International Journal of Electronic Security and Digital Forensics (30 papers in press)
Implementation of RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol
by Sivasankaran Kumaravel, Ashik JOJI
Abstract: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): The most flexible auto identification technology has a dereliction in its security. Over the years researchers have worked on the security issue of the long established commonly used Passive UHF RFID tags and have come up with some authentication protocols scorning its hardware implementation. Here a lightweight mutual authentication protocol is implemented in ASIC based on the EPC Class 1 Generation 2 framework released by EPC global, which is the widely used industrial standard for passive UHF RFID communication. We have proposed to incorporate ROM to store message signal, which shows significant reduction in area and power as compared to existing digital baseband architecture.
Keywords: EPC; security; RFID; LFSR; lightweight; authentication; VLSI; pierndecoder; fm0 encoder.
Drone Forensics: Examination and Analysis
by Farkhund Iqbal, Benjamin Yankson, Babar Shah, Maryam Ahmed AlYammahi, Naeema Saeed AlMansoori, Suaad Mohammed Qayed, Thar Baker
Abstract: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, provides unique functionalities, which allows area surveillance, Inspection, surveying, unarmed cargo, armed attack machines, and aerial photography. Although drones have been around for sometimes, mass adoption of this technology is new. The technology is widely adopted in fields including law enforcement, cartography, agriculture, disaster monitoring, and science research. Due to vulnerabilities, and the lack of stringent security implementation, drones are susceptible to GPS spoofing attacks, integrity attacks and de-authentication attacks. These attacks which can allow criminals to access data, intercept the drone and, and use it commit a crime and complicate forensic investigation. The need for standardized drone forensics is imperative in order to help identify vulnerabilities in different models of drones, solve drone related crime, and enhance security; thwarting any anti-forensic measure by criminals. Thus, this paper is presented to report on potential attacks against the Parrot Bebop 2 drone, and the ability for an investigator to collect evidence about the attacks on the drone. This paper aims at examining the possibility of establishing ownership and collecting data to reconstruct events, linking the drone controller with the drone to prove ownership, flight origins and other potentially useful information necessary to identify the proprietor of a crime. In addition, we have also proposed a small-scale drone ontology for modeling drone context data, and simple forensic processing framework for small-scale drones.
Keywords: digital forensics; investigation; drone security; drone attack; context data; drone ontology.
Comparison Analysis of Electricity Theft Detection Methods for Advanced Metering Infrastructure in Smart Grid
by Hamed Barzamini, Mona Ghassemian
Abstract: While smart grid technologies are deployed to help achieve improved grid reliability and efficiency, they are vulnerable to cyber-attacks which can result in billions of dollars loss for energy companies. The appropriate classification method selection to detect the electricity theft is under the influence of operational requirements and resource constraints in real scenarios. Since unsupervised methods have a high error rate, we investigate a new application based on a semi- supervised anomaly detection method which uses the principal component analysis (PCA) technique to detect the electricity theft. The performance of this method is compared with the peer-to-peer (P2P) method based on linear equations. The P2P method assumes that the electricity theft occurs in a particular situation. Our evaluations indicate that in the absence of this assumption, the P2P method detection system results in 100% false alarm. While the anomaly detection method using the PCA does not require any prior assumptions about the pattern of the electricity theft, it can retain its performance with a 4% false alarm rate. Our analysis shows an average of 45% improvement in the detection accuracy rate in comparison with the P2P method.
Keywords: smart grid; electricity theft; classification method; principal component analysis.
A Novel LSB Based RDH with Dual Embedding for Encrypted Images
by Debabala Swain, Jayanta Mondal, Devee D. Panda
Abstract: A novel reversible data hiding technique for encrypted images is proposed in this paper. Encryption helps to achieve privacy which is a necessity for sensitive imagery such as medical and military images. In encrypted domain data embedding capacity remains a big challenge. A dual embedding scheme is proposed to enhance the additional data hiding capability. The general architecture includes a content owner, a data hider, and a receiver. This scheme is subjected to work on 512
Keywords: Reversible data hiding; image encryption; least significant bit; dual embedding.
