International Journal of Gender Studies in Developing Societies (8 papers in press)
Linking the Local with the Global: Gender, Childhoods, and Development
by Jennifer Rothchild
Abstract: In this paper, I advocate for reintroducing the gender and development (GAD) perspective, but this time with a twist: bringing the standpoints of children into the approach. This new version of the GAD approach would allow us to envision a nexus of gender, childhoods, and development. Specifically, life histories collected from youth living in childrens homes in Nepal illuminate how particular populations carry the impact of development, globalization, and human progress. Listening to the voices of youth at the local level provides us with a unique opportunity to envision the transformative potential at a much broader level.
Keywords: gender and development (GAD); childhoods; gender; development; children's homes; Nepal.
GENDER IDEOLOGY AND CAREER ASPIRATIONS AMONG STUDENTS OF ARCHITECTURE IN NIGERIA
by Omoyeni Fulani, Dolapo Amole, Albert Adeboye
Abstract: The population of Architecture students in Nigerian universities is largely dominated by males. This has been linked with the limiting effect of societal orientations and gender role ideology which largely define what is appropriate for a woman or a man in various contexts. This study investigated the gender ideology among male and female students of architecture in private universities in South-West Nigeria with a view to gain insight into the perceptions that are pervasive among the students with respect to gender. The authors constructed a Gender Ideology scale to measure the Gender Ideology of the students and administered it to a sample of 378 students made up of 101 females and 277 males. The results revealed that there were significant relationships between the students gender and their gender ideology. In terms of both Professional and Socio-Cultural Gender Ideology, the female students were more egalitarian than the male students. There was no significant relationship found between the Gender Ideology of the students and their intention to practice architecture in the future, however when the type of career aspiration was investigated, it had a significant relationship with their gender ideology. This implied that most females in schools of architecture were those who had succeeded in breaking out of traditional gender role stereotypes. It further suggests that with time and malleability of gender roles in favour of females, there would be a greater influx of females into the field of architecture in Nigeria.
Keywords: Gender Ideology; career aspirations; architecture; architectural education.
ROLE OF MEDIA IN MOTIVATING CAREER ORIENTED FEMALES IN CHALLENGING THE NORMS OF PATRIARCHY
by Priya Gupta, Mili Sharma
Abstract: Abstract : The present study begins with a pertinent question. Do women have a choice on whether they want to embrace motherhood, or are they socialized so effectively into the role almost from their own birth that they do not recognize it as one?If marriage is near universal in India, so is motherhood there is little scope for choice here.Now the major problem arises that Is it necessary for career oriented women to get married and sacrifice their career for the sake of family and motherhood? or Why cant a career oriented woman pursue her career and enjoy motherhood without involving herself in the intricacies of marriage? The study with the help of focus group discussions spread across four stratums aims to provide answers to these questions. It tries to make a case for surrogacy and in-vitro fertilization (IVF). It introduces the concept of single mothers by choice or choice moms and tries to understand the mindset of Indian women by analyzing its advantages, disadvantages and consequences.
Keywords: Keywords : Patriarchy; strata; choice moms; career oriented females; working; non working; married; unmarried.
AN OUTLOOK ON GENDER EQUALITY: A DEMOGRAPHICAL EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
by Poonam Khurana, Deepika Chhikara
Abstract: Purpose rnThe purpose of this paper is to understand and examine the outlook of people towards gender equality in day to day life in respect of the way we behave, dress, groom, conduct and present ourselves in the society, in the current growth rate of our economy and penetration level of globalization which leads to culture exchange.rnrnDesign/Methodology/Approach- Both primary plus secondary statistics is used in this study. Primary data have been collected from respondents in Delhi and NCR (National Capital Region) by convenient random sampling with the help of self -structured questionnaire. Secondary data have been extracted from the research studies and articles published in various reputed journals. Descriptive statistics and Chi- Square test (Non-Parametric Analysis) has been used for analysis.rnFindings The study shows that among all the respondents the demography was inclined majorly towards students between the age of 16-25 years from Delhi, the youth has evolved from the conservative approach and they treat all the gender equally. However, a significant finding of the study was that the beauty norms towards men are majorly impacted by the education level of an individual.rnResearch limitations/implications Because of random sampling the majority of respondents turned out to be between the age of 16-25 years from Delhi, the study can be extended to focused age above 25 years around India.rnPractical implications The understanding of the attitude of our youth towards gender equality can contribute to understand the true issue where we lack to trigger this plague in our society and policies can be formed to eradicate the same. The research can be used by organizations to understand the consumer efficiently and policy makers to design optimum solutions for bringing about a change in the thought process in this evolving time.rnOriginality/value Among all the social activism and governmental approach towards bringing equality this study explores the idea of accepting gender equality at the micro level of day-to-day life.rnrnrn
Keywords: gender; equality; demographics.
