International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (35 papers in press)
Green and blue infrastructure: Means of reducing surface temperatures in the urban environment
by Jan Sedlá?ek, Martin Hais, Kristýna Pouchová
Abstract: Climate change may accelerate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect with many consequences for the well-being of human populations in cities. Green and blue infrastructures (GBI) are presented as a way to mitigate the UHI effect. In our study, the influence of GBI (primarily less studied types) on surface temperature (ST) was tested using a thermal camera. Various types of GBI (e. g. tree shade and lawn) and their combination were compared. The studied GBI, including less common forms such as containers with ornamental plants, green roofs and fountains, reduced daytime ST. Moreover, they reduced the thermal amplitudes of surrounding areas (up to 30 m). The results imply that besides larger GBI (e.g. parks, rivers) smaller structures may significantly decrease the UHI effect. We recommend a combination of both blue and green structures especially in street canyons and the use of green roofs and walls when the space for adding GBI is limited.
Keywords: surface temperature; urban climate; microclimate; urban heat island; green infrastructure; blue infrastructure; greenery; vegetation; green roof; green wall; fountain; well-being; tree shade; climate change; thermal amplitudes.
Small hydropower development in Ukraine under global climate change patterns: is state economic support sufficient?
by Tetiana Kurbatova, Iryna Sotnyk, Oleksandr Kubatko, Liudmyla Gorbachova, Borys Khrystiuk
Abstract: During the last years, significant changes happened in seasonal river hydrology in Europe due to climate change. Nevertheless, according to the presented analysis, the total water runoff for hydropower generation did not change. The last fact is an important policy implication for small hydropower promotion in Ukraine because it belongs to that region and has similar climate conditions. Having analysed the hydropower potential, the paper describes the main advantages and limitations of implementing small hydropower projects in Ukraine. The cost of electricity generated by a small hydropower plant in Ukraine is determined and compared with the current feed-in tariff. The calculations show that the feed-in tariff is 1.4 times higher than the electricity generation cost, making the implementation of small hydropower plants profitable for investors. Since the state provides sufficient economic support for this sector's development, the financial and non-economic barriers significantly hinder small hydropower plant deployment are considered.
Keywords: small hydropower; renewable energy; policy; feed-in tariff; LCOE; economic support; Ukraine.
An urban ecology approach to land-cover changes in the Adyar sub-basin: comparative analysis of NDWI, NDVI and NDBI using remote sensing
by Mythili Madhusudhan, N.K. Ambujam
Abstract: The impacts of urbanisation may be social, environmental or ecological. In this paper, studies on the characteristics of urbanisation and its impacts in Chennai, India, particularly the South Chennai region are discussed. The study involves use of Landsat images and comparison of normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) corresponding to mentioned dates in 1977, 1998 and 2018. Also, the normalised index for water (NDWI) and the built-up index (NDBI) are mapped and compared for the same dates. The results show that for the years 1977, 1998 and 2018, the difference between the maximum and minimum values of NDVI are found to be 1.609, 1.026 and 1.288, of NDWI are found to be 1.802, 1.239 and 1.518, and of NDBI are found to be
1.785, 0.993 and 1.036, respectively. The trends in indices for the dates considered are found to correspond to human activity and the significance of these changes is discussed.
Keywords: urban ecology; normalised difference vegetation index; NDVI; normalised difference water index; NDWI; normalised difference built-up index; NDBI; Landsat; remote sensing; land use; South Chennai.
Study of the waste disposal effect on air quality: the Italian case study
by Nicoletta Lotrecchiano, Renato Ciampa, Aristide Giuliano, Daniele Sofia
Abstract: The environmental status is defined by the combination of information about air pollution and waste production and management. This paper aims to compare the percentage of waste disposal in Italy with air quality. For each Italian region, the percentage of waste disposal and air quality were analysed. For some more interesting regions like Trentino South-Tyrol, Piedmont, Veneto, Lombardy, Lazio, Marche, Umbria, Abruzzo, Campania, Basilicata, Apulia, and Sicily relationship were highlighted taking into account citizens concerns about air quality. It is clear, after analysing the data, that in 2012-2017 the environmental awareness of the Italian population has increased with a consequent increase in the percentage of waste disposal and with the improvement of air quality.
Keywords: Italy; waste disposal; air quality; environment; particulate matter; NO2.