Fingerprint authentication based on fuzzy extractor in the mobile device
by Li Li, Siqin Zhou, Hang Tu
Abstract: Bio-cryptography is the combination of biometrics and cryptography that is a new security technology. For the fuzzy of fingerprint, fuzzy extractor that is a good model to protect the biometric data and can reliably extract almost the same random keys R from the closest input. however, many experiments about fuzzy extractors base on computer, we implement an application for fingerprint authentication in mobile devices based on the fuzzy extractor, the help data we need to store is in the capacity of the mobile extern storage. Unlike previous work, the construction of the input in secure sketch is very simple and uses ISO IEC 19794-2 standard minutia data. Most importantly, the scheme can be more secure to protect the biometric template.
Keywords: fingerprint authentication; fuzzy extractor; bch; android application.
Countermeasures for Timing-Based Side-Channel Attacks against Shared, Modern Computing Hardware
by Reza Montasari, Richard Hill, Amin Hosseinian-Far, Farshad Montaseri
Abstract: There are several vulnerabilities in computing systems hardware that can be exploited by attackers to carry out devastating Microarchitectural Timing-Based Side-Channel Attacks against these systems and as a result compromise the security of the users of such systems. By exploiting Microarchitectural resources, adversaries can potentially launch different variants of Timing Attacks, for instance, to leak sensitive information through timing. In view of these security threats against computing hardware, in a recent study, titled Are Timing-Based Side-Channel Attacks Feasible in Shared, Modern Computing Hardware?, currently undergoing the review process, we presented and analysed several such attacks. This extended study proceeds to build upon our recent study in question. To this end, we analyse the existing countermeasures against Timing Attacks and propose new strategies in dealing with such attacks.
Keywords: side channels; timing attacks; hardware attacks; channel attacks; digital investigations; countermeasures.
A SURVEY ON SECURITY ANALYSIS AND PRIVACY ISSUES OF WIRELESS MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
by Akondi Vyasa Bharadwaja, V. Ganesan
Abstract: Wireless Multimedia Communication (WMC) is an emerging service that integrates voice, video, and data in the same service. The wireless handheld device used to provide multimedia communication such as PDA, Sensor, Mobile phones etc., are resource constrained and also need security protocol for successful multimedia communication between server and user. Many researchers are put their effort to develop secure cryptography algorithms and protocol to allow the user to access the data securely in telemedicine, surveillance system, and video on demand, digital cash, online shopping, digital content delivery and video conferencing technology. This paper focuses on security analysis of different encryption algorithm, secure architecture, encoding algorithm, authentication protocol and video encoding method. It also discuss about security multimedia challenges, characteristics, multimedia services, different attacks, software information and forecasts future perspectives of wireless multimedia technology.
Keywords: Security;Wireless multimedia communication;Elliptic Curve Cryptography;DNA Cryptographic algorithm;Privacy;Secure accumulation;Authentication.
Secure Gray Code Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme in Radiographic Images
by Karthikeyan B, Venkata Keerthy S, Hariharan G
Abstract: Transmitting medical information through a network for the purpose of tele-diagnosis involves greater risk of losing confidentiality and integrity of the information being transmitted. This paper presents a scheme that ensures reversibility of the cover image and also makes it suitable for the field of telemedicine. The methodology uses cryptographic and the steganographic methods. The proposed work decreases the overhead by reducing the size of the auxiliary data to be embedded which is used to achieve the reversibility of the cover image. The proposed method also improves security of the data and enhances the image quality. The algorithm yields a Reversible Data Hiding (RDH) scheme based on Pixel Value Ordering (PVO). The methodology differs from other basic schemes as it uses Gray code instead of ordinary binary codes. It naturally suits for medical steganography as the carrier image can be reconstructed after extraction of the secret data and also the distortion caused due to embedding is very less. The method is also robust as one time pad cryptographic technique is used to generate the key.
Keywords: Reversible Data Hiding; Pixel Value Ordering; Medical Steganography; One time pad; Telemedicine.
Dealing with the Problem of Collection and Analysis of Electronic Evidence
by Jong Min Sin, Hye Ryon Son
Abstract: Today the Internet is being used in everybodys daily life thanks to rapid development of science and technology including information and communications technology. The cyberspace has also been used as a den for cybercriminals, whose recent number remarkably increases getting things worse and worse.
Cybercrime is technically distinguished from traditional one, which makes it very hard to investigate cybercrime. In particular, a number of technical and legal issues arising in the collection and analysis of digital evidence have great influence in cybercrime investigation. The paper explores general concept of electronic evidence, basic requirements for collecting and analysing digital evidence and general procedures and methodologies thereof.
Keywords: cybercrime; electronic evidence; digital evidence; collection; analysis; cybercrime investigation; Internet.
