International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development (40 papers in press)
Elaboration of a socio-environmental vulnerability map as a tool to evaluate the sustainability of small hydroelectric power stations in Brazil
by Roxane Mello, Silvio Simões
Abstract: It is understood that the generation of hydroelectric energy through small-scale power stations is sustainable. However, to check this sustainability it is necessary to measure the socio-environmental vulnerability in the undertaking area. The main objective of this article was to analyze the socio-environmental vulnerability area due the influence of a small hypothetical generating power station in the water. The study methodology used analysis based on the continuous classification and the paired comparison technique Analytical Hierarchy Process, to obtain the Socio-Environmental Vulnerability Index Map. It was concluded that there are strong coincidences between the susceptible spaces to the physical processes of the environmental vulnerability and the places that present the worst social indicators, which are mistreated by an anthropic factor, the land use. The results express the starting point for further analysis of the socio-environmental vulnerability influences in areas of small power generating stations.
Keywords: Small Hydroelectric Stations; Vulnerability; Sustainability.
Urban sustainability and Gross National Happiness: a review of community well-being domains and dimensions
by Haruna D. Musa, Mohd Rusli Yacob, Ahmad Makmom Abdullah, Mohd Yusoff Ishak
Abstract: The effort in measuring well-being and happiness by plethora of different indicators and frameworks are stepping up globally, despite critics for not being accepted as the national indicator to promote subjective well-being due to the methodological approach and choices of well-being dimensions employed. This variation among different groups in society having different perceptions on community well-being measurement have made the traditional measurement tool loses validity. This study, therefore, reviews current research on community well-being measurement to justify the inclusion of different sustainability metrics required to optimize community well-being outcomes for national happiness and urban sustainability. The review is primarily based on peer-reviewed journal papers, as well as books, and documents published by international organizations. Forty-four (44) scientific articles were identified, out of a total of 300 research studies drawn from the electronic data search from the world of science focusing on seven key dimensions: economic, social, environment, governance, politics, culture, and health aspects. The finding shows that social dimension remains the most studied on community well-being research, followed by economy, environment, health, and governance, and subsequently leaving the dimension of culture with the less attention. Also, the findings distinguished objective and subjective well-being indicator approach used in the studies context. However, the objective approach is most widely used across the dimensions in the studies while the subjective domain is less studied. This finding suggests that a multidisciplinary conceptual framework towards a holistic view is desirable to allow for a more theory-based tool to evaluate multidimensional issues of urban environment and community well-being at all levels.
Keywords: Community assessment; urban dimensions; Subjective Well-Being; sustainable development.
Cost Reduction and Productivity Improvement through HRIS
by Halima Begum, Faruk Bhuiyan, A. S. A. Ferdous Alam, Abd Hair Awang, Muhammad Mehedi Masud, Rulia Akhtar
Abstract: Employee productivity improvement and HR cost reduction are two useful options for a cost leader. This study aims to examine the association between human resource information systems (HRIS), employee productivity, and HR costs by focusing on the data of 40 Bangladeshi banks. The impact of one standard deviation variation of HRIS application on employee productivity and HR costs is then calculated using multiple regression analysis. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) is then tested to examine the variation of employee productivity and HR costs according to bank ownership patterns. Results indicate that the use of HRIS applications generated a higher efficiency in terms of employee productivity and the reduction of HR costs (where all things remain constant). It was also observed that employee productivity does not vary according to bank ownership patterns though state-owned banks and private-owned banks experience different HR costs.
Keywords: HRIS; HR costs; Employee productivity; Banking Industry; Bangladesh.
The Emergence and Devolution of Sustainable Organizations
by Lee Swanson, Vince Bruno-Bossio
Abstract: In this article we examine the pre- and post-sustainable positions from which sustainable organizations emerge and to which they devolve while addressing the factors that affect the patterns of emergence and devolution. Drawing from existing definitions of sustainable enterprises, we describe three categories of sustainable organizations and conceptualize how enterprises enter and leave these sustainable positions. This work builds upon existing concepts of sustainable enterprise that mainly take a prescriptive approach toward managing transitions toward varying concepts of organizational sustainability. Our work fills a research gap by examining what the conditions of pre- and post-sustainability can mean for enterprises.
Keywords: emergence; entrepreneurship; social enterprise; sustainability.
Corporate sustainability: A focus on entrepreneurship, collaboration and regulation in the South African healthcare industry
by Boris Urban
Abstract: The global business landscape is characterised by uncertainty that has compelled firms to look beyond traditional models of management, which are under scrutiny in terms of sustainability. Researchers have advocated entrepreneurship as a means for firms to transform themselves into flexible, more responsive units that provide enhanced services through ongoing innovation. The context and survey population for this study is the South African healthcare sector. Hypotheses are formulated to show how different variables operate through different pathways to increase overall sustainable corporate entrepreneurship activity. Instruments are first subject to validity and reliability testing, and hypotheses are tested statistically using correlational analysis, path analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results support a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and sustainable corporate entrepreneurship in terms of increased internal corporate venturing, strategic entrepreneurship, and competitive capability. Moreover, the results indicate this relationship is influenced by alliances and moderated by strategic regulatory factors.
Keywords: Corporate sustainability; Corporate entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial orientation; Regulations; Collaborations; Innovation; South Africa.
