Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development

International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD)

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International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (23 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Management of climate change risks in Indian organisations: A proposed framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditee Potdar, Seema Unnikrishnan 
    Abstract: This study focuses on determining how climate change risks affect Indian organisations. A framework consisting of four steps (monitoring, analysis, evaluation, and implementation) is proposed to guide organisations to address the climate change challenge. Climate change risks, drivers, and mitigation actions were evaluated by designing a questionnaire and overseeing it to 257 manufacturing organisations. The findings from this study suggest that energy and its price may influence a major impact of climate change challenge. The respondents view on competitive risk is found as the most critical climate change threat. Top management commitment is viewed as a key driver to propose a likely framework. The mitigation action that most organisations have undertaken is energy efficiency. Further, multiple regression analysis shows a significant relationship between climate change risks and drivers, and climate change risks and mitigation activities. The outcomes from this study will be useful for organisations to determine the potential risks and ascertain further actions to mitigate them for India and elsewhere.
    Keywords: climate change risk; climate change impacts; drivers for climate change mitigation; mitigation actions; business organisations.

  • Impacts of Health and Economic Costs on Street Children Working as Waste Collectors in Dhaka City   Order a copy of this article
    by Md. Mahmudul Alam, Mohammad Saeed Hossain, Nurul Islam, Md Wahid Murad, Niaz Ahmed Khan 
    Abstract: In the developing world, many children are working in risky, unhealthy and hazardous environments, which impact significantly on their lives and at great economic cost to them. To understand what is happening in Bangladesh, this research investigates the health impacts and access to health services by children who work in the street waste collection industry in Dhaka, the capital city. This study uses both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques. Qualitative data were collected through expert interviews and personal observations, while quantitative data were gathered through a face-to-face questionnaire survey given to 50 street children who collected waste at the landfill site located in Dhaka citys Matuail area. The results indicate that 94% of these children have suffered from many health problems, such as fever and fatigue due to tiredness, dizziness, and vomiting. Consequently, a significant portion of their daily income is spent on medical treatment. This study suggests that the waste collection system must integrate modern technological, health and environmental resources so that: firstly, they do not harm waste collectors; and secondly, rehabilitate the street children and give them better access to acceptable basic amenities. This is a priority the city authorities.
    Keywords: Street Children; Landfill; Waste collection; Waste management; Health services; Health cost; Dhaka City.

  • The role of energy efficiency in the management of water resources of the Syr Darya river basin   Order a copy of this article
    by Eunice Ramos, Annukka Lipponen, Mark Howells, Constantinos Taliotis 
    Abstract: A motivation for integrated resource assessments is that they can capture indirect effects. Policies in one sector are often developed with limited consideration of their indirect impact on other sectors. This work focuses on the analysis of the implications of electricity efficiency measures on other sectors. The spatial scope includes the four states that share the Syr Darya River basin. Different interests dictate the management of water resources in the basin. Water resources are the backbone of electricity generation upstream. They are necessary for irrigation downstream. These two uses require water at different times of the year. Upstream nations produce hydroelectricity in winter. They empty reservoirs, leaving little water left during spring and summer. Yet in spring and summer, water is needed for irrigating agriculture. The study investigated options to decrease the need for electricity upstream. Thereby reducing hydro generation requirements and, in turn, reducing winter water requirements. Electricity needs were assumed to be reduced in a scenario that increased the efficiency of energy use. Further, the expansion of regional electricity trade in the period of 2015 - 2030 was also considered as an option to reduce the need to use hydropower in winter. The scenarios were simulated by developing and using a multi-country electricity system model. The model was generated using the Open Source energy Modelling System (OSeMOSYS). The results show that with aggressive energy efficiency measures, less hydro capacity is needed and less water required in winter. The water is stored and available for summer use at no extra cost to the upstream country.
    Keywords: transboundary river basin cooperation; energy efficiency; energy systems modelling; water resources management.