Bio FT-diesel in the European maritime sector: a technical economic valuation of straw crops potential
by Vinicius Andrade Dos Santos, Antonio A.T.G.Portugal, Patrícia Pereira Da Silva, Luis M. V. Serrano
Abstract: The present study has as an objective exploring the lignocellulosic residues from European agriculture as an energy source for the production of bio Fischer-Tropsch diesel (Bio FT-Diesel) as a low carbon alternative to be used in the European maritime sector, based on a techno-economic methodology of residue collection combined with the production yield of FT-Diesel available on literature. It permitted us to find a potential production of 8.5 million tons (Mton) of biofuel across 11 countries, and the reduction of 26 Mton of CO2 annually. The study contributes to the understanding that the fuel could be only cost-competitive if the crude oil reaches values between 10.4516.91 /GJ. In addition, the low technology status of bio FT-Diesel production and the lack of biofuel standards to the maritime sector are limitations that can only be addressed with effective regulations added to research and development from collection to production and consumption.
Keywords: maritime transportation; agriculture biomass; Fischer-Tropsch diesel; decarbonisation,.
Implementing green infrastructure for stormwater management and combined sewer overflow control
by Lucas Niehuns Antunes, Arthur Rafael Medeiros De Araújo, Manuella Fagundes Bet, Sara Coimbra Da Silva, João Vitor Erlacher De Figueiredo, Betina Frigotto De Lima, Tabita Sonntag Manzoni, Layane Christine Vieira
Abstract: Green infrastructure has been used in many countries as a source control measure of stormwater runoff. Chicago is one of the many cities that have a combined sewer system and frequently faces overflows. This study proposes a stormwater management system along Chicago's riverfront. The area of green infrastructure to be studied (77,300 m2 ) is composed of wetland, pond and permeable pavement and was designed to collect, store, treat and discharge or reuse 23,620,000 litres of water. A 49.1% reduction in runoff has been determined for the wetland/pond system compared to the current scenario. The permeable pavement, in turn, infiltrated and stored, on average, 325,000 litres of stormwater daily. The stormwater collected from the pavement would be used for non-potable purposes, providing potable water savings up to 6.5%, and serving more than 13,000 people of the neighbourhood. The findings highlight the great potential of green infrastructure to improve stormwater management.
Keywords: green infrastructure; wetland; pond; permeable pavement; stormwater management; combined sewer overflow; CSO.
The circular economy for sustainable development: implementation strategies in advanced small open economies
by Lina Dagilienė, Jurgita Bruneckienė, Viktorija Varaniūtė, Mantas Lukauskas
Abstract: Sustainable development and circular economy (CE) policy perspectives are growing in importance. However, there is little empirical research about the implementation of a circular economy or a critical review of its indicators at the country level. Using an institutional approach, this paper explores CE implementation strategies in advanced small open economies (SOEs) in the European Union (EU). We used a principal components analysis (PCA) and a clustering analysis based on data from the EU monitoring framework for the circular economy, specifically 13 small open economies
from 2010-2017. The main findings reveal three CE implementation strategies correlated with CE development stages: integrated to value chain, focused on institutional compliance and fragmented. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for the expansion of CE-related sectors based upon persons employed, value added or gross investments. This topic deserves further investigation, with important implications for future research and policymaking.
Keywords: circular economy; CE; strategy; small open economy; SOEs; implementation; principal components analysis; PCA; indicators.
From cleaner production to sustainability: multiple case studies in Uruguayan companies
by Florencia Kalemkerian, Silvia Lamela, Javier Santos, Martin Tanco
Abstract: Since the concept of cleaner production (CP) considers not only the environment but also the economic and social dimension, more scholarly attention is focused on studying the relationship of CP to sustainability. This research aims to present the main elements that contribute to successful CP implementation and sustainability in organisations. Eleven companies, mostly SMEs that adopted CP practices after a training course, were selected from different industrial sectors. The main results showed that the critical success factors most often cited for achieving successful implementation are commitment from top management and government support. Although some companies continue to implement sustainable practices, the majority apply CP only to comply with environmental laws, which results in a limited contribution to sustainability. Additionally, the analysed companies do not have standardised metrics to evaluate their sustainable performance, but CP serves as a guide to support their decisions. More effort is needed to make companies aware of the benefits of CP in other areas of organisations, and to integrate the three domains of sustainability when implementing CP practices.
Keywords: cleaner production; critical success factors; CSFs; sustainability; Uruguay; SMEs.
Assessment of issues related to international trade and environmental impacts (Emissions): an analysis for Brazil
by Weslem Faria, Vinicius Vale, Fernando Perobelli, Admir Betarelli Junior
Abstract: This study is aimed at evaluating the impacts of the Brazilian trade structure on the amount of emissions, that is, at identifying the main trade links of Brazil in terms of CO2 emissions. We have considered two simulations through a global computable general equilibrium model GTAP-E , calibrated with 2011 data. The first simulation specifies an incentive of 10% in the form of subsidies to Brazils world exports to all sectors and regions. Analogously, the second simulation specifies a reduction of 10% in import tariffs for all sectors and regions of Brazil. The main results indicate that incentives to exports and imports would increase the emissions in Brazil and in most other regions. Firstly, because of the increase in the economic activity level of those sectors that use energy products more intensely as intermediate inputs, such as the transport sector. Secondly, because of the relative cheapness of foreign products, which would facilitate the purchase of energy inputs by Brazil. The main CO2 emission channels of the Brazilian international trade are with the Rest of Europe and Argentina.