Agricultural sustainability under emerging climatic variability: The role of climate-smart agriculture and relevant policies in India
by Jeetendra Prakash Aryal, Tek B. Sapkota, Dil Bahadur Rahut, M.L. Jat
Abstract: Global demand for agricultural products continues to grow while production resources are diminishing. Increasing climatic variability poses further challenges. Therefore, ensuring agricultural sustainability necessitates a transformation of the production system to make it more productive, input-efficient and to lower the environmental footprint. Such a transformation requires system-wide actions and considerable changes in governance, policies, and institutions. On this pretext, we examined if existing climate-smart agriculture (CSA) can enhance adaptation to and mitigation of climate change and overall food security in India. We found that CSA can substantially
contribute towards climate change adaptation, mitigation, and food security.
Mainstreaming CSA practices into development planning through CSVs would create mutual benefits by generating evidences based on CSAs at local level, thereby contributing to the design of local adaptation plans of action (LAPA) and further feed information into state and national action plans on climate change. Thus, we propose to mainstream CSA into development planning.
Keywords: CSA; climate-smart agriculture; CSV; climate-smart village; climate change; local adaptation plans; India.
Environmental impact and sustainability assessment associated with solid waste management in Patras, Greece: A useful guide for medium-sized cities
by Dionisios Galanis, Foteini Konstandakopoulou
Abstract: Due to the lack of appropriate policies in the last decades, Greece has delayed to adopt integrated practices of solid waste management. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management has been recognized as one of the most urgent problems in Greece which was compelled by European Engagements to follow an efficient strategy. An integrated methodology for the MSW management of the Municipality of Patras, the third largest city in Greece, which involves the construction of a combustion unit, is developed and analyzed. This study is proposed as a useful guide for the waste management of the MSW in medium-sized cities which face similar waste management problems. In order to achieve a successful methodology, the individual stages of the proposed management plan, the energy recovery through the combustion, the average density, moisture, dry weight and elemental analysis of MSW are in-detail presented. Furthermore, the estimated investment and operating cost of the suggested scenario and the implementation of a pilot composting scheme are comprehensively presented in the prism of current trends and the provisions of EU norms. It is concluded that the combination and synergy of various management strategies is compulsory for sustainable development instead of a specific and exclusive application of a MSW management plan.
Keywords: Environmental impact assessment; sustainable development; waste management; energy recovery.
Evaluating ESG disclosures of Islamic Banks: Evidence from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation Members
by Amina Buallay
Abstract: This study considers the level of Environment Social and Governance (ESG) disclosures in the Islamic banks listed on the Organization of Islamic Cooperation Members stock Exchange and investigates the relationship between ESG disclosures and banks financial, operational and market performance. We examine 59 banks for 10 years (2007-2016), ends up with 561 observations. The independent and dependent variables of the study are Environment, Social and Governance disclosures and Return on Assets (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) and Tobins Q (TQ) respectively. In addition, the study utilizes bank specific and macroeconomic control variables in order to help measuring the relationship between ESG disclosures and banks performance. The findings of descriptive analysis showed that ESG tends to be higher with banks that have high financial leverage ratio and more assets. Further, the corporate governance disclosure is better in banks located in high Gross Domestic Product (GDP) countries and high public governance countries. In contra, the social and environmental disclosure is better in banks located in low GDP countries and low governance countries. The causality result shows that TQ is greater because of ESG. Although the results of regression found significant positive impact of ESG on the performance, the relationship between these disclosures is vary if measured individually; the environmental disclosure found positively affect the ROA and TQ. Whereas, the corporate social responsibility disclosure is negatively affect the three models. Last but not the least, the corporate governance disclosure found negatively affects the financial and operational performance. However, positively affect the TQ.
Keywords: ESG disclosure; Islamic Banks; Performance; Organization of Islamic Cooperation Members; Sustainability report.
ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS THROUGH PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: CRITICAL REVIEW AND PROSPECTS
by Svetlana Maslova
Abstract: SDGs are essential within the paradigm of sustainable development. They not only reflect the ideology of economic, social and environmental priorities in a balanced manner, but also contain specific measures for achieving them. These measures are multiple and diverse. However, not all of them are truly understood so far. This is especially true for PPP, which is the innovative tool of an interaction between governments and business. With regard to research needs, there is clearly a lack of data and critical reviews of PPP as a means of achieving SDGs. The intention behind this study is to test the hypothesis that PPP can be considered as the key means of SDGs implementation. The study reveals that PPP has features that guarantee its real contribution to achieving SDGs. Meanwhile, PPP should not be regarded as the only way to achieve SDGs. The recommendations concerning national strategies and international cooperation to achieve SDGs through PPP are proposed.
Keywords: sustainable development goals; SDGs; innovation means of achieving; public private partnership; PPP; national policy; international cooperation; case-study.