  • Examining the Motivational Factors of Green IT Intention in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Hartini Abdul Jalil, Wan Edura Wan Rashid, Erne Suzila Kassim 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the influence of eco-motivational factors measured by eco-efficiency, eco-effectiveness, eco-process and eco-brand on the intention to adopt Green IT. To have a better outcome on the Green IT, a quantitative analysis was performed. The results suggest that all relationships between eco-efficiency, eco-effectiveness, eco-process and eco-brand explored (e.g. predictors) were supported except for eco-process. In comparing the strength of the predictors, eco-brand plays the most vital role, followed by eco-effectiveness and eco-efficiency. Henceforth, all study predictors recognised as the champion in Green IT matters. By using the study outcomes, a Green IT adoption framework could be established for safeguarding the environment from unnecessary e-waste. The study contributes to the environmental literature in an area that has become a fundamental issue and yet lacking in the particular research outcome. The findings of this study will be useful for the policymaker to oversee the interaction between economic drive, Green IT and sustainable environment.
    Keywords: Green IT intention; Green IT motivation; eco-efficiency; eco-effectiveness; eco-process and eco-brand.

  • UTILIZATION OF OIL-BASED WASTE FOR BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION   Order a copy of this article
    by Tejas Suryawanshi, Rutuja Yelmar, Shiney Peter, Conceetha Sequeira, Sharline Johnson, Gunjan Dutt, Berin Babu, Pency Martina 
    Abstract: Chemical surfactants produced in large amounts globally have severe adverse effects on environment and human health due to their non-degradable and toxic nature. Eco-friendly biosurfactants with high stability, biodegradability, and low toxicity are the need of the hour. However, biosurfactants are less preferred due to high substrate cost and cumbersome extraction process. This study focused on repurposing of lipid-rich waste like coconut oil cake, rice husk and used cooking oil as a substrate for bacterial biosurfactant production. P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis were evaluated for production and P. aeruginosa was found to be an efficient biosurfactant producer. Among the substrates, coconut oil cake gave maximum yield of 19 mg/ml. The study also focussed on optimization of biosurfactant extraction using organic solvents and precipitation methods. The yield obtained was maximum using chloroform and methanol (2:1) extraction method. The product obtained was characterized using standard methods and confirmed for its properties. It also exhibited promising antimicrobial activity against gram-positive species.
    Keywords: Biosurfactants; Coconut oil cake; Organic solvent method; P. aeruginosa; Antimicrobial activity.

  • Potential of CO2 mitigation in concrete containing recycled aggregates   Order a copy of this article
    by Bruno Luis Damineli, Javier M. Pablos 
    Abstract: The replacement of natural aggregates with recycled ones is one of the best studied strategies for developing sustainable concrete formulations, which could decrease landfill disposal of construction waste. However, the increase of recycled aggregates (RA) content in concrete frequently leads to an increase in cement content. Considering that cement is the heaviest environmental burden of concrete due to CO2 emissions, and is more expensive than aggregates, it does not seem adequate. This study has the aim of presenting a preliminary strategy for a better engineered concrete design approach that could allow using RA in order to reduce cement content, with the potential to mitigate CO2 emissions. For this, the methodology consisted of a more detailed aggregate characterization, including a complete size-distribution determination using a complete sieving sequence. From particle size distribution, a known particle packing theory could be applied to optimize the concrete packing of particles (design in volume, since it aims to decrease voids between aggregates), allowing a decrease in cement content to fill these voids. The eco-efficiency of cement use was assessed by Binder Index (BI) the ratio between binder content (environmental load) and compressive strength (performance indicator). Better-engineered concrete could provide similar efficiency of cement use in packed concrete formulations with 100% low-quality RA compared to ordinary ones with 100% natural aggregates.
    Keywords: concrete; aggregate; waste treatment; particle size distribution; mixture proportion.