Biometric Data Security using Joint Encryption and Watermarking
by Garima Mehta, Malay Kishore Dutta, Pyung Soo Kim
Abstract: Confidentiality and content ownership are considered to be an important aspect of security applications and therefore a joint watermarking and encryption scheme is developed. This work addresses the issue of authenticity and integrity of watermark or ownership identification by embedding biometric iris template as a watermark in a fingerprint host image. The proposed approach is a two-step approach which includes encryption and watermarking. During the encryption, iris features are encrypted using combination of FRWT with Arnold cat map while watermark embedding is done by using dual DWT-SVD scheme to improve robustness and protection of biometric security systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed joint encryption and watermarking introduces efficiency, security and robustness against image processing attacks.
Keywords: Biometric; Encryption; Watermarking; Fractional Wavelet Transform; Arnold Cat Map; Discrete Wavelet Transform; Singular Value Decomposition.
The Pseudo Metadata Concept For The Chain of Custody of Digital Evidence
by Yudi Prayudi, Ahmad Ashari, Tri Kuntoro Priyambodo
Abstract: The chain of custody is an important part of the investigation process which will guarantee the evidence is acceptable in the court. The handling of the chain of custody for digital evidence is a complex issue and more difficult than physical evidence. The main problem in the chain of custody of digital evidence is related to how to record and what should be documented the information of evidence in an investigative process. This paper proposed a solution through the concept of Chain of Custody Pseudo Metadata (C2PM). This concept will provide a mechanism for recording and documentation of digital evidence as well as mapping information that must exist for a chain of custody of digital evidence. The recording mechanism is performed after the acquisition and disk imaging of electronic evidence while mapping the information is done into two parts, static and dynamic information. There are 42 information fields divided into nine groups of information that has been built following the basic criteria of information needs chain of custody from various points of view. The grouping of this information will complement the information necessary for the management of digital evidence as well as ISO 27037: 2008. To support the interoperability of this system, the XML approach is used as the implementation of Chain of Custody Pseudo Metadata. This concept is expected to be an alternative solution for digital evidence handling and to provide solutions for information standards for a chain of custody of digital evidence.
Keywords: Chain of Custody; Digital Evidence; Metadata; Digital Forensics; XML. Acquisition; Disk Imaging.
Superpixel-based Zernike Moments for Palm-print Recognition
by BILAL ATTALLAH, Serir Amina, Chahir Youssef, Abdelwahhab Boudjelal
Abstract: In the contemporary period, significant attention has been focused on the prospects of innovative personal recognition methods based on palm print biometrics. However, diminished local consistency and interference from noise are only some of the obstacles that hinder the most common methods of palm-print imaging such as the grey texture and other low-level of the palm. Nevertheless, the development of the process and tackling of the obstacles faced have a potential solution in the form of high-level characteristic imaging for palm-print identification. In this study, Zernike Moments are used for acquiring superpixel features that are spiral scanned images, which is an innovative recognition method. By using the extreme learning machine, the inter- and intra-similarities of the palm-print feature maps are determined. Our experiments yield good results with an accuracy rate of 97.52 and an equal error rate of 1.47 % on the palm-print PolyU database.
Keywords: palm-print recognition;image segmentation;feature extraction;ELM;image matching.
Security Methods and Approaches for Internal and External Network Hospital Information Systems with Single Sign-On (SSO)
by Kostas Kardaras, George Lambrou, Dimitrios Koutsouris
Abstract: Hospital Information Systems are vast and very complex, and include a variety of services. They have become a necessity nowadays, both due to the value added services they provide and to their penetration in the Healthcare Market. Yet, there is a variety of security issues that need to be met and overcome in order to build robust Hospital Information Systems. This paper suggests several security measures in order to enhance security of the sensitive medical data both in an intranet and an extranet environment, and to provide value-added services for efficient health information management. The authors propose an architecture that enables the integration of such security measures in a HIS, especially with the use of SSO, which can cover a wide range of applications.
Keywords: Hospital Intranet; Hospital Extranet; Single Sign On (SSO); Information Systems.