Investigating business model innovation for sustainability: Cases from Thailand
by Janthorn Sinthupundaja, Youji Kohda, Navee Chiadamrong
Abstract: Business model innovation for sustainability is increasingly being recognised as a key to delivering and generating economic, social, and environmental sustainability through a firm's thinking and actions. As empirical exploration has largely focused on developed countries, there is a research gap in how this may provide sustainability within emerging market contexts. We aimed at investigating the key characteristics and mechanisms that were driving business model innovation for sustainability and how these elements contributed to sustainability in emerging markets. Our research was drawn from two case studies in Thailand where data were collected from diverse primary and secondary sources. The findings indicated that social value embeddedness that was in firms value propositions by co-producing it with economic value propositions, collaboration and involvement with non-profit organisations (NPOs) and/or local communities to create shared value, and financial self-sustainability, were important keys to business model innovation to attain sustainability.
Keywords: business model; innovation; business model innovation; sustainability; business model innovation for sustainability; value proposition; value creation; value capture; collaboration approach; case analysis; emerging markets; Thailand.
Applying ISO26000 and the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy to Measure the Sustainability of State Owned Enterprises in Thailand
by Nattawee Chaloemvivatkit, AIM-ORN JAIKENGKIT
Abstract: This study intends to construct a composite index for the government, in order to assess and improve Thai State Owned Enterprises (SOEs)s financial performance, operations, and ethical behaviors; according to the sustainability definition as put forward by Coblentz (2002). The construction of the index follows the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)s approach, and was compiled by surveying existing literature related to ISO 26000, the Sufficiency Economy Philosophy, and the Sustainable Balanced Scorecard. After in-depth and semi-structured interviews with the experts, the data from 55 SOEs during the period 2010 to 2017 were statistically tested. The resulting index was composed of 4 dimensions namely, leadership which focuses on ethics and balanced growth; sustainable strategic management; managing finances with balance and sufficiency; and good governance and the promotion of responsibility and sufficiency within SOEs. The assessment results from this index will benefit the government in terms of the determination of policy and lead to improvements to SOEs sustainability.
Keywords: State-owned Enterprise; Sustainable scorecard measurement; ISO 26000; Sufficiency Economy Philosophy.
A conceptual framework for purchase intention of sustainable life insurance: A Comprehensive Review
by Muhammad Mehedi Masud, Noor Azina Ismail, Mahfuzur Rahman
Abstract: The insurance industry plays a substantial role in sustainable development by providing social and financial security. Sustainable insurance is a new concept and a strategic approach to sustainability. It is an innovative solution that improves business performance and contributes to economic, social and environmental sustainability. However, studies show that the majority of the population in Asia does not have insurance which could be detrimental to their future livelihoods, particularly in the event of illness or death. Therefore, this study proposes a conceptual framework to attract the households intention to purchase life insurance in Malaysia. The proposed framework is developed based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and a comprehensive review of previous studies. This framework will contribute to raising public awareness by providing the information necessary to help them understand the many benefits of a life insurance policy. This awareness may also propel the nation towards embracing full insurance inclusion for its citizens. The outcome would assist policymakers and the insurance industry to take the appropriate steps to develop relevant policies for promoting the benefits of having life insurance in Malaysia.
Keywords: Awareness; Attitudes towards life insurance; Framework; and Purchase Intention.
Effect of Creativity and Innovation Based Training on Small Enterprises Performance: Evidence from Ethiopia
by Arega Shumetie Ademe, Wondifraw Mihret
Abstract: Development policy makers often stipulate directives to capacitate human capital that is integral to surmount challenges, unlock potentials and enhance competitiveness. This study analysed the effect of evolutionary process of creativity and innovation based Technical Vocational Education and Training [TVET] on Small Enterprises [SEs] performance in Ethiopia. It adds new insights to creativity and innovation theory signifying how far evolutionary socio-cognitive oriented creativity trainings attribute to enterprises performance. Propensity score matching and causal inference econometric model analyses of the data collected from randomly selected 146 manufacturing SEs revealed that creativity and innovation strategies are partially harnessed in everyday practices of trained enterprises. Insignificant differences were observed between trained and untrained SEs in creative thinking, motivation, innovative practices and searching for opportunities. The TVET trainings offered to SEs significantly affected capital and asset accumulation whereas short-term trainings do have slightly significant effect on capital accumulation. Thus, intensifying the quality and scope of short-term trainings, policy makers and enterprise development agents, at different levels, should prioritized sustaining creativity and innovation human development strategies to enhance the performance of SEs.
Keywords: Creativity; Innovation; Enterprises; TVET strategy; Business performance.
SOCIAL INNOVATION AND SOCIAL BUSINESS: INVESTIGATION OF THE BUSINESS MODEL OF THE BRAZILIAN HOUSING PROGRAM MY HOUSE, MY LIFE
by BRUNO SILVA QUIRINO, RIVADAVIA CORREA DRUMMOND ALVARENGA NETO, RODRIGO BARONI DE CARVALHO
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to analyse the Brazilian Government Housing Program My House, My Life from the perspectives of social innovation and social business. By using a qualitative descriptive approach, data was collected through semi-structured interviews, documentary research and direct observation in the Programs value constellation performed by a federal financial institution. Twelve in-depth interviews were performed with the housing Programs stakeholders including civil construction businessmen, mayors, executives of the financial institution and people benefited by the Program. The following categories of analysis were defined: i) concept, legislation, metrics, and results of the Program; ii) Program business model; iii) financial profit equation and social profit equation. Although fulfilling the requirements of a social innovation initiative and offering large and significant social benefits, the Program cannot be characterised as a social business due to the need of constant Federal Government funding , and also because of the fact that its target group is treated as the programs beneficiary and not as a customer. The paper categorizes the Brazilian housing program into social innovation schemas and discusses the suitability of these theoretical classifications in the praxis of a large developing country.