Special Issue on: ICEBSS 2017 Climate Change, Conflicts and Food Security in Developing Economies

  • The impact of spatial development on water pollution: a comparative assessment of river water quality in two municipalities in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Hamidi Ismail, Tuan Pah Rokiah Syed Hussain, Muhammad Subhan 
    Abstract: This study is aimed at understanding different level of pollution of the river water in two municipalities in Malaysia as a result of spatial development activities. Both municipalities represent the central and southern zones of Peninsular Malaysia which are prone to river water quality problems due to logging, land clearing and livestock farming. Frequency and trend analysis are applied to the data obtained from the Department of Environment (DOE) and measurement of the water quality in the field is conducted in both areas. The results show that the rivers in both municipalities are experiencing deterioration of water quality. The decline in the river water quality is closely related to human activities and the ineffective environmental management system by the government. The apparent environmental problems indicate that the present management system should be improved to create an urban ecosystem which is really capable of addressing the issues of river water pollution.
    Keywords: spatial development; river management; urban management; water pollution; water quality; sustainable development; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2020.10029702
     

Special Issue on: 5th Conference in Economics of Natural Resources and Economics Recent Developments on the Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus

  • Measurement of green industrial performance: an enhanced GIP index   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaime Moll De Alba, Valentin Todorov 
    Abstract: The green industrial performance (GIP) index provides a tool to analyse and compare the performance of economies in terms of green manufacturing. The demands for and expectations for sustainable development seem not matched with the existence of an analytical framework to measure how green the industrial sector of a given economy is. In this article, we introduce significant methodological improvements to the GIP index. In previous research, we developed and tested a set of indicators covering the various facets of the green industrial performance of economies. We also introduced a composite index to rank economies according to their green industrial performance. In this article, we address some limitations of the index. To improve the non-satisfactory data coverage, we investigate alternative imputation methods. We also refine our list of 'green' products; and test new outlier detection methods.
    Keywords: inclusive and sustainable development; composite index; green industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2020.10026383
     
  • Alternative forms of sustainable development: the case of thermal tourism   Order a copy of this article
    by Georgakopoulou Stavroula, Delitheou Vasiliki 
    Abstract: Thermal tourism is a special form of providing tourist services at special facilities that use recognised thermal natural resources. Thermal tourism blooms in Europe with pioneer country Germany. There are 1,400 developed bathing sites in Europe, visited by millions of patients from all over the world. This industry employs about 750,000 people and has an annual turnover of approximately 45 billion euros. In Greece, thermal tourism is an important part of the country's cultural heritage and not only because Greece is one of the richest countries in natural sources with excellent quality water. Despite the fact that Greece is the first country in Europe in the quality and uniqueness of natural thermal resources, its thermal tourism is declining. Furthermore, in this article, efforts will be made to identify the causes that contribute to the reduction of thermal tourism, as well as to draw some conclusions with a view to improving and sustaining the thermal tourism.
    Keywords: alternative tourism; thermal tourism; sustainable development.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2020.10029703
     

Special Issue on: SUSCOM-2019 Sustainable Computing for Environmental Systems

  • Sustainability of textile waste-water management by using an integrated fuzzy AHP-TOPSIS method: A case study   Order a copy of this article
    by PUNYASLOKA PATTNAIK, Govind Sharan Dangayach 
    Abstract: The textile industry is quickly growing worldwide and has a universally beneficial effect on the economy. The waste-water generated with the growth of the textile industry can cause considerable health and environmental issues if it is not treated properly. Generally, physical, biological, and chemical processes are used independently or in combination to treat textile waste-water. The efficiency of any treatment process depends on the working criteria. In this paper, we implemented a new hybrid methodology based on the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (FTOPSIS) to help workers in textile industries select the optimal waste-water treatment process. To illustrate how this hybrid methodology can be used to address the waste-water treatment problem, we conducted a case study involving 11 assessment criteria and four treatment process used in the textile industry in India. Comparative analysis indicated that the survey overall mean was slightly lower than the overall mean for selected companies in the treatment process.
    Keywords: Textile industry; waste-water treatment; FAHP; FTOPSIS; case study.