Using machine learning and the first digit law to detect forgeries in digital images
by Hieu Cuong Nguyen, Duc Thang Vo
Abstract: Digital image tampering is becoming popular and it might cause serious problems on different areas. Therefore, detection forgeries in digital images are urgent need. There are various forgery types, which can be exposed by different forensic techniques. In this paper, we propose a new detection scheme using the first-digit law (also known as Benfords law) in order to identify several types of image forgeries. We extract specific features, which are fed to a machine learning based classifier in order to distinguish original images and manipulated images. Through experiments, we found that the proposed scheme work well for detecting double JPEG compression and Gaussian noise addition. Copy-move is among the most popular types of image forgeries, where a part of an image is copied and pasted to another position of the same image. However, we show that, this manipulation does not affect the law. Experiments on a large-scale image dataset show that the proposed scheme is reliable and it can achieve detection rate up to 90% or higher.
Keywords: Image forensics; Benford’s law; SVM; double JPEG compression.
Cost-effective Provable Secure Cloud Storage Self-auditing Scheme for Big Data in WMSNs
by Xiaojun Zhang, Jie Zhao, Liming Mu
Abstract: Medical big data have recently received considerable attention in the modern medical systems, since they give great opportunities to mine new medical knowledge. In the wireless medical sensor networks (WMSNs), medical big data can be generated and processed everywhere at any time. With the rapid development of cloud computing, cloud-based WMSNs can provide more efficient processing of patients physiology parameters and support richer storage services. Meanwhile, the integrity of medical big data becomes significant, since medical big data will be employed to provide the medical diagnosis and other medical treatments. In this paper, we propose a cost-effective self-auditing scheme for cloud storage medical big data without pairings. In the proposed scheme, a patient can personally check the medical big data integrity effectively, without retrieving the entire medical big data, and thus dramatically reduces the communication overhead. Moreover, we extend the proposed scheme to a batch self-auditing scheme, such that a patient can efficiently perform self-auditing for multiple different medical big data files simultaneously. The performance comparison shows that the proposed scheme is much more light-weight, and more practical in WMSNs.
Keywords: Medical big data; wireless medical sensor networks; cloud computing; self-auditing.
Data hiding using adaptive LSB and PVD technique resisting PDH and RS analysis
by Aditya Kumar Sahu, Gandharba Swain
Abstract: This paper proposes an improved data hiding technique using the principle of least significant bit (LSB) substitution and pixel value differencing (PVD). It addresses two issues, (i) the error block problem (EBP), and (ii) the fall of boundary problem (FOBP). The image is divided into non-overlapping blocks of two consecutive pixels. The blocks are divided into 3 levels depending upon the pixel value difference. The level of the block and the pixel difference range decides the hiding capacity of a block. The proposed technique has been compared with related existing techniques in terms of parameters like peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), quality index (Q), hiding capacity, bits per pixel (BPP), and the count of the blocks suffering from FOBP. The experimental results prove that the proposed technique offers better PSNR and hiding capacity as compared to the related existing techniques. Furthermore, the proposed technique is resistant to pixel difference histogram (PDH) analysis and RS analysis.
Keywords: Steganography; LSB Steganography; PVD steganography; PDH analysis; RS analysis.
A 3-Layer RDH Method in Encrypted Domain for Medical Information Security
by Debabala Swain, Jayanta Mondal
Abstract: Digitization of sensitive images demands a lossless security mechanism and a sophisticated privacy preservation technique. Sensitive imagery e.g. medical, forensic, military images etc., needs special care during transmission as a little distortion can lead to catastrophic diagnosis mistake. With immense advancements, popularity, and success of service-oriented architecture (SOA), providing safe and secure online medical facility is one hard challenge for both research community and the industry. This paper proposes a 3-layer embedding mechanism enabled reversible data hiding (RDH) scheme with additional electronic patient record (EPR) hiding technique for encrypted medical images. LSB modification and LSB substitution technique are used for the embedding and EPR hiding. The experiments carried out on the medical test images on three levels of embedding and the experimental results show great potential in terms of security, embedding capacity, and recovered image quality.
Keywords: Reversible Data Hiding; Least Significant Bit; Electronic Patient Record;Encryption; Data Embedding.
Application of Quality in Use Model to Assess The User Experience of Open Source Digital Forensics Tools
by Manar Abu Talib, Reem Alnanih, Adel Khelifi
Abstract: Open source digital forensics tools are playing an important role for law enforcement agencies, security company operations, forensics investigations and enterprise security teams. There is a strong need to assess these software tools using quality in use models to ensure that they meet users needs and are adaptable to the context in which they are being used. The existing literature does not satisfy the requirements of assessing the quality-in-use of these software tools.
