International Journal of Gender Studies in Developing Societies (9 papers in press)
Female Passengers Perception on the Service Quality of Public Bus Services: An Exploratory Study on Dhaka City, Bangladesh
by Khadija Bint Abdur Rouf, Dewan Mahboob Hossain, Moinul Hossain
Abstract: There is a difference in travel pattern between men and women due to their varying trip purpose and access to transportation facilities. Women travellers these days generate a substantial number of trips on regular basis even in the developing world where they enjoy less freedom. Hence, it is important to ensure that the available public transportation system can attract female travellers. This study combines and customizes two well-known service quality assessment models - SERVQUAL and RESCA to explore the perceptions of female university students regarding the public bus services in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. The study is qualitative in nature and follows an interpretive paradigm involving interviews of 20 female university students. Their perceptions are evaluated based on seven attributes i) reliability, ii) comfort, iii) service, iv) responsiveness and empathy, v) safety and security, vi) affordability, and vii) vehicle access. The findings postulate that the existing public bus service is unpleasant for both the genders. However, the situation is more hostile for the female passengers. Several interesting suggestions also came forward. It is expected that these recommendations shall help improving the public bus service for female users.
Keywords: Female Passenger; Public Bus; Service Quality; Developing World; SERVQUAL; RESCA.
Counting the Uncounted Burdens: Intimate Partner Violence in Migrant Communities - Systematic Review of the Literature
by Nour Daoud
Abstract: This article provides a systematic review of the empirical evidence related to intimate partner violence (IPV) in migrant communities. The main goal of the article is to understand the exposure to and impact of IPV among migrant women, the drivers of IPV and the barriers to disclosure and help-seeking. The search resulted in 36 studies that meet the inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The findings show that migrant women are exposed to various levels of IPV in refugee and immigrant contexts. Following the ecological model, the drivers of IPV are categorized at the individual level (e.g., alcohol and substance abuse), the relationship/household level (e.g., reversal of gender roles), and the community/society level (e.g., social acceptability of IPV). The literature review also highlights gaps in the literature, such as the relationship between IPV and other types of violence suffered by women. The article has recommendations, one of which, is to conduct future large-scale studies that consider the inter-sectional, and post-structural feminist perspectives.
Keywords: Domestic Violence; Ecological Model; Gender-based Violence; Immigrant; Internally Displaced People; Intersectionality; Intimate Partner Violence; Post-structuralist Feminism; Refugee; Victimization.
WOMENS OWNERSHIP RIGHTS TO LANDED PROPERTY IN NIGERIA: KEY TO ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT
by Yetunde Aluko
Abstract: Using desk reviews and qualitative data collection methods, the paper critically examines the rights of women to own land in current Nigeria, with a specific look at the three major tribes, both under the Nigerian Customary laws and Statute; the problems faced by women in Nigeria as a result of lack of unhindered access to land in their fatherland; the effects of such denial on their level of economic empowerment; and its ripple effect on the crucial role of women to achieve sustainable development goals. The paper concludes by recommending an awakening of the consciousness of relevant stakeholders.
Keywords: Women; Ownership rights; Landed property; Nigeria; Economic empowerment.
Linking the Local with the Global: Gender, Childhoods, and Development
by Jennifer Rothchild
Abstract: In this paper, I advocate for reintroducing the gender and development (GAD) perspective, but this time with a twist: bringing the standpoints of children into the approach. This new version of the GAD approach would allow us to envision a nexus of gender, childhoods, and development. Specifically, life histories collected from youth living in childrens homes in Nepal illuminate how particular populations carry the impact of development, globalization, and human progress. Listening to the voices of youth at the local level provides us with a unique opportunity to envision the transformative potential at a much broader level.
Keywords: gender and development (GAD); childhoods; gender; development; children's homes; Nepal.
Does Gender Equality work for Sustainable Development in MENA?
by Khayria Karoui
Abstract: In recent years, MENA need gender equality and economic growth to ensure the economic well-being and to improve the living conditions of the population. This work focuses on the basis of the Kuznets curve associated with the analysis of the environment and aims to analyze the relationship between gender equality and sustainable development in the MENA region. In this work a cross-analysis with data from 20 MENA regions that were used in 2010. The results find shows that there is a positive correlation between gender equality and sustainable development. When the multidimensional poverty index increases, reduce environmental problems, which brings us in the role of gender in sustainable development in all countries in MENA
Keywords: Gender inequality; Sustainable development; Environmental Kuznets.
