International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (33 papers in press)
Bio-chemical changes in sugarcane pressmud combination and its assessment on Chick-pea and Spinach variety
by AMOL CHOUGULE, SHEKHAR MALI, Pallavi Bhosale, P.D. RAUT
Abstract: The study was carried out to understand the influence of pressmud enriched with isolated microflora of pressmud on laboratory scale pot experiments with Chickpea, Cicer arietinum and Spinach, Spinacia oleracea and recorded physico-chemical characters of soil and the phyto-chemical characters of Chickpea and Spinach. Initially, physico-chemical characters of pressmud (PM), composted pressmud (CPM) and enriched composted pressmud (ECPM) were studied for pH, moisture content, water holding capacity, total organic carbon, organic matter, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. Experiments were conducted with combinations of soil without pressmud (T0), soil with CPM (T1) and soil with ECPM (T2). T2 shows maximum i.e. 2.01 %, 1.03 % and 0.29 % of NPK. T2 observed promising growth for chlorophyll, ascorbic acid, polyphenols, proline, protein, indole acetic acid, total amino acids and flavonoids. It also resulted in maximum Chlorophyll content 12.43 mg / 100 gms, and 112.94 mg / 100 gms, Ascorbic acid 1235 mg / 100 gms and 1332 mg / 100 gms, Flavonoids is 0.38 mg / 100 gms and 0.35 mg / 100 gms and Amino acids 1.80 mg / 100 gms and 0.58 mg / 100 gms for Chickpea and Spinach respectively. The experiments suggest that the combination of soil with ECPM gives good results and can be practiced in the fields.
Keywords: Keywords: Pressmud; Enriched Pressmud; Compost; Chickpea; Spinach.
Economic Determinants of Deforestation in Developing Countries
by Collins Ayoo
Abstract: Forests are an important natural resource that provide to society several valuable goods and services that include timber, fuel, food, chemicals, medicines, climate regulation, and soil protection. Forests in several developing countries are however being destroyed at a rapid rate with adverse impacts such as increased soil erosion, loss of biodiversity, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases that cause climate change. The causes of deforestation are complex and diverse and depend on the socioeconomic, political, cultural, legal and institutional contexts of the countries in which the affected forests are situated. This paper examines the deforestation trends in developing countries and discusses the key drivers of deforestation in these countries. The paper also identifies and discusses measures that can be used to reduce deforestation. The insights that this paper provides can be practically applied to formulate policies, strategies and plans for improving forest management and enhancing both their economic contribution and their role in sustainable development.
Keywords: Forests; deforestation; sustainable development; biodiversity; poverty.
An integrated model of sustainable consumption promotion based on the tripod of democratic-participatory ideal Civil Society, Government, and Market
by Verônica Macário De Oliveira, Carla Regina Pasa Gómez, Adriana Fumi Chim-Miki, Suzanne Érica Nóbrega Correia
Abstract: Promotion of sustainable consumption in developing countries in a systematic perspective is still an unexplored topic in the literature. This paper identifies the central role of stakeholders in promoting sustainable consumption. From a first literature review, an initial set of parts in the process of promoting sustainable consumption was extracted. Subsequently, qualitative research using the Policy Delphi method was conducted to assign the respective degree of importance to each role of the stakeholder and to, eventually, confirm the structure of a proposed model. Based on the perceptions of a panel of experts, an integrated model of the roles of promoting sustainable consumption based on the ideal democratic-participatory tripod, involving civil society, government and lending, was validated. The panel consisted of forty experts in the field distributed into four groups, namely, scholars, government, firms, and civil society. The results indicated the relevance of thirty-five from the thirty-eight analysed roles to promote sustainable consumption. 40% are in the category of "critically important," 60% are "very important," and 7.8% is not important. Results suggested that the issues regarding sustainable consumption include both consumption and production, imposing the necessity of action and articulation among distinct groups to obtain necessary changes. However, there is a concentration on the meta-level and government to promote sustainable consumption in developing countries.
Keywords: Sustainable consumption; Tripod of democratic-participatory ideal; Policy Delphi; Developing countries.