Keywords: social innovation; business model; social business model; Program My House My Life (Minha Casa Minha Vida); housing industry.
The Strategic Management of Sustainable Innovation and its relation to Business Models and Corporate Performance
by Jordana Marques Kneipp, Clandia Maffini Gomes, Carlos Maria Fernandez Jardón, Roberto Schoproni Bichueti, Kamila Frizzo
Abstract: The present study aims to analyze the relationship between the strategic management of sustainable innovation, business models, and business performance of manufacturing companies. The study is characterized as quantitative and consisted of a survey with fifty-one Brazilian industrial companies. Results showed that strategic management for sustainable innovation is associated with the business model and corporate performance, whereas positive associations between dependent and independent variable dimensions were found. Differences were found between adopting a management approach for sustainable innovation, innovation degree of the business model, and corporate performance, considering that there were significant differences in the means difference test and logistic regression analysis. Thus, it was possible to confirm the guiding hypotheses of this study. As the main contributions of research, it is possible to highlight, at a theoretical level, the diffusion of a model that jointly covers the management of sustainable innovation, business models, and performance. At a practical level, the understanding of the behavior of industrial companies in Brazil contributes to the diffusion of practices that respond to specific questions in the context of the companies' performance. Finally, at the social level, understanding the benefits of adopting a strategic management of sustainable innovation favors the minimizing negative socio-environmental impacts.
Keywords: Strategic management; Sustainable innovation; Business model; Corporate performance.
Sustainable product innovation as antecedent to economic success: A survey in manufacturing industries
by Julio Cesar Ferro De Guimarães, Eliana Andréa Severo, Rosana Da Rosa Portella Tondolo
Abstract: Innovation for sustainable product is an efficient means of transforming the economic reality of an organization and reducing environmental impacts caused by industrial activity, driven by increasing consumption of natural resources. In this regard, this research aims to measure the relationship of Environmental Management Practices, Human Resources and Corporate Social Responsibility constructs, as antecedents to Sustainable Product Innovation, as well as to evaluate the relationship of this construct with economic success. The research is the result of a survey of 696 companies in the manufacturing industry of the Brazilian metallurgical sector. In analysing the data, the Structural Equation Modelling to articulate the descriptive research was used. This research contributes academically to the provision of scales, theoretically supported and statistically validated. At the management level, our results assist management decisions on the use of strategic resources.
Keywords: Sustainable product innovation; Environmental management practices; Human resources; Corporate social responsibility; Structural equation modelling; Brazil.
Measurement of product innovation in small and medium size enterprises (SMEs): a case study in Oman
by Ahm Shamsuzzoha, Mahmood Al-Kindi
Abstract: In this research study, an attempt has been taken to measure the level of product innovation in Oman. The aims of this research were to measure the product innovation level of selected small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Oman and to assess necessary effort to improve product innovation level to a standard level. To fulfil these objectives, 24 SMEs engaged in both manufacturing and service sectors were selected, studied and analysed. The outcomes from the study indicates that the level of product innovation in selected Omani SMEs are noticeably low and substantial efforts are necessary to improve it to a standard level. In order to demonstrate the procedural steps to calculate and measure the product innovation level and necessary effort, out of 24 SMEs one SME was highlighted within the scope of this paper. Overall
study outcomes are discussed in conclusion section along with research limitations and future research directions.
Keywords: product innovation; innovation level; innovation performance; Omani SMEs; case study.
Intellectual treatment of the normative notion sustainability
by A. M. M. Maruf Hossain
Abstract: Different classification schemes group the diverse meanings associated with sustainability in different ways. While one of these contrasts between universalist, thick and procedural sustainability, another views its meanings either through a set of social-ecological criteria, or a vision of humankind, or an object/ thing/ phenomenon, or an approach of study. While all these classes exhibit a fragmentary, selective nature of conceptualizing sustainability, an appropriate intellectual treatment of the notion would instead require an integrated, non-reductionist nature of enquiry that can produce understandings on the entirety of reality as the problems of sustainability exist only on the totality of reality. The selective nature of the reductionist, fragmented nature of enquiries does not appear problematic as a given study attempts to understand only a particular fragment of reality. However, this approach becomes inadequate as well as normativeregardless of how analytical or operative it could bewhen there is a need to study the entirety of reality. This effectively renders the notion of sustainability, as approached in our present intellectual discourse, to be acknowledged as a normative concept. Through analyzing relevant published literature as secondary data within the frame of fundamental research, this article asks how intellectual the notion of sustainability is. It reveals problems with the nature, definition and foundation of the discourse of Sustainability Science. Drawing on the difference between a normative essence and a fundamental intellectual perspective, this research establishes the necessity of discovering the knowledge avenue of the scholarship of sustainability instead of imaginatively describing a normative-speculation-based treatment of it. The research also develops a fundamental intellectual perspective on sustainability.
Keywords: sustainability; intellectual treatment of sustainability; the scholarship of sustainability; epistemology of sustainability; Sustainable Development; fundamental research.
