International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (19 papers in press)
Management of climate change risks in Indian organisations: A proposed framework
by Aditee Potdar, Seema Unnikrishnan
Abstract: This study focuses on determining how climate change risks affect Indian organisations. A framework consisting of four steps (monitoring, analysis, evaluation, and implementation) is proposed to guide organisations to address the climate change challenge. Climate change risks, drivers, and mitigation actions were evaluated by designing a questionnaire and overseeing it to 257 manufacturing organisations. The findings from this study suggest that energy and its price may influence a major impact of climate change challenge. The respondents view on competitive risk is found as the most critical climate change threat. Top management commitment is viewed as a key driver to propose a likely framework. The mitigation action that most organisations have undertaken is energy efficiency. Further, multiple regression analysis shows a significant relationship between climate change risks and drivers, and climate change risks and mitigation activities. The outcomes from this study will be useful for organisations to determine the potential risks and ascertain further actions to mitigate them for India and elsewhere.
Keywords: climate change risk; climate change impacts; drivers for climate change mitigation; mitigation actions; business organisations.
Impacts of Health and Economic Costs on Street Children Working as Waste Collectors in Dhaka City
by Md. Mahmudul Alam, Mohammad Saeed Hossain, Nurul Islam, Md Wahid Murad, Niaz Ahmed Khan
Abstract: In the developing world, many children are working in risky, unhealthy and hazardous environments, which impact significantly on their lives and at great economic cost to them. To understand what is happening in Bangladesh, this research investigates the health impacts and access to health services by children who work in the street waste collection industry in Dhaka, the capital city. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. Qualitative data were collected through expert interviews and personal observations, while quantitative data were gathered through a face-to-face questionnaire survey given to 50 street children who collected waste at the landfill site located in Dhaka citys Matuail area. The results indicate that 94% of these children have suffered from many health problems, such as fever and fatigue due to tiredness, dizziness, and vomiting. Consequently, a significant portion of their daily income is spent on medical treatment. This study suggests that the waste collection system must integrate modern technological, health and environmental resources so that: firstly, they do not harm waste collectors; and secondly, rehabilitate the street children and give them better access to acceptable basic amenities. This is a priority the city authorities.
Keywords: Street Children; Landfill; Waste collection; Waste management; Health services; Health cost; Dhaka City.
The role of energy efficiency in the management of water resources of the Syr Darya river basin
by Eunice Ramos, Annukka Lipponen, Mark Howells, Constantinos Taliotis
Abstract: A motivation for integrated resource assessments is that they can capture indirect effects. Policies in one sector are often developed with limited consideration of their indirect impact on other sectors. This work focuses on the analysis of the implications of electricity efficiency measures on other sectors. The spatial scope includes the four states that share the Syr Darya River basin.
Different interests dictate the management of water resources in the basin. Water resources are the backbone of electricity generation upstream. They are necessary for irrigation downstream. These two uses require water at different times of the year. Upstream nations produce hydroelectricity in winter. They empty reservoirs, leaving little water left during spring and summer. Yet in spring and summer, water is needed for irrigating agriculture. The study investigated options to decrease the need for electricity upstream. Thereby reducing hydro generation requirements and, in turn, reducing winter water requirements. Electricity needs were assumed to be reduced in a scenario that increased the efficiency of energy use. Further, the expansion of regional electricity trade in the period of 2015 - 2030 was also considered as an option to reduce the need to use hydropower in winter. The scenarios were simulated by developing and using a multi-country electricity system model. The model was generated using the Open Source energy Modelling System (OSeMOSYS). The results show that with aggressive energy efficiency measures, less hydro capacity is needed and less water required in winter. The water is stored and available for summer use at no extra cost to the upstream country.
Keywords: transboundary river basin cooperation; energy efficiency; energy systems modelling; water resources management.