Keywords: International Trade; Emissions; Computable General Equilibrium Model.
Localised strategies and principles of good governance for the Sustainable Development Goals: where do the local authorities in Turkey stand?
by İhsan İkizer
Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals have been set by the representatives of all nations on the Earth, for people, planet, prosperity and peace. It is accepted that cross-sectoral nature of the SDGs requires collective responsibility, multi-level collaboration among all stakeholders, with the participation of people, for whom these goals exist. This article has revealed that, among the 30 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey, where localisation of the SDGs and multi stakeholder local governance is rare, just a few of them have aligned their targets partially with those of the SDGs. Local authorities in Turkey do great jobs regarding many aspects of the 2030 Agenda; however, their works need a torch, in the form of a localised strategy of the SDGs, better governance and a sustainable, institutional mechanism for monitoring the progress. The motto of 'leave no one behind!' cannot be realised without full engagement of local authorities in this challenging process.
Keywords: 2030 Agenda; local authorities in Turkey; local governments; localisation of the SDGs; localised strategies; local governance; partnership and participation; principles of good governance; Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; Turkey.
Varied perceptions of environmental impacts from informal public transport hubs in two sub-Saharan African cities (Nairobi and Ibadan)
by Vincent Onyango, Adebola Olowosegun, Dumiso Moyo
Abstract: This paper explored perceptions of the environmental impacts of informal public transport (IPT) in Ibadan, Nigeria and Nairobi, Kenya. Based on a questionnaire survey supplemented by exploratory factor analysis the results revealed unanimous agreement that IPT hubs and the infrastructure around them are perceived as having adverse impacts on local people and their environment. There exist statistically significant differences on the perceptions, including the latent factors underpinning them, at city level and across respondents backgrounds. The findings imply significant scope for urban planning practice and policy-making to find systematic methods to integrate the knowledge about IPTs perceived environmental impacts, from all urban citizens, as a means to pro-actively enhance their rights and inclusiveness. This will ameliorate a planning culture that often ignores the realities and concerns of the marginalised.
Keywords: informal public transport; IPT; environmental impacts; perceptions; Nairobi; Ibadan; urban planning.
It is about life: 50 years of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme
by Miguel Clüsener-Godt, Günter Köck, Lutz Möller
Abstract: The UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme celebrates its 50th anniversary. MAB is an intergovernmental scientific programme that continues to be one of the most important UN endeavours, which combines nature preservation and sustainable development, with strong impact across the globe. The MAB Programme has been instrumental in developing the basis within the natural and social sciences for the rational and sustainable use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Over five decades, the MAB Programme and its World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) have repeatedly adapted and modernised, both in terms of content and in terms of governance and structures.
Keywords: biosphere reserves; MAB programme; integrated nature conservation; sustainable development; UNESCO; SDGs.
Public parks accessibility analysis through GIS: a case study of Tanddo Allahyar City
by Abdul Ghaffar Tahiri, Irfan Ahmed Memon, Saima Kalwar, Noman Sahito, Gopal Das, Shaharyar Brohi
Abstract: Parks and recreational spaces play a major role in upgrading the living conditions of urban areas. Easily accessible public parks are a crucial aspect of sustainable urban planning. Objective is to assess the level of serviceability of public parks in terms of accessibility, and spatial distribution of neighbourhood and city parks. The data obtained from USGS Earth Explorer and Google Earth software, and was put in ArcGIS 10.2 software for creating land use land cover map of study area. Methods of buffer and network analysis used for accessibility analysis of public parks category-wise. The catchment area limit is set as 300 m and 800 m for neighbourhood park, and city park respectively. The results reveal the clear distinction in the availability of parks across the study area. However, study findings may help concerned authorities and stakeholders to the creation of standards for the delivery of parks and green spaces.
Keywords: public parks; accessibility; GIS; network analysis; buffer analysis.
Ant Forest - China's low-carbon consumption practices driven by a community currency mechanism
by Scott Y. Lin, Jiawei Zeng
Abstract: Ant Forest (mayi senlin, ) is a Chinese low-carbon consumption project initiated in the mid-2010s under China's personal carbon trading scheme. Based on its internal logic, this projects operation can be associated with a green movement within community currencies (CCs). This study investigates how Ant Forest (a type of CC mechanism) participates in, integrates, and even innovate the mechanism of environmental governance in China. From the CC perspective of a new economics centred on low carbon consumption, a multi-criteria qualitative evaluation tool with a set of indicators is adapted for the case analysis. The results show that the mechanism design of Ant Forest can develop a local circular economy, cultivate environmental awareness among citizens, build a low-carbon consumption community, create community interaction and pool social capital. The case of Ant Forest shows a bottom-up structure which enables public participation in China's environmental governance.