  • Performance Analysis of HCCI and PCCI Engine using Computational Fluid Dynamics   Order a copy of this article
    by Pushpendra Upadhyay, K.B. Rana, B. Tripathi 
    Abstract: Increasing fuel cost and environmental pollution through toxic emissions has brought the attention of automobile researchers to develop advanced engine technologies, which can yield high fuel efficiency and low emission simultaneously. Some advanced combustion technologies i.e., homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and pre-mixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) are being proved as promising engine strategies for same. However, it is still not clear that which combustion strategy is suitable as a practical alternative combustion technology. In the current study, numerical simulation for a three dimensional model of internal combustion (IC) engine consists of inlet valve, exhaust valve, inlet manifold and exhaust manifold, was carried out to analyze the HCCI and PCCI strategies using ANSYS 16.2. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was carried out for different swirl number and essentially moderate values of the engine speed. The converged results of both the combustion strategies were compared for different wall adjacent temperature, mass average static pressure, apparent heat release rate and mass average turbulent kinetic energy. The outcome of simulations reflected that a PCCI combustion strategy is better than HCCI combustion strategy at lower rpm, while at the moderate and higher values of engine rpm, HCCI combustion strategy demonstrated better performance in terms of temperature, pressure and turbulent kinetic energy. Interestingly, the exergy destruction rate was observed higher in case of homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion strategy.
    Keywords: HCCI engine; PCCI engine; CFD; Simulation; Crank angle.

  • Detecting diseases in plant leaves: An optimized deep-learning Convolutional Neural Network Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Saraansh Baranwal, Anuja Arora, Siddhant Khandelwal 
    Abstract: A country's economy relies heavily on its agricultural productivity. Most of the crops consumed daily by the population are prone to diseases. Identifying and preventing the disease at an early stage is a challenge even for the expert's eye. Therefore, an appropriate system is needed to detect plant disease in its initial stages. This paper employs the approach of Convolutional neural networks to automatically detect and address the issue. Images for various plants covering 35 different classes of plant diseases and a total of 29,180 RGB images of diseased and healthy plant leaves has been used for the purpose. Image filtering, compression, and data generation techniques have been used to further increase the training dataset and achieve high accuracy across all classes. Net accuracy of the model reaches a 98.34% success rate on the entire dataset. The data has been sampled and generated from severely downsized images, with a significant focus on speed as well as accuracy.
    Keywords: plant leaf; disease detection; leaf images; machine learning; convolutional neural network; LeNet; Keras.

Special Issue on: AIC 2018 Innovations in Sustainable Development Approaches

  • The influence of environmental management accounting practices on environmental performance in small-medium manufacturing in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Rapiah Mohamed, Che Zuriana Muhammad Jamil 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of environmental management accounting (EMA) practices on environmental performance in the small-medium sized (SME) manufacturing sector. The empirical data was collected through structured questionnaires that were distributed to the managers. The study results reveal that physical EMA has the highest mean score compared to monetary EMA, however, unfortunately the EMA practice is not at an encouraging level in Malaysia. The regression results indicate that both types of EMA practices (monetary and physical) have a positive and significant effect on environmental performance. Thus, this study demonstrates the importance of EMA in enhancing environmental performance. The study results are valuable to policy makers, managers of manufacturing SMEs and other sectors to appreciate EMA practices. The study findings contribute to a growing body of literature on EMA within the Asian context, particularly, Malaysia. Finally, this study shed lights on the extent to which EMA tools has been used amongst manufacturing SMEs and provides a good foundation and framework for future studies.
    Keywords: environmental management accounting; EMA; environmental performance; small-medium manufacturing; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2020.10026117
     
  • Islamic bankers' green behaviour for the growth of green banking in Malaysia   Order a copy of this article
    by Qaisar Ali, Shazia Parveen, Aslan Amat Senin, Muhammad Zaki Zaini 
    Abstract: Rising concerns for environmental sustainability (ES) demand that Islamic finance converts its business model to ethical finance. The conversion of a business model is unattainable without employees' positive attitudes and willingness to adopt the green banking approach. This study aims to promote ES implications for Islamic bankers and encourage Islamic banks to adopt a similar approach. The main objective is to explore green behaviours among Islamic bankers and the influence of these behaviours on green banking growth in Malaysia. Data were collected from 55 Islamic bankers using a survey questionnaire. The findings show that Islamic bankers' inclusive green behaviour significantly influences green banking growth. All five types of green behaviours (e.g., conservation, work sustainability, avoiding harm, influencing others and taking initiative) have a significant positive impact on green banking growth. Regulators and policymakers may adopt these findings to develop green banking regulations in Malaysia and other locations with similar economic settings.
    Keywords: Islamic bankers; green behaviour; green banking; Malaysia; growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2020.10029708
     