Business models as framework for sustainable value-creation
Strategic and operative leadership challenges
by Age Gjosaeter, Oyvin Kyvik, Torbjorn Arethun
Abstract: This study explores leadership challenges related to the operationalization of sustainable business models in offshore shipping. Based on a comparative case study, the study finds that the business model framework and the business model canvas
Keywords: business models; business model canvas; sustainability; value-creation; leadership; strategizing; innovation; maritime shipping industry; Norway.
Sustainable Intellectual Human Capital and Corporate Social Innovation: A Sustainable Development Framework
by Azlan Amran, Lim Chia Yon, Shaian Kiumarsi, Amar Hisham Jaaffar
Abstract: Corporate social innovation (CSI) is an emerging concept which is fundamental for the 21st Century business in order to attain business performance and sustainable social development. However, human capital plays a vital role for firms that seek to pursue CSI goals. Therefore, this paper seeks to unveil the important attributes of CSI as well as examines the role of intellectual human capital on CSI. It discusses the conceptualisation of CSI which seems to be obviously absent in the literature. In this paper, CSI encompasses any kind of innovative actions or activities which combines a distinctive set of corporate research and development in order to generate advanced solutions to complex sustainability issues which influence the sustainability of business and society. This paper determines many dimensions of human capital with a view to providing insights into the vital role of human capital in facilitating CSI practices. Based on Resource-Based View (RBV), it is expected that this paper would provide valuable explanations on the influence of intellectual human capital on CSI activities. It focuses on intellectual human capital (i.e. employees competence, creativity, effectiveness, attitude, retention and development) which enhance efficient task performance and problem-solving of real-world sustainability challenges, problems and opportunities. This paper offers an in-depth knowledge regarding the relationship between sustainability-related intellectual human capital and CSI.
Keywords: Intellectual Human Capital; Corporate Social Innovation; Resource-Based View.
Special Issue on: Technological Innovation for Sustainable Development
A dialectic on innovation and sustainability
by Ricardo Ruiz Freire, Emmanuel Costa, José Luiz Alves, Cristóvão De Souza Brito
Abstract: This paper discusses concepts of social and technological innovation in order to analyse their relations and contradictions. After a long period in which innovation was related to social processes, it has been related to technological and economic development in the last century. Social innovation as a concept has acquired a restrictive meaning, being defined by many as actions to combat social exclusions and environmental degradation promoted by technological innovation. This study suggests a concept for innovation and its influence upon environmental sustainability through a bibliographical analysis that demonstrates how innovation processes are techno-socially related. It uses an analytic matrix that allows to compare these concepts to understand how socio-technical innovations promote environmental, social and economical sustainability. At the end, it recommends more studies to determine and measure the innovative sustainable practices of an organisation in both the social and technological spheres.
Keywords: innovation; social innovation; technological innovation; sustainability; linear innovation model; 3D printing; innovation process; innovation concept; innovation and sustainability; dialetic on innovation; innovation for organisations.
Noospheric thinking and problems of sustainable development of territories
by Sergey L. Turkov
Abstract: From the standpoint of the 'geosystemic' approach, the theory of the 'noosphere' by P.T. de Chardin, E. Le Roy, V.I. Vernadsky, "the general theory of systems" by L. Bertalanffy, the new theory of entropy A.N. Panchenkov, cybernetics and game theory ('Game against Nature'), the paper considers the scientific problems of sustainable development of territories (the global, regional and local levels of government). The goal and the main practical direction of using the research results is the development of 'man-machine' systems for planning (supporting) the adoption of optimal management decisions in the implementation of the 'Concept of Sustainable Development' (CSD in the UN abbreviation) as the official doctrine of the development of Russia (1996). Other scientific areas are the 'geoecological' aspects of this concept, the problems of the systemic interpretation of modern 'noospheric' thinking and ecological consciousness, theory of control of the 'nature-society' class of systems.
Keywords: noosphere; thinking; ecology; consciousness; 'nature-society' systems; game theory.
Leveraging new product innovation through R&D practices in engineering manufacturing sector: a study in Indian context
by Sudeshna Roy, Pranab K. Dan, Nipu Modak
Abstract: This paper presents a framework for scrutinising the interrelationship and impact of constituents of Research & Development (R&D) Practices on new product innovation (PI) success, besides identifying those. Such cited factors, deemed to be critical, are R&D investment, technology, learning, intellectual capital as well as the fuzzy front end (FFE) activities followed by improvisation for innovation. Product innovation has grown into a compelling strategy of manufacturing industries for confronting volatility and rapid changes of market due to globalisation. The aforementioned practices lead to the technological developments of the firm resulting in PI success. An interrelationship framework considering factors of R&D practices and technological improvement is developed, in this work, using structural equation modelling (SEM) approach. The magnitude of the interrelationship, investigated indicates that technology, learning and intellectual capital directly influence R&D effort, which in turn escalates PI. The other constituents, namely FFE activities and improvisation promotes PI success as well.
Keywords: PI; product innovation; R&D; research & development; technological developments; SEM; structural equation modelling.