Keywords: Ant Forest; community currency; personal carbon trading; PCT; low-carbon consumption; Chinese environmental governance; Alibaba; China.
Qualitative and quantitative photochemical analysis of amla (Emblica officinalis) and henna (Lawsonia inermis)
by Mehjabeen Noor, Shehnaz Panhwar, Asif Ahmed Shaikh, Zameer Ali, Shehryar Brohi, Sujo Meghwar, Shafique Ur Rehman
Abstract: The present research work was undertaken with this aim to inspect the two medicinally important plants henna (Lawsonia inermis) of the family lythraceae and amla (Emblica officinalis) of family phyllanthaceae for their phytochemical analysis using ethanol and methanol reagents. The determinations under ethanol and methanol dilution of L. inermis for qualitative screening of tannins were positive, phlobatannins were positive, saponins were positive and in flavonids test results were also found positive. While the determinations under ethanol and methanol dilution of E. officinalis for qualitative screening of tannins test gave positive results, its phlobatannins gave positive results but less, saponins also gave positive results and flavonoids gave negative results. And then the determinations under ethanol and methanol dilution of L. inermis for quantitative screening of total carbohydrates were 6.547 and 6.276 ug/ml, reducing sugars 0.035 and 0.259 ug/ml, total proteins 0.245 and 0.420 ug/ml, phenolic compounds were 27.1191 and 35.2316 ug/ml, total flavonoids contents 0.154 and 0.261 ug/ml, tannins contents 0.664 and 1.292 ug/ml, and antioxidant activity were 2.411 and 3.218 ug/ml respectively.
Keywords: henna; amla; qualitative; quantitative; medicinal plants.
Diversity of freshwater fish and water quality parameters associated threats of commercially important freshwater species caught by bottom trawl and mid-water trawl from the various habitat
by Naveed Ahmed Abro, Zameer Ali Pahl, Shaharyar Brohi, Khalid Lashari, Mehjabeen Noor, Sujo Meghwar, Muneer Hussain, Sarfaraz Ahmed Channa
Abstract: The River Indus is one of the most extended water bodies in Pakistan. It is a source of drinking water, hydroelectric power generation, irrigation, agriculture and aquaculture. The present examination wanted to survey the rivers physicochemical parameters and biodiversity from June 2016 to May 2017. Total eight stations have been selected along the Indus River, and 08 water quality parameters, i.e., temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, power of hydrogen, transparency, alkalinity, hardness, and total dissolved solids, have been checked from all stations on the spot and bring water samples in a plastic bottle. Fish samples were also collected from all stations, preserved all the samples in 10% formalin, and further investigated in the Fresh Water Biology Laboratory at the University of Sindh Jamshoro. A total of 45 fish species have been identified throughout the study period.
Keywords: biodiversity; water quality parameters; Indus River.
Assessment of municipal solid waste management in the city of Dadu, Sindh, Pakistan
by Shaharyar Brohi, Saima Kalwar, Irfan Ahmed Memon, Rabia Gill, Tarique Ahmed Khuhro
Abstract: MSWM is a significant issue in developing countries worldwide. The research aims to determine the problems and total/per capita waste generations and address some of the research shortage regarding MSWM in the Dadu. A structured close-ended questionnaire survey has been used, whereas, interviews have been designed to ask officials regarding the MSWM. SPSS and ArcGIS software were use for the analysis of data. To evaluate the policies designed for MSWM and the study areas existing situation, the 'wasteaware' benchmark indicator framework technique is used. The results revealed that the MSW generation is 117 tons/d, which equals 0.62 kg/cap/day and illustrates the weak system. The inhabitants of Dadu MC generate 59% organic waste. It has been observed that all services of MSWM are provided by the public sector, with zero contribution from the informal sectors, and require improvements in management and physical infrastructure.
Keywords: wasteaware benchmark indicator; close-ended questionnaires; organic waste; Dadu City; ArcGIS; Pakistan.
Greenwash, show your true colours: how verbal and visual messages influence consumers' perception?
by Kenny Basso, Jandir Pauli, Priscila Cerutti, Marcia Perin, Vitor Francisco Dalla Corte, Leila Dal Moro
Abstract: There is a gap between information on green products or cleaner production presented by the companies using verbal and visual messages and the consumers perception. In this respect, the current research aims to verify how verbal and visual messages differently influence consumers perceptions of greenwash in an advertisement. A single factor experiment was designed. The results indicate that people exposed to the text format presented a lower elaboration (M = 3.75) than the subjects exposed to the image format (M = 4.91). The communication through an image created a more suspicious and negative word of mouth about the text format. In this way, an image may require a level of cognitive effort that can harm the greenwash perception.