  • Do green human resource management practices contribute to sustainable performance in manufacturing industry?   Order a copy of this article
    by Noor Ullah Khan, Mansoor Nazir Bhatti, Asfia Obaid, Abdul Sami, Abrar Ullah 
    Abstract: Sustainable performance is a key area of concern for Malaysian manufacturing firms in addressing environmental issues. The goal of this study is to examine the direct relationship between green human resource practices such as green selection and recruitment, green training and development, green assessment and sustainable performance. A quantitative research design is employed using survey primary data. Primary data collected from 248 ISO-14001 certified Malaysian manufacturing firms and analysed by SEM technique using statistical tools. Research findings confirmed a significant direct positive relationship between green human resource practices and sustainable performance within the selected firms. This study adhered recommendations and directions for future research with inherent limitations. The findings from this study will be useful for Malaysian ISO-14001 certified firms and elsewhere with a similar economy.
    Keywords: green human resource practices; green selection; green training; green rewards; sustainable performance; triple bottom line; TBL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESD.2020.10027152
     

Special Issue on: ICMES-2018 Advances in Environmental and Biotechnological Sciences in a Sustainable Development Context

  • Variation in atmospheric air ion and its index of pollution during morning time (06:00 to 08:00 IST) in the sugarcane area at rural station Bhilawadi (16.5oN, 74.2oE)   Order a copy of this article
    by GAJANAN PATIL, SUBHASH PAWAR, Onkar Gurav, JALINDAR BHOSALE 
    Abstract: The present paper reports the diurnal variation in +ve and -ve air ion concentration in Sugarcane field (Genus: Saccharumspp, Variety: CO86032 (NAYANA)) in the vegetation area situated at rural station Bhilawadi (16.5oN, 74.2oE), India. It is a hybrid variety of CO62108 and CO671. We utilized Air Ion Counter to measure air ions in the field of sugarcane vegetation. In addition to this, we have calculated the pollution index which was found below one for sugarcane area and is healthier for human health. Further, it is found that -ve air ion concentration were greater than +ve air ions. It is due to ionization, photosynthesis, transpiration and radon exhalation process by sugarcane. It is well believed that -ve air ions are beneficial for human health. That is why most of the people use artificial air ion generator in living room or their work places. The results presented in this study suggests that the open environmental air or especially the sugarcane area exhibits large concentration of -ve air ions which are essential for human health. Though all living beings interact with environment, only human beings have less interaction with the environment, so attempts should be made to use natural resources to have better health.
    Keywords: Air ions; Sugarcane; Radon; Ionization; Transpiration; Pollution index; Environment.

  • Bio-chemical changes in sugarcane pressmud combination and its assessment on Chick-pea and Spinach variety   Order a copy of this article
    by AMOL CHOUGULE, SHEKHAR MALI, Pallavi Bhosale, P.D. RAUT 
    Abstract: The study was carried out to understand the influence of pressmud enriched with isolated microflora of pressmud on laboratory scale pot experiments with Chickpea, Cicer arietinum and Spinach, Spinacia oleracea and recorded physico-chemical characters of soil and the phyto-chemical characters of Chickpea and Spinach. Initially, physico-chemical characters of pressmud (PM), composted pressmud (CPM) and enriched composted pressmud (ECPM) were studied for pH, moisture content, water holding capacity, total organic carbon, organic matter, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. Experiments were conducted with combinations of soil without pressmud (T0), soil with CPM (T1) and soil with ECPM (T2). T2 shows maximum i.e. 2.01 %, 1.03 % and 0.29 % of NPK. T2 observed promising growth for chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, proline, protein, indole acetic acid, total amino acids and flavonoids. It also resulted in maximum Chlorophyll content 12.43 mg / 100 gms, and 112.94 mg / 100 gms, Ascorbic acid 1235 mg / 100 gms and 1332 mg / 100 gms, Flavonoids is 0.38 mg / 100 gms and 0.35 mg / 100 gms and Amino acids 1.80 mg / 100 gms and 0.58 mg / 100 gms for Chickpea and Spinach respectively. The experiments suggest that the combination of soil with ECPM gives good results and can be practiced in the fields.
    Keywords: Keywords: Pressmud; Enriched Pressmud; Compost; Chickpea; Spinach.

