanting to direct-seeding. In the short term, direct-seeding presents social, economic and ecological advantages; however it induces in the longer term a major problem, the proliferation of weeds, in particular of weedy rice. The latter lowers grain yield and quality, and therefore farmers income. Since weedy rice is a conspecific of cultivated rice, then it is very difficult to control it by either traditional means or biotechnologically, because it promotes crop-weed hybridisation and the introgression of traits such as herbicide resistance. In addition to their low effectiveness, these weed management methods imply in the long term important economic and ecological costs that reduce, or even might cancel, the short-term benefits associated with the switch to direct-seeding.
Keywords: Oryza sativa f. spontanea; red rice; direct-seeded rice; hand transplanting rice; integrated weed management; herbicide-resistant rice varieties.
Natural resources exploitation and social sustainability: an ex-ante regional policy simulation using EU-SILC data
by Mauro Viccaro, Benedetto Rocchi, Mario Cozzi, Severino Romano
Abstract: This paper provides an ex-ante assessment of the impact on income distribution of a social card to support poor families in the Basilicata Region of Italy, funded by fiscal revenues from oil extraction. The distributive effects of this policy are assessed by combining microeconomic information from the European Survey on Incomes and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) with a two-region social accounting matrix (SAM). The simulations show that a proper design of the policy could lead to relevant improvement of equity and poverty indicators, contributing to regional sustainability. The analysis has shown that the EU-SILC data sample, combined with a SAM, can be used to support the design of an evidence-based regional development policy.
Keywords: sustainable development; regional policy; oil royalties; social welfare; EU-SILC; social accounting matrix.
Zero waste governance: a Scottish case study
by Lucy Wishart, Jan Bebbington
Abstract: This paper offers an account of how zero waste governance works in Scotland. Zero waste has been widely adopted by governments as a policy goal, yet the term remains equivocal. Using Scotland as a case study, this paper investigates how zero waste is understood and pursued as a policy goal within a national context and how socio-political factors shape zero waste governance. Providing the first academic study of waste governance in Scotland, the paper introduces key actors, initiatives and objectives from zero waste policy documents. Using conceptual insights from waste governance research, the paper identifies the importance of boundary organisations, networks, existing institutions, expertise, and stakeholder engagement in shaping the zero waste policy in Scotland. Through these concepts the paper presents an account of how zero waste governance works in Scotland and offers potential themes to further zero waste governance research.
Keywords: zero waste; Scotland; waste governance.
COVID-19 and sustainable development
by Mohan Munasinghe
Abstract: This perspective article examines the current sustainable development framework in the context of COVID-19, and argues that it is robust enough to face multiple long-term global challenges including pandemics, poverty and climate change. COVID-19 highlights major existing unsustainabilities, including unhealthy interactions between ecological and socio-economic systems, such as human encroachments into wildlife habitats that have facilitated coronavirus transmission. Seven preliminary policy-relevant lessons are given to re-prioritise sustainable development issues: protect the environmental base and avoid dangerous feedbacks; find integrated, globally-coordinated, systems-based long term solutions for multiple problems; empower individuals to act now; focus on social issues; pursue a transformative path to sustainability via balanced inclusive green growth (BIGG); promote sustainable urban habitats and lifestyles by leveraging digital technology; and use better risk analysis and management. The practical and integrated way forward towards BIGG is discussed, in the context of currently unsustainable human activities. Key problems of implementation are outlined, including linkages with UN SDG and 2030 Agenda.
Keywords: sustainable development; COVID-19; pandemic; environment; balanced inclusive green growth.
Progress in implementation of sustainable development in V4 countries
by Anna Cepelova, Milan Dousa
Abstract: Agenda 2030, 'Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development', is a development program for the next 15 years (2015-2030). The objective of the 2030 Agenda is to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development in all countries in the world by 2030. The objective of this contribution is to identify, on the basis of content analysis in empirical research, the results of fulfilling Goal 11 'Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable' of the 2030 Agenda in V4 countries in terms of their global responsibility for their fulfillment. Then a relational comparison of V4 countries in terms of their performance in its implementation will be carried out on the basis of data obtained using the SDG index. This paper is part of the solution of Project VEGA . 1/0302/18 'Smart cities as a possibility to implementation the concept of sustainable urban development in the Slovak Republic'.
Keywords: sustainable development; 2030 Agenda Goal 11; V4 countries; SDG index; sustainable urban development; sustainable indicators.
Agroecological and conventional agricultural systems:
comparative analysis of coffee farms in Brazil for sustainable development
by Mario Coccia
Abstract: A main problem in emerging countries is reducing poverty in rural areas with sustainable agricultural systems. Agroecology is a pattern of sustainable economic development with ecological processes directed to reduce production costs and support natural resource management. This study analyses differences between agroecology and conventional agricultural systems by using data of 15 small coffee farms in the East Region of Minas Gerais state (Brazil) that is characterised by high levels of rural poverty and of environmental fragility. The analysis is based on a field research activity performed directly with small farmers by using a participatory approach. Information collected through direct interviews have been synthesised in various socioeconomic and environmental indices in order to assess the differences in performance of farms. Results suggest that agroecological systems can support local small farmers to stabilise and diversify incomes and improve environment management. In addition, results here also suggest that agroecological practices have eliminated the use of pesticides, reduced the use of fertilizers and supported higher areas of forest conservation than conventional agricultural systems. Overall, then, this study shows that agroecology is a more cost-effective and sustainable agricultural system for smallholder farmers than conventional agricultural systems to support economic growth and wellbeing of rural areas.