Keywords: cleaner production; consumers; environment; greenwash; perceptions; sustainability.
Enhancing fairness in the Paris Agreement: lessons from the Montreal and Kyoto protocols and the path ahead
by Donia Mahabadi
Abstract: Broad participation and compliance are key elements of any successful international environmental agreement (IEA). Notwithstanding the participation of a significant number of countries in the Paris Agreement, the level of compliance remains challenging. This article investigates the potential role of fairness in enhancing compliance under the Paris Agreement. It draws lessons from the Montreal and Kyoto protocols that could assist the Paris Agreement in incentivising countries. The article discusses the operationalisation of the common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC) principle in different treaties. A formulaic approach to interpreting the CBDR-RC principle and the imposition of restrictions on non-compliant parties could be effective ways of promoting compliance with the Paris Agreement. Besides, market-based solutions are considered as economic approaches to incentivising countries to meet the climate target. The importance of market-based solutions is supported by the findings from a worldwide survey among international delegates negotiating the Paris Agreement.
Keywords: international environmental agreements; IEA; Paris Agreement; carbon market mechanisms; fairness; compliance; common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities; CBDR-RC.
A comprehensive economic impact assessment framework with some examples from the open cut and underground coal mining in India
by Galina Williams
Abstract: Economic impact assessment (EcIA) is an important part of a broader environmental impact assessment (EIA) process. However, EcIA has not been used to its full potential. This paper suggests a comprehensive framework of projects impact assessment which utilises two complementary techniques such as risk assessment (RA) and regional impact analysis (e.g., input output analysis) of alternative investments in an extended cost benefit analysis (CBA). Types of impacts that warrant an inclusion of RA in EcIA are discussed. The extension of regional impact analysis could assist in increasing positive impacts from proposed projects for local economies. Comprehensive EcIA could help to improve overall EcIA of projects especially those projects that might be potentially damaging for the environment and communities, although they would bring employment and income in the regions. Qualitative discussion using some examples from coal mining in India is provided.
Keywords: economic impact assessment; EcIA; regional economic impact analysis; risk assessment; cost benefit analysis; CBA; input output analysis; India; environmental impact assessment; EIA.
The relationship between adopting sustainability-oriented innovation practices and the business models of Brazilian industrial companies
by Jordana Marques Kneipp, Clandia Maffini Gomes, Felipe Cavalheiro Zaluski, Greice Eccel Pontelli, Rodrigo Reis Favarin
Abstract: This study aimed to analyse the relationship between adopting sustainability-oriented innovation practices and the business models of Brazilian industrial companies. A quantitative study was conducted using a 109-question survey with companies that benefited from the Lei do Bem (Law of Good), and quantitative data analysis was performed by structural equation modelling. The results indicated that sustainability-oriented organisational innovation, product innovation, and innovation practices positively influenced the companies business models. By addressing sustainable innovation in the context of the business model of industrial companies, this study contributes to reducing the negative socio-environmental impacts inherent to industrial activities and inserts sustainability through innovation into their business models.
Keywords: business models; sustainable innovation; innovation practices; industrial companies.
Fabrication of industrially feasible zeolite membrane for the removal of hexavalent chromium
by R. Vinoth Kumar, Ashim Kumar Basumatary, G. Pugazhenthi
Abstract: The present study proposed fabricating an industrially feasible zeolite membrane on an indigenously developed inexpensive tubular ceramic substrate. A type of zeolite framework, Faujasite, was deposited on the substrate using source materials, such as alumina and silica, by hydrothermal treatment. The membrane was characterised by XRD, FESEM, zeta potential, and contact angle analyses. Distinguishable physical and structural characteristics of the zeolite membrane from ceramic substrate substantiated a formation of the composite membrane. Further, the potentiality of the membrane was assessed on the removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic wastewater at various operating parameters in a crossflow system. The prepared membrane offered a maximum chromium removal of 82% with a flux of 5.05 x 10-5 m3m-2s-1 at the operating conditions of 1,000 ppm concentration, 345 kPa pressure, and 1.11 x 10-6 m3s-1 crossflow rate. The membrane revealed its essential employment by providing a higher flux with better rejection than other membranes applied in chromium removal.
Keywords: Faujasite; hydrothermal treatment; zeolite membrane; chromium removal; contact angle; tubular membrane; Indian clays; low-cost membrane; zeta potential; composite membrane.