Special Issue on: BEST2019 Advances in Waste Management and Treatment Technologies

  • TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER WITH MODIFIED CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM AS A TERTIARY TREATMENT UNIT   Order a copy of this article
    by J.S. Sudarsan, R. Annadurai, Subramanian Nithiyanantham, M.G. Prathap, G. Sudharson 
    Abstract: Most of the efforts taken for towards effective treatment of wastewater have mainly been focused on towards expensive treatment processes like membrane filtration. Conventionally, wastewater is treated by physical, chemical and biological processes that utilise a lot of energy and capital. Incorporation of constructed wetlands into the sewage treatment process is done in order to mimic processes found in the natural ecosystems where wetland plants and their associated micro-organisms remove pollutants from wastewater. Vegetation in a wetland provides a substrate upon which microorganisms can grow, they break down organic materials. These organisms and natural chemical processes are responsible for approximately 90 percent of pollutant removal and waste breakdown in nature. This research work has been undertaken with a view to integrating the natural ecosystem into the existing treatment plant on a large scale, which will be instrumental in minimizing the use of machineries and reducing high investment and operating cost as well as energy consumption. The greywater can be reused purification but the currently adopted process to obtain secondary water source is both complicated and expensive. In order to minimise the cost and energy spent on the conventional process constructed wetlands can be used as a tertiary treatment unit of the sewage treatment process.
    Keywords: cost analysis; wetland; vegetation; wastewater; model.

Special Issue on: ICONRER-2019 Smart Use of Resources and Strategies for Sustainable Development

  • Experimental studies on combustion duration and ignition delay period for a newly synthesized gomutra emulsified diesel   Order a copy of this article
    by Amit Jhalani, Dilip Sharma, Shyamlal Soni, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma, Digambar Singh, Sumit Sharma 
    Abstract: Aligning to water-in-diesel emulsion technology, a newer work has been proposed in this study by introducing gomutra-in-diesel emulsion (GMD emulsion) fuel for application in CI engine. Experimental investigations have been performed in this study for ignition delay and combustion duration to understand the underlying mechanisms of combustion with this fuel. The complete work has been performed over a VCR (variable compression ratio) stationary diesel engine. Emulsions of different gomutra-in-diesel (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) concentrations were taken for the study. The ignition delay was found to be 24
    Keywords: Diesel engine; Gomutra; Combustion Duration; Ignition Delay; Emissions; Emulsified fuel.

  • A review on Emissions Reduction Techniques used in Internal Combustion Engines   Order a copy of this article
    by Digambar Singh, Dilip Sharma, S.L. Soni, Sumit Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma, Amit Jhalani 
    Abstract: Continuous growing population and a rise in living standards are creating widespread use of vehicles. Motor vehicle emissions contribute significantly to air pollution and other adverse environmental and health effects. The primary contaminants from internal combustion (I.C.) engines are NOx, CO, CO2, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC), and PM. Their control strategies were considered seriously throughout the discussion. This analysis summarizes emissions from both compression ignition (C.I.) and spark ignition (S.I.) engines with government-setting emission regulatory standards. This article also gives detailed insight into pollution monitoring methods and their control policy for both C.I. and S.I. engines. Emissions from S.I. engines are more harmful to human health, with more CO and HC emissions in comparison with C.I. engines. CO emissions are insignificant in C.I. engines due to lean-burn nature. High temperatures and significant oxygen supply in the combustion chamber make C.I. engines prone to NOx emissions. This analysis will help researchers to obtain comprehensive emission and their reduction methodologies information for I.C. engines.
    Keywords: C. I. Engine; S. I. Engine; Emissions; Emission Measurement; Emission reduction techniques.