The impact of dimensions of sustainable development on the acceptance of organisational innovations (case study: Iran electronics industries)
by Mahnaz Rabiei, Ali Nezhad Mohammad Alarlough, Mahdi Maleki Pour
Abstract: Innovation is needed to improve all dimensions of the economy, the environment and the society. Innovation is a major driver for sustainable development, which will increase industries' productivity, while reducing the use of their resources and their environmental impacts. Hence, this study examines the impact of sustainability on service innovation, technological innovation and business innovation. the statistical population is the managers and staff of the Iranian Electronic Industries Company (IEI). The sample size is calculated using Cochran's formula, turning out to be 350 people selected through simple random sampling method. We used structural equation modelling. The results show that each of the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable development has a positive and significant effect on the acceptance of technological, service, and business model innovations. It is also shown that the dimensions of sustainable development are among the drivers of acceptance of organisational innovations.
Keywords: sustainable development; technological innovation; service innovation; business model innovation; IEI; Iranian Electronic Industries Company.
Organisational readiness evaluation on sustainable IT management in the Brazilian context
by Humberto Thiengo, Elaine Tavares, Gustavo Cattelan Nobre
Abstract: The present research focused on evaluating the sustainable management of information technology (IT) resources in Brazilian organisations. First, we understood the theoretical context of sustainable IT and investigated the current research initiatives together with existing assessment models. A quantitative survey was conducted among 48 medium and large size Brazilian organisations based on the most appropriated model identified using the theoretical instrument based on the g-readiness model. The responses were then analysed using the five-dimension sustainable IT readiness index with the use of confirmatory factorial analysis, structural equations (partial least squares), and bootstrapping techniques supported by SmartPLS software, among other methods. Data analysis showed a high potential for improvements in sustainable IT management by these organisations with little variation among sectors. Furthermore, the results are in line with those obtained in similar research in the international context, and they were also segmented by the economic activity sectors (primary, secondary, and tertiary).
Keywords: green IT; sustainable IT readiness; sustainable IT management; G-readiness; PLS; partial least squares; HTMT; Heterotrait-Monotrait ratio of correlations.
Towards sustainable rice processing: a case of Republic of Benin
by Afolabi R.I. Biaou Olaye, Paul A. Adedeji, Koessi L.B. Zokpodo, Jean Moreira
Abstract: Rice, a staple food in the sub-Saharan Africa is a recipient of the effect of population increase, with higher consumption than production. Being a common food in the Sub-Saharan Africa, the sustainability of its growth and processing contribute immensely to achieving food security in the region. This study addresses the problem by designing, fabricating and evaluating the performance of a locally-made threshing-cleaning machine for rice processing, tested on two common rice species in The Republic of Benin. The machine was tested for speed, fuel and water consumption, and production output at loaded and unloaded conditions. Average fuel and water consumption differ between the two rice species at maximum engine speed. The machine produces 1780.5 kg and 1475 kg of IR 841 and Orylux 6 rice per hour respectively. The machine has a high fuel and water economy and offers high prospect in achieving food security in the country.
Keywords: food security; performance evaluation; Republic of Benin; rice; threshing-cleaning machine.
A framework proposal for sustainability management in wine industry
by Shana Sabbado Flores, Rosa Maria Vieira Medeiros
Abstract: The framework proposed intends to support the internalisation of sustainability principles in the wine industry, enhancing sustainability management. The framework was built from two exploratory studies in Brazilian wine regions and preliminary studies which involved technical visits in three countries (France, Italy and Spain) and frameworks' observations in another five countries (South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, USA and Chile). The framework is structured on a matrix basis, with an axis corresponding to dimensions (environment, economic, social, political-institutional and territorial) and other to guidelines (management, articulation and cooperation, innovation and learning, sustainability), articulated by 18 topics that represent areas to act to promote the sustainability. Each topic was unfolded in indicators. Additionally, 10 synthesis indicators specify initiatives or programs that can be implemented to impact positively on several indicators. The framework can be applied in several scales, in the winery or the territory.
Keywords: sustainability; wine industry; assessment; cross-disciplinary perspective; qualitative study; environmental management; management processes; performance; sustainability metrics; sustainable viticulture.
Energy transition: the nexus between poverty and CO2 emissions in Brazil
by Marcio Giannini Pereira, Neiton Fidelis Da Silva, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos Freitas
Abstract: The transition to modern sources of energy, especially electricity, contributes not only to alleviate energy poverty, but also to meet the basic needs of the rural population and reduce emissions. Given the complexity of energy choices, the dynamics of the rural population in Brazil is relevant for the evaluation of the effects of regular and safe access to electricity. Few authors have discussed the real (net) contributions of rural electrification on the transition to more modern energy sources and its impacts on CO2 emissions, considering its harmful health effects. As a result, this paper aims to investigate the impact of regular and safe access to electricity on the rural population of Brazil, in a transition to more modern sources of energy, as well as to provide a CO2 emission assessment.
Keywords: energy transition; energy poverty; rural electrification; climate changes; Brazil.