Examining the Motivational Factors of Green IT Intention in Malaysia
by Hartini Abdul Jalil, Wan Edura Wan Rashid, Erne Suzila Kassim
Abstract: This study aims to examine the influence of eco-motivational factors measured by eco-efficiency, eco-effectiveness, eco-process and eco-brand on the intention to adopt Green IT. To have a better outcome on the Green IT, a quantitative analysis was performed. The results suggest that all relationships between eco-efficiency, eco-effectiveness, eco-process and eco-brand explored (e.g. predictors) were supported except for eco-process. In comparing the strength of the predictors, eco-brand plays the most vital role, followed by eco-effectiveness and eco-efficiency. Henceforth, all study predictors recognised as the champion in Green IT matters. By using the study outcomes, a Green IT adoption framework could be established for safeguarding the environment from unnecessary e-waste. The study contributes to the environmental literature in an area that has become a fundamental issue and yet lacking in the particular research outcome. The findings of this study will be useful for the policymaker to oversee the interaction between economic drive, Green IT and sustainable environment.
Keywords: Green IT intention; Green IT motivation; eco-efficiency; eco-effectiveness; eco-process and eco-brand.
UTILIZATION OF OIL-BASED WASTE FOR BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION
by Tejas Suryawanshi, Rutuja Yelmar, Shiney Peter, Conceetha Sequeira, Sharline Johnson, Gunjan Dutt, Berin Babu, Pency Martina
Abstract: Chemical surfactants produced in large amounts globally have severe adverse effects on environment and human health due to their non-degradable and toxic nature. Eco-friendly biosurfactants with high stability, biodegradability, and low toxicity are the need of the hour. However, biosurfactants are less preferred due to high substrate cost and cumbersome extraction process. This study focused on repurposing of lipid-rich waste like coconut oil cake, rice husk and used cooking oil as a substrate for bacterial biosurfactant production. P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis were evaluated for production and P. aeruginosa was found to be an efficient biosurfactant producer. Among the substrates, coconut oil cake gave maximum yield of 19 mg/ml. The study also focussed on optimization of biosurfactant extraction using organic solvents and precipitation methods. The yield obtained was maximum using chloroform and methanol (2:1) extraction method. The product obtained was characterized using standard methods and confirmed for its properties. It also exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against gram-positive species.
Keywords: Biosurfactants; Coconut oil cake; Organic solvent method; P. aeruginosa; Antimicrobial activity.
Special Issue on: Recent Developments in Environmental Sustainability
Population ageing and energy consumption for sustainable development
by Nur A'mirah Mohd Yaziz, A.A. Azlina
Abstract: Population ageing has been acknowledged as a cause of the alteration in residential energy consumption pattern, which partly arises from the exit of the workforce from the labour market due to the retirement age limit, promoting a sedentary lifestyle. However, there is a lack of research exploring the shift in energy demand that specifically scrutinises the effect of population ageing on the consumption structure. In this context, the paper aims to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption and demographic indicators specific to labour force participation. This study uses a literature survey of household consumption structure, ageing labour force participation, and energy consumption factors, while the econometric approach is proposed to estimate the determinants. Based on the findings, this study supports the inclusion of the employment rate in expressing residential electricity consumption in the population ageing scenario. This paper ends with the development of a proposed model for future research work due to the economics of population ageing in energy.
Keywords: older people; household consumption; labour force participation; energy consumption factors; sustainability.
Staircase evacuation for public multi-storey housing in Malaysia
by Nurul Liyana Hanapi, Sabarinah Sh Ahmad, Norhati Ibrahim, Azli Abd Razak
Abstract: There has been some concern about the evacuation safety aspects in public multi-storey housing in Malaysia. This paper aims to study the effects of increased occupancy towards evacuation duration in public multi-storey housing in Malaysia, to gain a better understanding of evacuation safety. The research methodology is through a simulation study. This paper focuses on the staircase availability and location, in relation to the increasing number of evacuees. The data analysed include the duration taken by occupants to reach safety and their movement patterns during evacuation through a simulation study. A 17-storey residential building is modelled and the effects of staircases with varied availability and locations on the evacuees are tested. Results show that higher number of occupancies and non-availability of the staircase could prolong the evacuation. Moreover, the location of staircases does not influence the evacuation time but contributes significant changes to the movement of the evacuees.
Keywords: staircase; escape route; evacuation; emergency; multi-storey housing; residential building; evacuation duration; evacuee movement; pathfinder; simulation; Malaysia.