Real-time Water Quality Monitoring for Distribution Networks in IoT Environment
by Punit Khatri, Karunesh Kumar Gupta, Raj Kumar Gupta
Abstract: Water quality has always been a significant concern worldwide as a large portion of accessible water is either contaminated or polluted, which can spread serious diseases like dysentery, diarrhea, and cholera. Before consumption, the water quality should be tested to reduce the risk of infection. In real-time applications, the traditional approach for water quality monitoring is not appropriate, as on-site water sample collection is often a cost-intensive and time-consuming process. This paper introduces a real-time assessment of water quality parameters in distribution systems employing Raspberry Pi and Arduino development boards. The parameters were chosen based on the different categories identified by the Central Pollution and Control Board, Govt. of India. An Arduino development board was used at the sensing node for water quality sensor interfacing, data acquisition, and transmission to the wireless sensor network via Zigbee. Raspberry Pi was used at the server to collect data and upload data on the cloud platform. The Thingspeak cloud platform was used for IoT implementation. The results were validated with the reference instrument.
Keywords: Water quality; traditional approach; Water quality sensors; Raspberry Pi; Arduino; Thingspeak; Zigbee module.
Green and blue infrastructure: Means of reducing surface temperatures in the urban environment
by Jan Sedlá?ek, Martin Hais, Kristýna Pouchová
Abstract: Climate change may accelerate the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect with many consequences for the well-being of human populations in cities. Green and blue infrastructures (GBI) are presented as a way to mitigate the UHI effect. In our study, the influence of GBI (primarily less studied types) on surface temperature (ST) was tested using a thermal camera. Various types of GBI (e. g. tree shade and lawn) and their combination were compared. The studied GBI, including less common forms such as containers with ornamental plants, green roofs and fountains, reduced daytime ST. Moreover, they reduced the thermal amplitudes of surrounding areas (up to 30 m). The results imply that besides larger GBI (e.g. parks, rivers) smaller structures may significantly decrease the UHI effect. We recommend a combination of both blue and green structures especially in street canyons and the use of green roofs and walls when the space for adding GBI is limited.
Keywords: surface temperature; urban climate; microclimate; urban heat island; green infrastructure; blue infrastructure; greenery; vegetation; green roof; green wall; fountain; well-being; tree shade; climate change; thermal amplitudes.
Small hydropower development in Ukraine under global climate change patterns: is state economic support sufficient?
by Tetiana Kurbatova, Iryna Sotnyk, Oleksandr Kubatko, Liudmyla Gorbachova, Borys Khrystiuk
Abstract: During the last years, significant changes happened in seasonal river hydrology in Europe due to climate change. Nevertheless, according to the presented analysis, the total water runoff for hydropower generation did not change. The last fact is an important policy implication for small hydropower promotion in Ukraine because it belongs to that region and has similar climate conditions. Having analysed the hydropower potential, the paper describes the main advantages and limitations of implementing small hydropower projects in Ukraine. The cost of electricity generated by a small hydropower plant in Ukraine is determined and compared with the current feed-in tariff. The calculations show that the feed-in tariff is 1.4 times higher than the electricity generation cost, making the implementation of small hydropower plants profitable for investors. Since the state provides sufficient economic support for this sector's development, the financial and non-economic barriers significantly hinder small hydropower plant deployment are considered.
Keywords: small hydropower; renewable energy; policy; feed-in tariff; LCOE; economic support; Ukraine.
An urban ecology approach to land-cover changes in the Adyar sub-basin: comparative analysis of NDWI, NDVI and NDBI using remote sensing
by Mythili Madhusudhan, N.K. Ambujam
Abstract: The impacts of urbanisation may be social, environmental or ecological. In this paper, studies on the characteristics of urbanisation and its impacts in Chennai, India, particularly the South Chennai region are discussed. The study involves use of Landsat images and comparison of normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) corresponding to mentioned dates in 1977, 1998 and 2018. Also, the normalised index for water (NDWI) and the built-up index (NDBI) are mapped and compared for the same dates. The results show that for the years 1977, 1998 and 2018, the difference between the maximum and minimum values of NDVI are found to be 1.609, 1.026 and 1.288, of NDWI are found to be 1.802, 1.239 and 1.518, and of NDBI are found to be
1.785, 0.993 and 1.036, respectively. The trends in indices for the dates considered are found to correspond to human activity and the significance of these changes is discussed.