The blue bioeconomy the creation of a healthy fish farming business ecosystem
by Tero Leppänen, Vesa Lind, Henna Longi, Harri Haapasalo, Pekka Tervonen
Abstract: Customers expectations for speed, reliability and convenience are growing relentlessly. Therefore, companies need to distance themselves from traditional supply chain thinking and instead consider value nets, value networks and business ecosystems composed of several companies and multiple interlinked value chains. In this study, the concept of business ecosystems and their applicability have been examined in the context of bioeconomy. The objective of this paper is to describe the creation process of a healthy bioeconomy business ecosystem which was analysed via a descriptive and participatory case study. The case bioeconomy business ecosystem was created based on value networks with a heavy emphasis placed on the principles of the circular economy. This study concludes that there are four key aspects to consider in the creation of bioeconomy business ecosystems: the significance of market pull, the importance of physical proximity, the higher relevance of strong relationships and avoiding compromises that weaken process efficiency.
Keywords: bioeconomy; business ecosystem; circular economy; ecosystem health; fish farming; industrial side stream; industrial symbiosis; value network.
Can renewable energy microfinance promote financial inclusion and empower the vulnerable?
by Andrea Gatto
Abstract: Energy microfinance is a promising asset for ensuring access to finance and electricity for the poor and women living in rural areas. Targeting vulnerable categories, renewable energy microfinance tools aim to promote sustainability and resilience policies to foster sustainable energy and ecological transitions. This research note explores the role of energy microfinance policies in facilitating virtuous loops for empowering the vulnerable, enhancing entrepreneurship, fighting poverty, and promoting social inclusion and environmental protection as prescribed by the sustainable development mandate. Examining the microfinance-renewable energy-vulnerable nexus, the paper proposes a conceptual contribution and fungible development policy recommendations, sketching the main drivers of this linkage. To this end, a critical review of existing publications and successful world experiences is proposed. The analysis finds out a relevant potential for energy microfinance, whereby renewable energy expansion can be a strong player in shaping fresh microfinance strategies and prospects, providing ecological, social, economic and governance benefits and new research, policy, and practical agenda.
Keywords: vulnerable; renewable energy; microfinance; energy policy; sustainable development; women empowerment; poverty alleviation; entrepreneurship boosting.
Is financial development good for ecological footprint? A Bayesian multilevel mixed-effects analysis in ASEAN countries
by Nguyen Tien Long, Bui Hoang Ngoc
Abstract: Improving per capita income and environmental protection are two crucial goals of macro-economic planning policies, especially in emerging countries. This study aims to investigate the impact of financial development on the ecological footprint in ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2016. The empirical results of the Bayesian multilevel mixed-effects analysis show that financial development has a moderately positive effect, whilst economic growth and urbanisation have a strongly positive effect on ecological footprint. These findings support the view of more money, more control to achieve sustainable development goals in ASEAN. Based on empirical results, the study suggests that the ASEAN countries should allocate financial resources to encourage the application of eco-friendly technologies, and improve environmental regulatory standards, including the introduction of environmental taxes, defining public property rights.
Keywords: financial development; ecological footprint; economic growth; Bayesian analysis; ASEAN.
Scenario-based evaluation of integrated urban water management framework: a decision making approach
by Satya Prakash Maurya, Anurag Ohri, Prabhat Kumar Singh, Ramesh Singh
Abstract: n general, urban water management has been viewed as an exercise of meeting the domestic and industrial water demands from surface water and ground water sources. Nevertheless water-based development planning requires realistic estimation of balance between supply and demand within the geographical boundary. Recently, water management system is facing challenges of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in urban water sector. In the present paper an attempt has been made to review the various frameworks and systems developed for evaluating sustainability of an integrated urban water management (IUWM). Further, a computer application-based conceptual framework has been developed as a decision support system for integrated urban water management (DSS_IUWM) taking urban water management of Varanasi City (UP, India) as a case study. With the combination of available alternate water supply in the city, a scenario-based urban water balance has been evaluated. The study indicates that urban water balance (UWB) of Varanasi City is under unsustainable water condition with a negative value of 97 MCM. The study finally reports that a water sustainable condition in Varanasi City may be achieved through augmentation of storm water (55.4 MCM) management or reduction in fresh water demand through reuse of reclaimed water (36.5 MCM).
Keywords: integrated urban water management; IUWM; reclaimed water; sustainability; urban water balance; UWB; water for development planning; WDP.
Editorial Mura-Drava-Danube biosphere reserve: a long way from the original idea to the designation of the world's first 5-country biosphere reserve
by Günter Köck, Gerhard Schwach, Arno Mohl
Abstract: The UNESCO '5-country biosphere reserve Mura-Drava-Danube (TBR MDD)', recognised by UNESCO in September 2021, connects Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia with their individual biosphere reserves (BRs) and 13 major protected areas along the three rivers Mura, Drava and Danube. It is with a length of 700 km and a size of 930,000 hectares Europe's largest coherent river protected area. This article describes the history of the development of the TBR MDD, also known as 'Amazon of Europe', from the first idea in the early 1990s to the designation of the world's first transboundary BR consisting of five countries in 2021. In addition, the authors identified and discussed some factors which they believe have had a decisive influence on the emergence of TBR MDD.