In this paper, we adopt a standardized set of existing quality models and apply the quality-in-use measurement model in terms of five important characteristics, namely, effectiveness, productivity, efficiency, error safety, and cognitive load. We assess three of the most used open source digital forensics tools, namely Autopsy, DFF, and DART. The results of experiments have demonstrated that the performance of Autopsy, DFF, and DART is similar in terms of efficiency and productivity. However, DDF outperformed the other two slightly in effectiveness. Autopsy was the best in terms of error safety, and DART had the highest cognitive load. As a result, the open source digital forensics tools community may consider these findings in selecting the right solution in order to perform its duties properly.
The idea for this research paper is to initiate research activities that can ultimately lead to a clear and more simply applied set of quality requirements for the aforementioned tools. So, future research will involve conducting a more comprehensive study that will encompass additional aspects of software quality. In addition, a comparative study of open and closed source digital forensics programs using standardized software quality requirements should be considered. This will enhance testing efforts and increase the quality of this type of software.
Keywords: Quality Models; Open Source Software (OSS); digital forensics tools; Autopsy; DFF; DART; Quality-in-use Model; ISO/IEC 25010; Designing user interfaces.
Authenticate Audio Video-Crypto Invisible Watermarking Approach for Enhancing Hidden Information Security and Robustness
by Mahesh Gangarde
Abstract: Now a days for any type of watermarking techniques imperceptibility, robustness, embedding capacity, security of hidden watermark secret data and recovery of good visual quality of both covers as well as watermark secret data are the major issues. There is always a tradeoff between embedding capacity, robustness and imperceptibility, hence the suggested approach gives the perfect solution to all these major issues. To solve these issues the selected frame of video and the secret data as image and audio is divided into the number of parts and every part is mapped using APLM (Adaptive Pixel Location Mapping) algorithm to get watermarked video, hence the embedding capacity and security of hidden watermark secret data is increased. To increase the robustness and imperceptibility of the proposed system a number of attacks have applied on watermarked video during transmission. The proposed system also calculates the key security parameters like Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Histogram, Structural Similarity Index Module (SSIM), Cross Correlation Factor (CCF) and Bit Error Rate (BER) before watermarking, after watermarking and after recovering the secret data from watermarked video which are found to be identical, hence the proposed system is more resistive to any type of attack. Furthermore, the obtained simulation result shows that the suggested audio, video-crypto invisible watermarking approach is found to be better in terms of perceptibility, robustness, privacy, security and large embedding capacity and recovery of cover video and secret watermark data as compared to any existing techniques.
Keywords: Audio Video Watermarking; APLM; Perceptibility; Robustness; Watermark Information Security.
A Novel Approach to Secret Data Concealment with High Cover Text Capacity and Security
by Muhammad Azeem, Jingsha He, Allah Ditta, Faheem Akhtar
Abstract: The security of confidential information has been employed by using Cryptography and Steganography. To secure secret data has become more challenging for security researchers and defence departments due to the rapid growth of internet and massive technological advancement. Although steganography techniques was also evolved but still require large amount of cover text to conceal large size of message. Therefore, to deal the issue of data hiding capacity and stego text size present research articulates a novel approach to achieve high data concealment capacity of cover text along with security by using combination of steganography and cryptography. Current algorithm applies four-layer encryption on secret binary value before embedding and seven Unicode characters such as Invisible Plus (IP), Invisible Separator (IS), Inhabit Symmetric Swapping (ISS), Left to Right Override (LRO), (ZWNJ), Zero Width Joiner (ZWJ), Zero Width Non-Joiner and Zero Width Character (ZWC), are employed to embed secret information into English carrier text. Finally, an output file stego text object is generated. The result reflects tremendous raise in carrier text capacity up to 300% and encryption significantly enhances the security of secret data. Moreover, the identical carrier and stego text reduces hacker‟s attention. The projected technique is simple but hard to break and avoids overhead of secret key involvement.
Keywords: Unicode; Bit Rotation; Carrier Media; Cryptography; Text Steganography.
Augmenting Smart Home Network Security Using Blockchain technology
by Utkarsh Saxena, J.S. Sodhi, Rajneesh Tanwar
Abstract: The idea of smart home existed from 1970s onwards but has come into knowledge of researchers and data scientist due to the development in the domain of Internet of things (IoT), but it still suffers from privacy and security vulnerabilities . Conventional security policies or approaches are not applicable for IoT, mainly due to its decentralized topology and the resource constraints of the majority of its devices . This Paper presents an innovative, novel and decentralized approach that can be used to augment the existing security architecture of a smart home network. Our scheme guarantees both trustworthiness and user privacy preservations.