Economics of Bride-wealth-effect on sustainable marriage, a blessing or a curse? -The Contemporary Southern Ghana Context
by Anthony Amoah, Peter Carlos Okantey, George Hughes, Clara K. Fayorsey
Abstract: In furtherance of the argument in literature, that a relationship exists between anthropology and economics because of the resource trade-off between families in the African marriage processes, we hypothesize that such payments (bride-wealth) may hurt the sustainability of marriage. Using a survey data obtained by administering a structured questionnaire to 247 respondents from Southern Ghana, we used the Tobit econometric technique to show that, some key determinants of bride-wealth in the study area include the brides personal and family characteristics. In addition, using the Ordinary Least Square, this study found that higher bride-wealth negatively affects the sustainability of marriages. Given that higher bride-wealth is found to hurt the sustainability of marriages, we recommend that a second look at payments of bride-wealth by cultures in Southern Ghana and other developing countries with similar characteristics must be considered. Thus, a call for a re-think of the payment of the high bride-wealth may be now!
Keywords: Bride-wealth; Bride-price; Sustainability; Divorce; Marriage; Ghana; Tobit; OLS.
GENDER IDEOLOGY AND CAREER ASPIRATIONS AMONG STUDENTS OF ARCHITECTURE IN NIGERIA
by Omoyeni Fulani, Dolapo Amole, Albert Adeboye
Abstract: The population of Architecture students in Nigerian universities is largely dominated by males. This has been linked with the limiting effect of societal orientations and gender role ideology which largely define what is appropriate for a woman or a man in various contexts. This study investigated the gender ideology among male and female students of architecture in private universities in South-West Nigeria with a view to gain insight into the perceptions that are pervasive among the students with respect to gender. The authors constructed a Gender Ideology scale to measure the Gender Ideology of the students and administered it to a sample of 378 students made up of 101 females and 277 males. The results revealed that there were significant relationships between the students gender and their gender ideology. In terms of both Professional and Socio-Cultural Gender Ideology, the female students were more egalitarian than the male students. There was no significant relationship found between the Gender Ideology of the students and their intention to practice architecture in the future, however when the type of career aspiration was investigated, it had a significant relationship with their gender ideology. This implied that most females in schools of architecture were those who had succeeded in breaking out of traditional gender role stereotypes. It further suggests that with time and malleability of gender roles in favour of females, there would be a greater influx of females into the field of architecture in Nigeria.
Keywords: Gender Ideology; career aspirations; architecture; architectural education.
ROLE OF MEDIA IN MOTIVATING CAREER ORIENTED FEMALES IN CHALLENGING THE NORMS OF PATRIARCHY
by Priya Gupta, Mili Sharma
Abstract: Abstract : The present study begins with a pertinent question. Do women have a choice on whether they want to embrace motherhood, or are they socialized so effectively into the role almost from their own birth that they do not recognize it as one?If marriage is near universal in India, so is motherhood there is little scope for choice here.Now the major problem arises that Is it necessary for career oriented women to get married and sacrifice their career for the sake of family and motherhood? or Why cant a career oriented woman pursue her career and enjoy motherhood without involving herself in the intricacies of marriage? The study with the help of focus group discussions spread across four stratums aims to provide answers to these questions. It tries to make a case for surrogacy and in-vitro fertilization (IVF). It introduces the concept of single mothers by choice or choice moms and tries to understand the mindset of Indian women by analyzing its advantages, disadvantages and consequences.
Keywords: Keywords : Patriarchy; strata; choice moms; career oriented females; working; non working; married; unmarried.
AN OUTLOOK ON GENDER EQUALITY: A DEMOGRAPHICAL EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
by Poonam Khurana, Deepika Chhikara
Abstract: Purpose rnThe purpose of this paper is to understand and examine the outlook of people towards gender equality in day to day life in respect of the way we behave, dress, groom, conduct and present ourselves in the society, in the current growth rate of our economy and penetration level of globalization which leads to culture exchange.rnrnDesign/Methodology/Approach- Both primary plus secondary statistics is used in this study. Primary data have been collected from respondents in Delhi and NCR (National Capital Region) by convenient random sampling with the help of self -structured questionnaire. Secondary data have been extracted from the research studies and articles published in various reputed journals. Descriptive statistics and Chi- Square test (Non-Parametric Analysis) has been used for analysis.rnFindings The study shows that among all the respondents the demography was inclined majorly towards students between the age of 16-25 years from Delhi, the youth has evolved from the conservative approach and they treat all the gender equally. However, a significant finding of the study was that the beauty norms towards men are majorly impacted by the education level of an individual.rnResearch limitations/implications Because of random sampling the majority of respondents turned out to be between the age of 16-25 years from Delhi, the study can be extended to focused age above 25 years around India.rnPractical implications The understanding of the attitude of our youth towards gender equality can contribute to understand the true issue where we lack to trigger this plague in our society and policies can be formed to eradicate the same. The research can be used by organizations to understand the consumer efficiently and policy makers to design optimum solutions for bringing about a change in the thought process in this evolving time.rnOriginality/value Among all the social activism and governmental approach towards bringing equality this study explores the idea of accepting gender equality at the micro level of day-to-day life.rnrnrn
Keywords: gender; equality; demographics.