  • A new methodology to find out cooking energy need for a rural household   Order a copy of this article
    by Hemant Raj Singh, Dilip Sharma, Shyam Lal Soni 
    Abstract: In the era of global warming and ever rising energy demand climate justice has become the need of the hour. Sustainable solution has become the key to the success for environment. Cooking sector is considered as one of the major energy consuming sector in developing and underdeveloped countries. Inherently associated hazardous effects and energy inefficiencies of conventional biomass cooking system forces unconventional cooking energy to becoming popular day by day. In this study a new census based approach is being presented to find out cooking energy requirement of a single rural household of India. Mathematical modelling is being done while scrutinizing coke, firewood and chips, coal, and LPG as cooking fuel and by eliminating charcoal, petrol, diesel and kerosene. Exact heat Energy required per household per meal has been achieved 4212.02 kJ. Out of which vaporization of water, heating food to boiling temperature and convection losses from vessels shares 1474.21 kJ, 842.40kJ and 1895.41kJ respectively. Outcome of this study can serve a baseline for inventors, researchers and policymakers of microscale unconventional/solar cooker.
    Keywords: Stove; Cooking Energy; Modelling; Household; Solar cooking system; cooking fuel.

  • Design, development and performance analysis of modified solid fertilizer spreader equipped with air blower   Order a copy of this article
    by Chandan Kumar, K.B. Rana, M.L. Meena 
    Abstract: Development in the agricultural sector is one of the powerful ways to enhance the economic growth of country. In recent years remarkable revolution has been seen in traditional methods of agriculture such as irrigation systems, seed planting, pesticides and sprays. Cultivation includes various processes in which fertilization is one of the important processes. The fertilization is tedious and expensive process, as generally carried out by traditional method which requires lots of manual efforts. It is also very dangerous for the human health and environment, and may cause of various musculoskeletal disorders in worker's body. However, few manual and mechanically operated machines are available, but they have also some problems associated with them. Therefore, keeping in mind the needs of farmers and workers, it was proposed to design an electric power operated fertilizer spreading machine which would help them to work easily in environmentally friendly way. The performance of modified solid fertilizer spreading machine equipped with air blower was evaluated on the basis of parameters i.e., spreading distance, fertilizer discharge rate, spreading time, and operational labour cost involved in the process. From the experiments, it was found that this machine can spread the fertilizer (Urea) up to 8 m distance with discharge rate of 1050 gm/min, which is more than enough for fertilization for almost all types of crops. Using FSM, reduction in time required for fertilization (66 %) and operational labor cost (70 %) was also observed as compared to the traditional method.
    Keywords: Agriculture; solid fertilizer; DAP; urea; potassium-chloride; spreading machine.

  • Design of four-bar mechanism for vibratory tillage cultivator using five precision position method for path generation problem   Order a copy of this article
    by N. R. N. V. Gowripathi RAO, Abhijeet Kumar, Himanshu Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar Sharma 
    Abstract: Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. There are different agricultural operations which play a critical role in the overall crop development. Farmers are in search of sustainable technologies which can contribute to their overall economy and improve the efficiency. The paper deals to design a vibratory cultivator that saves the time and energy for the farming community. A four-bar mechanism is designed and developed to vibrate the cultivator. Proper analytical synthesis procedure is adopted, such as five precision position method for a particular vibratory tillage trajectory available from the literature. The dimensions of four-bar mechanism are validated through MATLAB, and it is confirmed that the designed four-bar mechanism traces the path accurately for vibratory tillage operation.
    Keywords: Tillage; four bar mechanism; synthesis; precision position; trajectory.