Keywords: agroecology; smallholder agriculture; farm analysis; coffee market; Brazil; sustainable agriculture; agricultural systems.
A fuzzy approach to measure the responsibility level for tourist companies
by Jose Galindo, Pilar Alarcon
Abstract: Recently, many organisations have taken interest in sustainable tourism. On the other hand, the responsibility level is more general than the sustainability level, because it measures other interesting aspects, such as cultural, economic or social issues. The problem is how to measure this general responsibility level, because there are many influential factors, and many of them are not easy to measure. Besides, it is not easy to know which factors are more important than others. Here, we propose a fuzzy approach to measure it, proposing a fuzzy measurement of tourist responsibility, including environmental, economic, social and cultural factors. A responsible tourism is a sustainable tourism.
Keywords: fuzzy measurements; responsible tourism; responsibility level; sustainability level; fuzzy databases; fuzzy ethics level.
Spontaneous environmental action practice case based on the Fushan fishery resource conservation area
by Wen-Ching Wang, Min-Hau Tsai
Abstract: In this study, a qualitative method was used to explore the implementation process, functions, and impacts of 63 action plans carried out for the Fushan Fisheries Conservation Area in Taitung County, Taiwan. The following four empirical models were developed based on the analysis results: (1) fostering of the capabilities of local fishermen; (2) establishment of a cooperation mechanism; (3) empowerment of local conservation activists; and (4) planning of the use and transformation into fishing villages for ecotourism. The environmental actions adopted for the area are currently still effectively implemented. It has been determined through empirical interviews that the main reason for success of the area lies in the fact that no economic incentives are provided to mobilise the villagers, which in turn guarantees that the willingness to engage in environmental actions is not affected by economic changes. These empirical models may therefore serve for relevant actions in other resource conservation areas.
Keywords: resource conservation area; citizen participation; empowerment; blue economy.
Towards a better measurement of the social sustainability of Irish agriculture
by Mary Brennan, Thia Hennessy, Emma Dillon
Abstract: There exists a need to analyse and develop the social aspects of agricultural sustainability. Distinct gaps between agricultural policy priorities and the data infrastructure needed to develop metrics for policy evaluation at the farm level exist, particularly regarding the social dimension of sustainability. This paper aims to examine the current social sustainability frameworks in operation across Europe and beyond, with a view towards expansion using Irish Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) data from the Teagasc National Farm Survey. A stakeholder consultation process, featuring policymakers, farm data recorders, academic researchers amongst others, highlighted pertinent concerns regarding the social sustainability of agriculture. Issues such as farmer stress, work/life balance, generational renewal and the viability of rural areas featured as priority concerns. Issues such as these have been identified as key areas of concern within the new Common Agricultural Policy which supports the continued development of specific indicators of social sustainability.
Keywords: Agricultural sustainability; sustainability indicators; stakeholder consultation; farmer wellbeing; rural viability; generational renewal; rural isolation
Special Issue on: Integrity and Quality in Science
Contextualizing harm in the framework of research misconduct: findings from discourse analysis of scientific publications
by Vasiliki Petousi, Irini Sifaki
Abstract: This article reports on research that deals with dimensions of harm resulting from research misconduct, in articles published in scientific journals. An appropriate sample of publications retrieved from Pubmed, Scopus and WOS was selected across various disciplines and topics. Implementing discourse analysis, articles were classified according to the narratives of individual impurity, institutional failure and structural crisis. Most of the articles analysed fall within the narrative of structural crisis. The main argument advanced is that research misconduct harms the scientific enterprise as a whole. Harm is narrated in the context of institutional characteristics, policies, procedures, guidelines, and work environment. Mainly, however, harm is narrated in the context of structural characteristics of contemporary scientific practices which result in normative dissonance for scientists and loss of trust in science in the relation between science and society and within the scientific enterprise itself. We conclude that new grounds for building trust and confidence in science are needed.
Keywords: research misconduct; research integrity; discourse analysis; harm.
The societal costs of research misconduct: some method considerations from the DEFORM project
by Caroline Gans Combe, Sylvie Faucheux, Catherine Kuszla
Abstract: This paper reports findings from the European DEFORM Project addressing the incidence and the social costs of research misconduct. We distinguish between (1) research misconduct (RM) such as fraud committed by persons and organisations directly engaged in the practice of scientific research; and (2) the broader concept of non-responsible innovation (NRI), meaning activities of discovery and innovation not respectful of wider societal values. RM and NRI engage distinct considerations of integrity and responsibility in society, but we can link them with a broad vision of values for science in society. The core of the paper presents a novel econometric approach, developed in the DEFORM Project, for the estimation of the incidence and direct social costs of Research Misconduct (RM) by analysing RM as a broad category of occupational fraud. This approach is applied to the field of publicly funded research in European countries, to obtain empirical estimates of the order of magnitude of financial losses to research investors due to projects tainted by RM . We then turn to the societal context of research misconduct, notably the incitation to fraud afforded by commercial and institutional performance pressures. This is illustrated with the example of direct and indirect social costs of RM in the ongoing Dieselgate scandal. In this way, we situate the question of social costs of RM as one facet of the wider challenge of quality assurance and governance of research activity and of the uses of science in society.
Keywords: DEFORM; dieselgate; integrity; KQA; occupational fraud; research misconduct; social costs.