International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies
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International Journal of Metadata, Semantics and Ontologies (4 papers in press)
Special Issue on: Towards an Enriched, Linked, Open and Filtered Metadata Model
Intermediary XML schemas: constraint, templating and interoperability in complex environments by Richard Gartner Abstract: This article introduces the methodology of intermediary schemas for complex metadata environments. Metadata in instances conforming to these is not generally intended for dissemination but must usually be transformed by XSLT transformations to generate instances conforming to the referent schemas to which they mediate. The methodology is designed to enhance the interoperability of complex metadata within XML architectures. This methodology incorporates three subsidiary methods: these are project-specific schemas which represent constrained mediators to over-complex or over-flexible referents (Method 1), templates or conceptual maps from which instances may be generated (Method 2) and serialized maps of instances conforming to their referent schemas (Method 3). The three methods are detailed and their applications to current research in digital ecosystems, archival description and digital asset management and preservation are examined. A possible synthesis of the three is also proposed in order to enable the methodology to operate within a single schema, the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS). Keywords: XML; intermediary XML schemas; metadata; interoperability; digital asset management; digital preservation; METS; constraint; templating.
Unique challenges facing linked data implementation for National Educational Television by Chris Pierce Abstract: Implementing linked data involves a costly process of converting metadata to an exchange format substantially different from traditional library 'records-based' exchange. To achieve full implementation, it is necessary to navigate a complex process of data modelling, crosswalking, and publishing. This paper documents the transition of a dataset of National Educational Television (NET) collection records to a 'data-based' exchange environment of linked data by discussing challenges faced during the conversion. These challenges include silos such as the Librarys media asset management system Merged Audiovisual Information System (MAVIS), aligning PBCore with the bibliographic linked data model BIBFRAME, modelling differences in works between archival moving image cataloging and other domains using Entertainment Identifier Registry IDs (EIDR IDs), and possible alignments with EBUCore (the European Broadcasting Union linked data model) to address gaps between PBCore and BIBFRAME. Keywords: linked data; MARC21; PBCore; BIBFRAME 2.0; National Educational Television,
EIDR; EBUCore; crosswalking; data modelling.
Exploring the utility of metadata record graphs and network analysis for metadata quality evaluation and augmentation by Mark Phillips, Oksana Zavalina, Hannah Tarver Abstract: Our study explores the possible uses and effectiveness of network analysis, including metadata record graphs, as a method of evaluating collections of metadata records at a scale. This paper presents the results of an experiment applying these methods to records in a university digital library system as well as two sub-collections of different sizes and composition. The data includes count- and value-based statistics as well as network metrics for every Dublin Core element in each of the metadata sets. We discuss the benefits and constraints of these metrics based on this analysis and suggest possible future applications. Keywords: metadata record graphs; metadata quality; metadata linking.
From the web of bibliographic data to the web of bibliographic meaning: structuring, interlinking and validating ontologies on the semantic web by Helena Simões Patrício, Maria Inês Cordeiro, Pedro Nogueira Ramos Abstract: Bibliographic datasets have revealed good levels of technical interoperability observing the principles and good practices of linked data. However, they have a low level of quality from the semantic point of view, owing to many factors: lack of a common conceptual framework for a diversity of standards often used together, reduced number of links between the ontologies underlying datasets, proliferation of heterogeneous vocabularies, underuse of semantic mechanisms in data structures, 'ontology hijacking' (Feeney et al., 2018), and point-to-point mappings, as well as limitations of semantic web languages for the requirements of bibliographic data interoperability. After reviewing such issues, a research direction is proposed to overcome the misalignments found by means of a reference model and a superontology, using SHACL (Shapes Constraint Language) to solve current limitations of RDF languages. Keywords: linked open data; bibliographic data; semantic web; SHACL; LOD validation; ontologies; reference model; bibliographic standards.