Are environmentally responsible behaviours shaped by environmental facilitating conditions and antecedent of attitudes? The case of Perak in Malaysia
by Ai Na Seow, Yuen Onn Choong, Lin Sea Lau, Chee Keong Choong, Chun T'ing Loh, You How Go, Suet Ling Ching, Yii Kwang Jing
Abstract: This research attempts to present the notion of understanding through the empirical studies on environmentally responsible behaviour for strategies development with an emphasis on the role of facilitating conditions. A total of 263 usable questionnaire responses were collected for data analysis. The major findings show that environmental concern and environmental knowledge are important for environmental attitude in order to cultivate the environmentally responsible behaviour among tourists. Conversely, environmental facilitating conditions are directly related to environmentally responsible behaviour instead of having the moderating effect on environmental attitude. This study contributed in reassuring the tourists' participation in the environmentally responsible behaviour with commitment in environmental concerns and interest in knowledge towards environmental and sustainability issues while visiting natural sites.
Keywords: environmentally responsible behaviour; environmental attitudes; environmental concern; facilitating conditions; ecotourism.
Applying low carbon landscapes at the Premier Polytechnic of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah, Shah Alam, Malaysia
by Alamah Misni, Nur Munira Razmi, Puziah Ahmad, Siti Mazwin Kamaruddin, Abdul Rauf Abdul Rasam, Rohaniah Mohd Nor
Abstract: Campus physical development plan is an efficient tool in shaping campus life to promote a sustainable living community, especially for students. The purpose of this study is to enhance the quality of campus outdoor environment by applying low carbon to green landscapes and sustainable development. Premier Polytechnic of Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah (PSA) was selected as a proposed model for the government's planning to turn the polytechnic into a green campus. Applying and practising green and low carbon development in the PSA campus areas has reached a total reduction of 12.51% carbon sequestration via tree planting. This finding will help to produce a physical model of outdoor planning and design in generating low carbon campuses in Malaysian polytechnics.
Keywords: carbon sequestration; physical model; outdoor environment; green campus; Malaysia.
A comparative requirement of space design: green and open space analysis
by Puziah Ahmad, Muhammad Shariffullah Hashim, Alamah Misni, Siti Mazwin Kamaruddin
Abstract: Planning guideline is a document that governs the design process of our physical environment. It is important in ensuring urban spatial development to oversee whether that is healthy, safe, attractive, and economically viable. This study focused on studying a few sets of planning guidelines, namely for Selangor, Melaka, and Johor States in Malaysia. To have a good outcome, this study compared and analysed the open and green space requirements on the six elements for land use development. An assessment of the guidelines was done using several variables, such as: 1) the amount of open and green space required; 2) vegetation characteristic; 3) green space distribution; 4) configuration. The study findings by the content analysis and ordinal scale assessment suggested that the existing planning guidelines have not been specific on the provision and design aspect for the open and green space. This study suggests some feasible motivations in planning for the enriched Open Green Space Guidelines.
Keywords: planning guidelines; spatial development; green requirement; space distribution; content analysis.
Factors influencing the adoption of sustainability into university facilities management practices: a case study of universities in South Australia
by Mohamad Sufian Hasim, Mohd Khairul Anuar Jalil, Lilis Shereena Safiee, Ellemy Iskandar Khalid, Kwong Qi Jie
Abstract: Facilities management (FM) has been recognised as one of the most important entities in supporting the goal of sustainability within organisations. Sustainability in FM practices is benefiting an organisation in achieving sustainable environmental, economic, and social improvement. Organisational performance towards sustainability has a significant relationship with the drivers, whether from internal or external sources. This study aimed to determine the factors within FM practices that could enhance sustainability practices in university organisations. To achieve the above aim, ten face-to-face semi-structured interviews at all three South Australian universities were administered to gather in-depth information involving heads of department and those at senior managerial level in the university's FM department. The analysis has established ten themes, and the most frequent factors in South Australian universities were pressures from stakeholders (28%) (i.e., from students and staff, or governments), economic benefit (26.5%) (i.e., business opportunity and cost reduction), commitment by top management (18%) (i.e., executive level, embedded in university strategic goal), and collaborations with other parties (7.5%) (i.e., local government, state government or private companies). The information gathered will help other organisations as prospects of lessons learned especially for universities in other countries.