Keywords: Mura-Drava-Danube biosphere reserve; UNESCO; transboundary biosphere reserves; 5-country biosphere reserve; history; river system.
Economic determinants of deforestation in developing countries
by Collins Ayoo
Abstract: Forests are an important natural resource that provides to society several valuable goods and services that include timber, fuel, food, chemicals, medicines, climate regulation, and soil protection. Forests in several developing countries are however being destroyed at a rapid rate with adverse impacts such as increased soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases that cause climate change. The causes of deforestation are complex and diverse and depend on the socio-economic, political, cultural, legal and institutional contexts of the countries in which the affected forests are located. This paper examines the deforestation trends in developing countries and discusses the key drivers of deforestation in these countries. The paper also identifies and discusses some approaches that can be used to reduce deforestation. The insights provided by the paper can be practically applied to formulate policies, strategies and action plans for improving forest management and enhancing both their economic contribution and role in sustainable development.
Keywords: forests; deforestation; sustainable development; biodiversity; poverty.
An integrated model of sustainable consumption promotion based on the tripod of the democratic-participatory ideal – civil society, government, and market
by Verônica Macário De Oliveira, Carla Regina Pasa Gómez, Adriana Fumi Chim-Miki, Suzanne Érica Nóbrega Correia
Abstract: The promotion of sustainable consumption in developing countries in a systematic perspective is still an unexplored topic in the literature. This paper identifies the central role of stakeholders in promoting sustainable consumption. From a first literature review, an initial set of parts in promoting sustainable consumption was extracted – subsequently, qualitative research using the policy Delphi method. Based on a panel of experts' perceptions, an integrated model of the roles of promoting sustainable consumption was validated. The panel consisted of 40 experts in the field distributed into four groups: scholars, government, firms, and civil society. The results suggested that sustainable consumption issues include both consumption and production, imposing the necessity of action and articulation among distinct groups to obtain necessary changes. However, there is a concentration on the meso-level and government to promote sustainable consumption in developing countries.
Keywords: sustainable consumption; tripod of the democratic-participatory ideal; policy Delphi; developing countries.
Real-time water quality monitoring for distribution networks in IoT environment
by Punit Khatri, Karunesh Kumar Gupta, Raj Kumar Gupta
Abstract: Water quality has always been a significant concern worldwide as a large portion of accessible water is either contaminated or polluted, which can spread serious diseases like dysentery, diarrhoea and cholera. Before consumption, the water quality should be tested to reduce the risk of infection. In real-time applications, the traditional approach for water quality monitoring is not appropriate, as on-site water sample collection is often a cost-intensive and time-consuming process. This paper introduces a real-time assessment of water quality parameters in distribution systems employing Raspberry Pi and Arduino development boards. The parameters were chosen based on the different categories identified by the Central Pollution and Control Board, Government of India. An Arduino development board was used at the sensing node for water quality sensor interfacing, data acquisition, and transmission to the wireless sensor network via Zigbee. Raspberry Pi was used at the server to collect data and upload data on the cloud platform. The 'Thingspeak' cloud platform was used for IoT implementation. The results were validated with the reference instrument.
Keywords: water quality; traditional approach; water quality sensors; Raspberry Pi; Arduino; Thingspeak; Zigbee module.
Special Issue on: ICMES-2018 Advances in Environmental and Biotechnological Sciences in a Sustainable Development Context
Bio-chemical changes in sugarcane pressmud combination and its assessment on chickpea and spinach variety
by Amol Chougule, P.R. Bhosale, Shekhar Mali, P.D. Raut
Abstract: The study was carried out to understand the influence of pressmud enriched with isolated microflora of pressmud on laboratory scale pot experiments with chickpea, Cicer arietinum and spinach, Spinacia oleracea and recorded physico-chemical characters of soil and the phyto-chemical characters of chickpea and spinach. Initially, physico-chemical characters of pressmud (PM), composted pressmud (CPM) and enriched composted pressmud (ECPM) were studied for pH, moisture content, water holding capacity, total organic carbon, organic matter, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. Experiments were conducted with combinations of soil without pressmud (T0), soil with CPM (T1) and soil with ECPM (T2). T2 shows maximum, i.e., 2.01%, 1.03% and 0.29% of NPK. T2 observed promising growth for chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, proline, protein, indole acetic acid, total amino acids and flavonoids. It also resulted in maximum chlorophyll content 12.43 mg/100 gms, and 112.94 mg/100 gms, ascorbic acid 1,235 mg/100 gms and 1,332 mg/100 gms, flavonoids is 0.38 mg/100 gms and 0.35 mg/100 gms and amino acids 1.80 mg/100 gms and 0.58 mg/100 gms for chickpea and spinach respectively. The experiments suggest that the combination of soil with ECPM gives good results and can be practiced in the fields.