Keywords: Proof of Data; Blockchain; Smart Home; Internet of Things; peer to peer.
FORENSIC OF An UNROOTED MOBILE DEVICE
by Animesh Kumar Agrawal
Abstract: With the people switching over to mobiles for all their computing needs, these ubiquitous devices have become huge data warehouses. In order to extract the required data, the inbuilt critical security mechanism of the device needs to be bypassed. With increased device security being implemented in latest android versions, gaining root access is a huge challenge. The research addresses the issue of getting data from smart phone without performing the rooting operation and without enabling USB debugging, which is one of the key challenges for mobile forensics. This paper proposes a mechanism to extract data by flashing TWRP (Team Win Recovery Project) on the device after unlocking the boot loader.
Keywords: mobile forensics; android; custom recovery; twrp; root; fastboot.rnrn.
Efficient light-weight private auditing scheme for cloud-based wireless body area networks
by Xiaojun Zhang
Abstract: With the rapid development of cloud computing, cloud-based wireless body area networks (WBANs) provide powerful storage services, and process massive medical data efficiently. As the medical data are exploited to perform the clinical diagnosis and other special medical treatments, the integrity of the medical data stored in the cloud server is increasingly important. In this paper, based on the elliptic curve digital signature algorithm (ECDSA), we propose an efficient light-weight cloud storage private auditing scheme for medical data in WBANs. Our scheme enables a data owner to check the medical data integrity effectively personally, and does not need to retrieve the entire medical data set, thereby dramatically reducing the communication overhead. Moreover, we further extend our private auditing scheme to private batch auditing. Thus, the data owner can perform auditing task for multiple different medical data files simultaneously. The performance comparison demonstrates that our scheme is much more light-weight, and more practical in cloud-based wireless body area networks.
Keywords: Cloud storage; Wireless body area networks; Elliptic curve digital signature; Light-weight; Private auditing.
Monitor and Detect Suspicious Transactions with Database Forensics and Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence
by Harmeet Khanuja
Abstract: The digital investigators have now approached databases for investigating the cyber crimes. The illegal financial transactions on the web which goes undetected can now be revealed through database forensics. In response to this, we have proposed a methodology to detect the illegal financial transactions through database audit logs. The aim here is to monitor the database, detect the suspicious transactions and report the risk level of these transactions. Different databases are monitored to extract SQL transactions through their respective audit logs. The SQL transactions obtained are transformed and loaded in a standard XML format which contains financial records along with its metadata. Initially, we process the financial transaction
records with Rule-Based outlier detection algorithm and classifies the transactions as per RBI rules. The suspected transactions obtained as outliers are marked with initial belief values. To verify the uncertainty of the suspected transactions we apply Dempster-Shafers theory of evidence which combines various evidence of suspected transactions obtained through audit logs. The experiments performed manifest the risk level of suspected transactions.
Keywords: audit logs; database forensics;Dempster Shafer Theory; money laundering; outliers; suspicious transactions.
Study of e-governance in India: a survey
by Darpan Anand, Vineeta Khemchandani
Abstract: E-governance is the process of delivering public services to citizens through the info. + communication tech. with reliability, transparency, efficiency without breaking the concept of cost-effectiveness. Governance can be felt omnipresent (24 × 7, globally). This work explores the growth and development of e-governance in India. Though the concept of e-governance was started in the eighth decade of the 20th century, it entered a second phase (organised/wireless + satellite) in India with NeGP-1.0 in 2006. In the beginning, existing manual processes were computerised without changing the original manual data acquisition, etc. We can say that the existing manual process was made workable on the computer. It was felt that, shall it not be better to introduce digitisation at the very early stage (grass root level of governance)? This idea took the shape of Digital India, in 2014. The translation converted to transformation. We also explore the implementation of e-governance projects. Various Indian states have implemented many mission mode projects successfully. It shall empower citizens by permitting seamless access to the government services. There are some difficulties and obstacles in e-governance implementation. This study is an effort to identify them.
Keywords: e-governance; Indian e-governance system.