Keywords: facilities management; sustainability practices; South Australia; sustainable universities; sustainability adoption; sustainable development.
Occupants' satisfaction towards interior design quality at inpatient units of public hospitals in Malaysia: a sustainable development framework
by Shariffah Syafiqah Aljunid, Mohd Zafrullah Mohd Taib, Zanariah Abu Samah
Abstract: Hospital building is one of the most complex architectures in types and designs for maintaining various regulations, technical requirements and physical environment. It is quite obvious that the physical environment plays an important role in occupants' well-being especially in hospital settings. This study aims to measure the level of satisfaction among users for the public hospitals' interior design quality at inpatient units in the Klang Valley region, Malaysia. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed for exploring the occupants' satisfaction. Respondents were found least satisfied with the space planning (mean score = 3.10, sd = 0.84) and furniture (mean score = 3.01, sd = 0.77) from the preliminary analyses. However, safety features (mean score = 3.57, sd = 0.83) were found the most contented aspect for the occupants' satisfaction. Although the respondents seemed to be fairly satisfied with the aspect of privacy (mean score = 3.38, sd = 0.93); however, the qualitative exploration verified differently. This study disclosed the users' level of satisfaction based on the quality of the interior design that will provide useful input for healthcare planners to design better hospitals' environment.
Keywords: interior design; quality design; inpatient unit; public hospital; Malaysia.
Special Issue on: ICEBSS 2017 Climate Change, Conflicts and Food Security in Developing Economies
The impact of spatial development on water pollution: a comparative assessment of river water quality in two municipalities in Malaysia
by Hamidi Ismail, Tuan Pah Rokiah Syed Hussain, Muhammad Subhan
Abstract: This study is aimed at understanding different level of pollution of the river water in two municipalities in Malaysia as a result of spatial development activities. Both municipalities represent the central and southern zones of Peninsular Malaysia which are prone to river water quality problems due to logging, land clearing and livestock farming. Frequency and trend analysis are applied to the data obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) and measurement of the water quality in the field is conducted in both areas. The results show that the rivers in both municipalities are experiencing deterioration of water quality. The decline in the river water quality is closely related to human activities and the ineffective environmental management system by the government. The apparent environmental problems indicate that the present management system should be improved to create an urban ecosystem which is really capable of addressing the issues of river water pollution.
Keywords: spatial development; river management; urban management; water pollution; water quality; sustainable development; Malaysia.
Special Issue on: 5th Conference in Economics of Natural Resources and Economics Recent Developments on the Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus
Measurement of green industrial performance: an enhanced GIP index
by Jaime Moll De Alba, Valentin Todorov
Abstract: The green industrial performance (GIP) index provides a tool to analyse and compare the performance of economies in terms of green manufacturing. The demands for and expectations for sustainable development seem not matched with the existence of an analytical framework to measure how green the industrial sector of a given economy is. In this article, we introduce significant methodological improvements to the GIP index. In previous research, we developed and tested a set of indicators covering the various facets of the green industrial performance of economies. We also introduced a composite index to rank economies according to their green industrial performance. In this article, we address some limitations of the index. To improve the non-satisfactory data coverage, we investigate alternative imputation methods. We also refine our list of 'green' products; and test new outlier detection methods.
Keywords: inclusive and sustainable development; composite index; green industry.
Alternative forms of sustainable development: the case of thermal tourism
by Georgakopoulou Stavroula, Delitheou Vasiliki
Abstract: Thermal tourism is a special form of providing tourist services at special facilities that use recognised thermal natural resources. Thermal tourism blooms in Europe with pioneer country Germany. There are 1,400 developed bathing sites in Europe, visited by millions of patients from all over the world. This industry employs about 750,000 people and has an annual turnover of approximately 45 billion euros. In Greece, thermal tourism is an important part of the country's cultural heritage and not only because Greece is one of the richest countries in natural sources with excellent quality water. Despite the fact that Greece is the first country in Europe in the quality and uniqueness of natural thermal resources, its thermal tourism is declining. Furthermore, in this article, efforts will be made to identify the causes that contribute to the reduction of thermal tourism, as well as to draw some conclusions with a view to improving and sustaining the thermal tourism.
Keywords: alternative tourism; thermal tourism; sustainable development.