Keywords: pressmud; enriched pressmud; compost; chickpea; spinach.
Special Issue on: BEST2019 Advances in Waste Management and Treatment Technologies
Experimental investigation on cooling cogeneration plant for low temperature waste heat recovery process
by R. Shankar, Tangellapalli Srinivas, Wilfrido Rivera Gomez Franco
Abstract: The integration of absorption refrigeration cycle (VAR) and Kalina power system at suitable conditions minimises the components and input energy which is also useful for heat recovery process. Three pressure viz condensing pressure, source and sink pressure are maintained NH3-H2O mixture is used as operating fluid, in that 25% is ammonia and 75% weight capacity is water. The vapour ammonia produced in the separator runs the turbine after heated up in the superheater and operated between the boiler pressure and condenser pressure. The ammonia liquid is further throttled from condenser pressure to absorber pressure to achieve the cooling effect. The turbine power output of 3.15 kW and 9.0 kW of cooling are obtained experimentally for the supplied temperature of 129°C from the boiler. Maximum energy utilisation factor (EUF) of 0.21 is obtained and it is further increased by rising ammonia concentration at the inlet of boiler and boiler temperature.
Keywords: VAR; aqua-ammonia; cogeneration; heat recovery; combined power and cooling; Kalina cycle.
Feasibility analysis of admitting gasified waste vegetable oil and non-edible oil blends with diesel in CI engine
by C. Sanjay Kumar, M. Karthikeyan, D. Premkumar, Supochang Walling, V. Kirubakaran
Abstract: The disposal of used waste vegetable oil is a significant concern from the pollution point of view. Several studies have already been made to produce biodiesel/blending with diesel in CI engines. However, the cost benefit analysis makes this process non-viable. Also, several works of literature are available in the admitting of non-edible oil blends in CI engines. This paper analyses the admitting the gasified waste vegetable oil (WVO) with non-edible oil (NEO) in CI engine. The mixture of WVO and NEO has been auto-gasified before admitting them in CI engine. Auto gasification is converting the solid combustible waste into the gaseous product with bio-oxygen and catalytic ash. This way, the temperature of the gasification process is reduced and makes direct admission is feasible. From the various trails, it has been found that the optimised performance ratio for the WVO and NEO mixture is 50:50. The cost-benefit analysis of bio diesel production and usage in CI engine has been analysed and reported in this paper. The EIA of WVO disposal has also been carefully analysed and reported.
Keywords: waste vegetable oil; WVO; non-edible oil; NEO; CI engine.
Special Issue on: Sustainable Development and Economic Growth in Developing Countries
Analysis of regional sustainability status of the healthy Batik Village from social, economic, and ecological perspectives
by Ikeu Tanziha, Sri Awalia Febriana, Katharina Oginawati, Yessi Crosita Octaria, Risti Rosmiati
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the regional sustainability of the healthy Batik Village from social, economic, and ecological perspectives. It was conducted in July 2019 in Kulon Progo, Special Region of Yogyakarta. Furthermore, the survey data were analysed using the RAPFISH ordination technique through the multidimensional scaling (MDS) method. The index and regional sustainability status of the healthy Batik Village were accessed using these methods. It also identified sensitive attributes affecting the sustainability index of social, economic, and ecological dimensions through the leverage analysis. The analysis results showed that the ecological dimension had the lowest index value (23.9) or in the poor category. The social and economic dimensions showed sufficient status with indices of 62.92 and 61.13, respectively. The policy implications for improving the sustainability status from sufficient to good need to manage the sensitive attributes of these three dimensions.
Keywords: regional sustainability; multidimensional scaling; MDS; healthy batik.
Green banking: a strategy for attainment of UN-Sustainable Development Goals 2030
by Syed Asim Ali Bukhari, Fathyah Hashim, Azlan Amran
Abstract: All over the world, countries are facing severe climate change and environmental degradation. Green banking has been developed and adopted as a banking ideology to reduce the adverse environmental impact of various polluting industries. The purpose of this study is to develop a multidimensional framework for green banking adoption which is in line with the United Nations-Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs) 2030. Green banking can play an important part in the attainment of the UN-SDGs 2030. This study demonstrates the dimensions of green banking adoption that can be
adopted by banks in order to facilitate the environmental sustainability of the
country. The study proposes the framework for green banking adoption based on the natural resource-based view (NRBV) of the firm. The first-order constructs in the framework have been derived from the green capabilities proposed in NRBV of the firm. These reflective constructs lead towards the second-order construct of green banking adoption. The proposed framework is developed and justified on a theoretical basis and through secondary data.
Keywords: green banking adoption; UN-SDGs 2030; green building; green audit; green financing; green capabilities; natural resource-based view; NRBV.