Consolidation of the wind energy sector in the Brazilian electricity matrix: opportunities, advantages and challenges
by Alexandre Ottoni Teatini Salles, Luan Tolentino Dos Santos, Adriana Fiorotti Campos
Abstract: This paper addresses the role of wind energy in the diversification of the Brazilian electricity matrix. The predominance of hydroelectricity requires favourable weather conditions for operation, which may compromise the security of the generation and supply of energy from this source. Moreover, the growing demand during the last two decades and environmentalism's appeal has increased the need to invest in other energy sources. The paper analyses the wind power source as a potential alternative for electricity generation in Brazil. The main opportunities, advantages and challenges for the consolidation of the wind energy market were identified. It was concluded that the consolidation of this sector demands; i) policies to encourage, develop and modernise the transmission infrastructure; ii) promotion of investments in research, technology and training of skilled labour; iii) an increase in the supply of credit for long-term financing; and iv) a stable and transparent policy to attract new investors.
Keywords: wind energy; Brazilian economy; socioeconomic development.
Waste water treatment plant energy conversion technologies comparison
by Luciano Basto Oliveira, Andre Luiz Bufoni, Luiz Roberto Martins Pedroso, Wagner Victer
Abstract: This work aims to present the Alegria Sewage Treatment Plant current design, development and operation data of conversion technologies like anaerobic digestors, esterification and pyrolysis plants, its products quality as biogas, biodiesel, bio-oil and bio-coal, and the electricity production system with biogas and dual fuel engines and a boiler with steam turbine. For the first time in Brazil, the natural gas from a sewage plant was certified for vehicle use. The results indicate a great potential for additional income, landfilling costs, and greenhouse gas emissions reductions. Moreover, reduces fossil fuels importation and electrical system transmission losses.
Keywords: sewage; wastewater; AD; esterification; pyrolysis; biogas; biodiesel; bio-oil; dual fuel; sustainable energy.
A comparison of proactive and reactive environmental strategies in green product innovation
by Ebru Genç, C. Anthony Di Benedetto
Abstract: Companies are exposed to different kinds of pressures to respond to environmental sustainability issues. It is critical to understand how firms integrate environmental issues into their corporate agendas and how these integration strategies affect corporate performance. This paper investigates factors that motivate firms to adopt environmental marketing strategies and their relative impact on green product innovation performance. A comprehensive conceptual framework is developed and tested that portrays the antecedents and consequences of environmental marketing strategy (EMS). The results show that developing environmental strategies that exceed regulations (proactive strategies) leads to better new product performance than those that only adhere to regulations (reactive strategies). In addition, we find that commitment from top management becomes critical only for proactive strategies, not for reactive strategies. Finally, with regard to the consequences, we show that environmental marketing strategies lead to new product advantage and, ultimately, improved sustainable new product performance.
Keywords: sustainability; innovation; proactive and reactive environmental strategy; NPD; new product development.
Innovations for sustainability: challenges of utilising sustainability-related knowledge
by Nina Tura, Ville Ojanen, Jyri Hanski
Abstract: The demands for more sustainable development are increasing, and solving complex sustainability challenges is acknowledged to require innovations that take environmental, social and economic perspectives into consideration. The development of innovations for sustainability requires the utilisation of sustainability knowledge, i.e., creating market value by combining pieces of environmental, organisational and social information. In this study, we address the reasons why sustainability knowledge is not exploited more broadly and set focus on the challenges in the utilisation of sustainability knowledge. The empirical data for the study was collected in an interdisciplinary expert workshop and by conducting semi-structural interviews in four Finnish companies. The study reveals challenges in the utilisation of sustainability knowledge at all stages of knowledge management. We also analyse the potential of digitalisation in enhancing innovations for sustainability and lowering the challenges in the utilisation of sustainability knowledge.
Keywords: innovation; sustainability; sustainable development; SOI; sustainability-oriented innovation; sustainability knowledge; knowledge utilisation; knowledge process; KM; knowledge management; managerial challenges; digitalisation effects.
Ecosystem services valuation by pioneering companies
by Pedro F. Gattás, José Guilherme F. De Campos, Simone R. Barakat, Renato J. Orsato
Abstract: This study aims to identify the reasons for companies to invest in ecosystem services valuation (ESV). ESV is a voluntary environmental initiative (VEI) that intends to strengthen ecosystem services management, assess ecological sustainability of human activities, and rate and dissociate environmental and economic conditions. We identified 70 companies of 17 sectors and 18 countries currently undertaking ESV work, and classified their work according to levels of development. Additionally, we conducted interviews to better understand the reasons for such proactive behaviour. Among other findings, we discovered that pioneer companies tend to establish institutional partnerships to access to knowledge about ESV.
Keywords: ecosystem services management; ESV; ecosystem services valuation; VEIs; voluntary environmental initiatives; environmental management tool.
Special Issue on: AIC 2018 Sustainability in a Multidisciplinary Scenario
Cohesiveness, Social Justice, and Innovativeness with Environmental Sanitation Behaviour
by Yusriani Sapta Dewi
Abstract: This research aimed to observe the relationship between cohesiveness, social justice, and innovativeness with environmental sanitation behaviour on households at Sukakarya, West Java. The method used was survey method with a correlational study by involving 85 samples. There were four instruments which measured environmental sanitation behaviour, cohesiveness, social justice, and innovativeness. Data has been analysed using ANOVA. Research results revealed that there is a positive and significant correlation among those variables, even though it has been controlled by second-order correlation, it is still significant among them. Therefore, it may be concluded that if environmental sanitation behaviour would be improved, then cohesiveness, social justice, and innovativeness should be taken into consideration.