Special Issue on: SUSCOM-2019 Sustainable Computing for Environmental Systems
Sustainability of textile waste-water management by using an integrated fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS method: A case study
by PUNYASLOKA PATTNAIK, Govind Sharan Dangayach
Abstract: The textile industry is quickly growing worldwide and has a universally beneficial effect on the economy. The waste-water generated with the growth of the textile industry can cause considerable health and environmental issues if it is not treated properly. Generally, physical, biological, and chemical processes are used independently or in combination to treat textile waste-water. The efficiency of any treatment process depends on the working criteria. In this paper, we implemented a new hybrid methodology based on the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS) to help workers in textile industries select the optimal waste-water treatment process. To illustrate how this hybrid methodology can be used to address the waste-water treatment problem, we conducted a case study involving 11 assessment criteria and four treatment process used in the textile industry in India. Comparative analysis indicated that the survey overall mean was slightly lower than the overall mean for selected companies in the treatment process.
Keywords: Textile industry; waste-water treatment; FAHP; FTOPSIS; case study.
Special Issue on: AIC 2018 Innovations in Sustainable Development Approaches
The influence of environmental management accounting practices on environmental performance in small-medium manufacturing in Malaysia
by Rapiah Mohamed, Che Zuriana Muhammad Jamil
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of environmental management accounting (EMA) practices on environmental performance in the small-medium sized (SME) manufacturing sector. The empirical data was collected through structured questionnaires that were distributed to the managers. The study results reveal that physical EMA has the highest mean score compared to monetary EMA, however, unfortunately the EMA practice is not at an encouraging level in Malaysia. The regression results indicate that both types of EMA practices (monetary and physical) have a positive and significant effect on environmental performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of EMA in enhancing environmental performance. The study results are valuable to policy makers, managers of manufacturing SMEs and other sectors to appreciate EMA practices. The study findings contribute to a growing body of literature on EMA within the Asian context, particularly, Malaysia. Finally, this study shed lights on the extent to which EMA tools has been used amongst manufacturing SMEs and provides a good foundation and framework for future studies.
Keywords: environmental management accounting; EMA; environmental performance; small-medium manufacturing; Malaysia.
Islamic bankers' green behaviour for the growth of green banking in Malaysia
by Qaisar Ali, Shazia Parveen, Aslan Amat Senin, Muhammad Zaki Zaini
Abstract: Rising concerns for environmental sustainability (ES) demand that Islamic finance converts its business model to ethical finance. The conversion of a business model is unattainable without employees' positive attitudes and willingness to adopt the green banking approach. This study aims to promote ES implications for Islamic bankers and encourage Islamic banks to adopt a similar approach. The main objective is to explore green behaviours among Islamic bankers and the influence of these behaviours on green banking growth in Malaysia. Data were collected from 55 Islamic bankers using a survey questionnaire. The findings show that Islamic bankers' inclusive green behaviour significantly influences green banking growth. All five types of green behaviours (e.g., conservation, work sustainability, avoiding harm, influencing others and taking initiative) have a significant positive impact on green banking growth. Regulators and policymakers may adopt these findings to develop green banking regulations in Malaysia and other locations with similar economic settings.
Keywords: Islamic bankers; green behaviour; green banking; Malaysia; growth.
Do green human resource management practices contribute to sustainable performance in manufacturing industry?
by Noor Ullah Khan, Mansoor Nazir Bhatti, Asfia Obaid, Abdul Sami, Abrar Ullah
Abstract: Sustainable performance is a key area of concern for Malaysian manufacturing firms in addressing environmental issues. The goal of this study is to examine the direct relationship between green human resource practices such as green selection and recruitment, green training and development, green assessment and sustainable performance. A quantitative research design is employed using survey primary data. Primary data collected from 248 ISO-14001 certified Malaysian manufacturing firms and analysed by SEM technique using statistical tools. Research findings confirmed a significant direct positive relationship between green human resource practices and sustainable performance within the selected firms. This study adhered recommendations and directions for future research with inherent limitations. The findings from this study will be useful for Malaysian ISO-14001 certified firms and elsewhere with a similar economy.
Keywords: green human resource practices; green selection; green training; green rewards; sustainable performance; triple bottom line; TBL.