A novel median filtering forensics based on principal component analysis network
by Xian Wang, Bing-Zhao Li
Abstract: As an important issue of forensic analysis, median filtering detection has drawn much attention in the decade. While several median filtering forensic methods have been proposed, they may face trouble when detecting median filtering on low-resolution or compressed images. In addition, the existing median filtering forensic methods mainly depend on the manually selected features, which makes these methods may not adapt to varieties of data. To solve these problems, convolution neural networks have been applied to learn features from the training database automatically. But the CNN-based method trains slowly and the parameters of it is hard to select. Thus, we proposed a PCANet-based method. And we test our trained model on several databases. The simulation shows that our proposed method achieves better performance, and trains much faster than CNN-based method.
Keywords: median filtering; blind forensics; principal component analysis; neural network.
Evaluation of smartphone data using a reference architecture
by Heloise Pieterse, Martin Olivier, Renier Van Heerden
Abstract: The 21st century is continuously witnessing the growth and evolution of smartphone technology. Central to this evolution is the use of popular smartphone applications. The frequent use of smartphone applications by people for everyday activities allows for the creation and storage of large quantities of smartphone data. Smartphone data is susceptible to change and can be compromised by anti-forensic tools, malware or malicious users. It is, therefore, important to establish the authenticity of such data before forming any conclusions. The first step to establishing the authenticity of smartphone data is to acquire a better understanding of the expected behaviour of smartphone applications. This paper introduces a reference architecture for smartphone applications, which captures the architectural components and models the expected behaviour of smartphone applications. An experiment conducted to examine the smartphone data of Android's default messaging application indicates that the reference architecture can assist digital forensic professionals in identifying authentic smartphone data.
Keywords: digital forensics; smartphone forensics; smartphones; authenticity; reference architecture; Android; iOS and applications; smartphone data.
Malware detection model based on classifying system calls and code attributes: a proof of concept
by Malik F. Saleh
Abstract: The process of malware detection involves static code analysis and dynamic analysis. Both methods have limitations. This research tried to bridge the gap between the two methods by dynamically predicting the risk before the static analysis. The proof-of-concept examined the code of known malwares and concluded that five characteristics of the code will predict the risk of any executable file, namely, the system function, encryption, code obfuscation, stalling code, and checking for the debugger environment. The proof-of-concept validates the effectiveness of the model. It shows 96% success and limited false-positives results.
Keywords: malware; malware detection; system calls; classifying system calls; static analysis; dynamic analysis.
A road map for digital forensics research: a novel approach for establishing the design science research process in digital forensics
by Reza Montasari, Victoria Carpenter, Richard Hill
Abstract: Compared to other well-established scientific fields computer forensics (CF) is still evolving as a new scientific field. CF lacks standardisation in various aspects including process models, datasets, procedures, techniques, and formal research methodologies. Consequently, progress in the establishment of CF as a scientific field has been hindered. Therefore, this paper aims to address one of such issues concerning the lack of standardisation, namely the absence of formal research methods in CF. Our study adds to the body of knowledge by filling the gap that there does not currently exist a well-established research methodology in CF. To this end, we borrow a well-established research methodology from the domain of IS, namely Peffers et al.'s (2006), adapt and extend it and make it relevant to research studies in CF. Our study sets a precedent for other researchers to identify, adapt, extend and apply other well-established research methods to studies in CF.
Keywords: computer forensics; design science research; digital investigations; research methodology; information system; digital forensics.
A cryptographic data hiding algorithm with high cover text capacity
by Muhammad Azeem, Jingsha He, Khurram Gulzar Rana, Faheem Akhtar
Abstract: Cryptography and steganography are foremost techniques used to ensure security and confidentiality of secret information. In steganography, data hiding capacity with security is a great challenge for the researchers. In present scheme, a novel approach with combination of steganography and cryptography is proposed to achieve high data hiding capacity with greater security. To accomplish this goal, three level encryption is applied to hide secret message by using bit complement and bit right rotation. Different Unicode characters such as zero width non-joiner (ZWNJ), zero width joiner (ZWJ) and zero width character (ZWC), are used to conceal secret information into English cover text. To embed secret data into cover text, firstly, algorithm implements three level encryption on confidential data and then resulting binary is embedded into cover text by using Unicode characters. The results revealed that recently designed algorithm has higher data security due to light weight and efficient encryption mechanism along with 2-bit/char cover text capacity. Moreover, there is no overhead of secret key generation and exchange from source to destination. Projected technique is easy to implement, hard to break and reduces intruder's attention.
Keywords: information control; Unicode; cryptography; bit rotation; cover media; text steganography.