Keywords: cohesiveness; social justice; innovativeness; environmental sanitation behaviour.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Between Corporate Responsibility and Sustainable Development
Change is Possible: The Effects of a Corporate Social Responsibility Course on Business Student Attitudes
by Dustin Quirk
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess if fourth year undergraduate business students attitudes towards business ethics and corporate social responsibility changed as a result of taking an elective management course on the topic. Findings suggested that a course on business ethics and corporate social responsibility had significant impact on improving a business students attitudes towards the long term benefits of sound business ethics and corporate social responsibility, the benefits of addressing stakeholders, the understanding of the social license to operate, and the use of social responsibility as a tool to address government regulations. The study also found that initial student attitudes (pre-course) were generally favourable towards business ethics and corporate social responsibility.
Keywords: Business student attitudes; business ethics; corporate social responsibility; stakeholders; social licence to operate.
Developing a framework for sustainable development in extractive industries: a Latin America perspective.
by Philip Walsh, Mauricio Ferro
Abstract: This paper serves to examine the roles and responsibilities of nation States in managing their extractive industries and maintaining the sustainable development of their natural resources. In Latin America there exist areas where the State is weak and communities must rely on extractive industry actors and non-State actors to replace the State in providing the necessary services to allow for the communities to remain sustainable; economically, socially and environmentally. In order to assist extractive sector firms in evaluating their roles under that circumstance we put forward a conceptual framework that provides the principal questions that need to be considered in order to establish the rules of engagement with stakeholders and provides key principles, goals, and standards that inform the actions to be taken to promote sustainable development.
Keywords: Extractive Sector; Latin America; Sustainable Development; Framework of Analysis; Stakeholder Engagement.
Water Quality Protection of the Canada-U.S. Great Lakes: Examining the Emerging State/Non-state Governance Approach
by Madeleine Martin, Kernaghan Webb
Abstract: This article explores the growing contribution of non-state actors (private sector and civil society) in the environmental regulatory governance of the North American Great Lakes and maps the various state and non-state rule-instruments, institutions, processes and actors (governance arrangements), focusing on arrangements in Ontario, Canada. The resultant combination of state and non-state regulatory arrangements in operation, sometimes functioning in a collaborative manner, sometimes in more of an adversarial way, aligns well with Webbs (2005) concept of sustainable governance. The issue of microbeads pollution in the Great Lakes is highlighted as an illustration of how state and non-state actors are variously responding to an environmental issue, and provides evidence of how the norm of water quality protection is increasingly addressed and embedded through both state and non-state mechanisms in the larger social environment.
Keywords: regulation; governance; Great Lakes; sustainable governance; corporate social responsibility; water quality control; sustainability; remediation.
Special Issue on: ICESW2017 Innovative Development Towards Sustainable Technologies
Experimental and Parametric Analysis of a Thermoelectric Refrigerator
by FRANCIS ONOROH, MERCY OGBONNAYA, OBIORA NNAEMEKA EZENWA, EMMANUEL OLUWAFEMI ODUBIYI
Abstract: The adverse effects of refrigerants used in vapour compression refrigeration systems (VCRS) on the environment necessitated that alternative ways of cooling to be explored. Thermoelectric refrigeration systems can be used for cooling without the use of refrigerants. In this study, a cascade comprising of eight thermoelectric modules were used to reduce the temperature of a fourteen litre refrigeration chamber from 28.7
Keywords: coefficient of performance; thermoelectric; modules; temperature;
refrigeration chamber; Peltier effect; module resistance; module conductance; cooling load; temperature gradient.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Betw
An application of the foundational principles of the second pillar of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights to the Ranger mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia
by Jeremy Pearce
Abstract: This paper reviews the foundational principles of the second pillar (the corporate responsibility to respect) of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) and applies them to the Ranger mine in the Northern Territory of Australia. It is argued that whilst there is some progress being made and clear acknowledgement and recognition by Rio Tinto that supports the UNGPs, this acknowledgement is yet to translate into meaningful changes on the ground at the Ranger mine. As a result this raises two issues for the UNGPs. Firstly, the efficacy of the UNGPs, as a stand-alone instrument, to deliver increased rights protections for those that need them most. Secondly, commercial realities as opposed to a disregard for human rights, may in some cases explain why companies have not implemented the UNGPs.
Keywords: Human rights; United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs); Mirrar People; Rio Tinto; Responsible Governance.
Special Issue on: CR-SD Perspectives on the Interface Betw...
Obesity: Locating social responsibility in the context of evolving norms
by Louise Manning, Josie Kelly
Abstract: Most countries have experienced a significant increase in the incidence of obesity in their general population over the last twenty years. Indeed, the condition is now so common, commentators conclude that obesity has become normalized and no longer attracts social opprobrium. The prevalence of obesity and related morbidities when the condition is normalized places it beyond the scope of conventional government interventions. In this context, the UK government adopted a multisector approach in England by announcing in 2011 that its policy on obesity would be predicated on the importance of individuals responsibility for their condition, while also facilitating food and drink industry responsibilities to its customers. This paper considers the social trend towards the normalization of obesity as a lens to discuss governments role in supporting businesses to demonstrate and act upon their social responsibilities.
Keywords: Obesity; social norms; corporate norms; food policy; corporate responsibility.