The ICT Convergence and Impact on Women-Owned Micro and Small Business Enterprises: An Analysis Based on Information Poverty
by ALICE ETIM
Abstract: Studies in the last two decades have helped to establish widespread mobile phone adoption in many populations including the region of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Nigeria, the largest country in SSA by population (2 million, 2019) has had extensive growth in mobile telephone subscription. The literature, however, has limited coverage for smart technologies and Internet adoption for business operations, specifically for women owned micro and small business enterprises. In addition, there are limited resources in the literature on convergence of the Internet and smartphones for business operations. This study fills the void and reports a study on women entrepreneurs in the region of South Eastern Nigeria and their adoption/convergence of Internet and mobile phones for business operations. Elfreda Chatmans information poverty theory was used as the theoretical framework to argue that the women entrepreneurs were challenged with information poverty; thereby addressing the question: Are they information poor?
Keywords: ICT Convergence; Women-Owned Businesses; Women Entrepreneurs; Micro and Small Business Enterprises; Internet; Mobile Phones; Smartphones; Information Poverty.
Cultural practices of occupation among the Bedia women: A case study of Habla hamlet of Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh, India
by USHA RANA, Diwakar Sharma
Abstract: This paper discusses the cultural practices of prostitution as an occupation among Bedia community from the Habla hamlet of Sagar district, Madhya Pradesh, India. The entire population belongs to Bedia habitation which is involved in institutional prostitution from long ago. A qualitative and quantitative methods have been used to study the institutional cultural practices of prostitution. To this end, we have collected primary data through focused group discussions (FGDs), observations and interview schedules with 50 natives of the community. They all are above 50 years of age, including both male and female. Secondary data have been used to understand the historical background of their culture and occupation. A fieldwork has been conducted to find out inside perception of the community about their cultural and traditional practices of prostitution. It also examines the source of authority and power to continue such deviant practices as an occupation among the community. Moreover, we enlighten some factors behind the womens support to the system, or justification of their natives to prostitution as a usual occupation. The analysis of data reveals that respondents consider their long history and experiences of prostitution as the ordinary occupation of community. They have faced discourteous behaviors of the system since long. They were forced to live like a nomadic group due to the relegation of the king from the kingdom. In colonial duration, British government formatted law against them and after the independent government still did not do something for them. Their traditional occupation has played a primary role in their survival for long, so Bedia managed a system to continue the tradition.
A formal future is possible: Unpacking perceptions perpetuating African womens informalisation.
by Felistas Zimano
Abstract: This paper presents womens nurtured perceptions as possible drawbacks to their progression into formal system. Findings show that women sometimes hold limiting perceptions on things of economic relevance. This was established by interrogating womens perceptions on value and type of property ownership, business growth and associated risk among other things using netnographic focus group discussions. The major underlying factor, as will be exposed, emerged as cultural factors and socialization nurturing women into subordination to patriarchal systems. This, to a great extent, confines women to informal sector culminating in poor participation of women in formal economic spheres. In the long term, unchecked continuation of this informalisation is detrimental as it lays a wrong precedence in which the history being created will be a history of women as masters of informal space.. The paper unpacks the formal space, demystify existing perceptions on things of economic relevance and set women on a path leading into a future of participating in the formal sphere.
Keywords: Women empowerment; Gender Perception management; Socialisation; Women informalisation; Patriarchy.
THE ROLE OF VARIOUS GOVERNMENTAL AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL MACHINERY IN THE ELIMINATION OF INEQUALITIES FACED BY KENYAN WOMEN AND THE EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN IN KENYA.
by Brian Micheni
Abstract: This paper examines the role and contributions of various governmental machinery like the constitution, legislation reforms and policies and semi autonomous governmental agencies in the elimination of inequalities faced by Kenyan women and the empowerment of women in Kenya. It discusses various provisions enshrined in the constitution, parliamentary acts and policies that promote the status of women in Kenya and further looks at the role played by grassroots community based organizations, with a focus on women self-help groups. It further examines the contributions of national non-governmental organizations, towards achievement of gender equality and empowerment of women in Kenya.
Keywords: disparities; empowerment; equality; gender; gender inequalities; governmental machinery; injustices; Kenya; non-governmental organizations; rights; women.