Keywords: urban ecology; normalised difference vegetation index; NDVI; normalised difference water index; NDWI; normalised difference built-up index; NDBI; Landsat; remote sensing; land use; South Chennai.
Study of the waste disposal effect on air quality: the Italian case study
by Nicoletta Lotrecchiano, Renato Ciampa, Aristide Giuliano, Daniele Sofia
Abstract: The environmental status is defined by the combination of information about air pollution and waste production and management. This paper aims to compare the percentage of waste disposal in Italy with air quality. For each Italian region, the percentage of waste disposal and air quality were analysed. For some more interesting regions like Trentino South-Tyrol, Piedmont, Veneto, Lombardy, Lazio, Marche, Umbria, Abruzzo, Campania, Basilicata, Apulia, and Sicily relationship were highlighted taking into account citizens concerns about air quality. It is clear, after analysing the data, that in 2012-2017 the environmental awareness of the Italian population has increased with a consequent increase in the percentage of waste disposal and with the improvement of air quality.
Keywords: Italy; waste disposal; air quality; environment; particulate matter; NO2.
Bio FT-diesel in the European maritime sector: a technical economic valuation of straw crops potential
by Vinicius Andrade Dos Santos, Antonio A.T.G.Portugal, Patrícia Pereira Da Silva, Luis M. V. Serrano
Abstract: The present study has as an objective exploring the lignocellulosic residues from European agriculture as an energy source for the production of bio Fischer-Tropsch diesel (Bio FT-Diesel) as a low carbon alternative to be used in the European maritime sector, based on a techno-economic methodology of residue collection combined with the production yield of FT-Diesel available on literature. It permitted us to find a potential production of 8.5 million tons (Mton) of biofuel across 11 countries, and the reduction of 26 Mton of CO2 annually. The study contributes to the understanding that the fuel could be only cost-competitive if the crude oil reaches values between 10.4516.91 /GJ. In addition, the low technology status of bio FT-Diesel production and the lack of biofuel standards to the maritime sector are limitations that can only be addressed with effective regulations added to research and development from collection to production and consumption.
Keywords: maritime transportation; agriculture biomass; Fischer-Tropsch diesel; decarbonisation,.
Implementing green infrastructure for stormwater management and combined sewer overflow control
by Lucas Niehuns Antunes, Arthur Rafael Medeiros De Araújo, Manuella Fagundes Bet, Sara Coimbra Da Silva, João Vitor Erlacher De Figueiredo, Betina Frigotto De Lima, Tabita Sonntag Manzoni, Layane Christine Vieira
Abstract: Green infrastructure has been used in many countries as a source control measure of stormwater runoff. Chicago is one of the many cities that have a combined sewer system and frequently faces overflows. This study proposes a stormwater management system along Chicago's riverfront. The area of green infrastructure to be studied (77,300 m2 ) is composed of wetland, pond and permeable pavement and was designed to collect, store, treat and discharge or reuse 23,620,000 litres of water. A 49.1% reduction in runoff has been determined for the wetland/pond system compared to the current scenario. The permeable pavement, in turn, infiltrated and stored, on average, 325,000 litres of stormwater daily. The stormwater collected from the pavement would be used for non-potable purposes, providing potable water savings up to 6.5%, and serving more than 13,000 people of the neighbourhood. The findings highlight the great potential of green infrastructure to improve stormwater management.
Keywords: green infrastructure; wetland; pond; permeable pavement; stormwater management; combined sewer overflow; CSO.
The circular economy for sustainable development: implementation strategies in advanced small open economies
by Lina Dagilienė, Jurgita Bruneckienė, Viktorija Varaniūtė, Mantas Lukauskas
Abstract: Sustainable development and circular economy (CE) policy perspectives are growing in importance. However, there is little empirical research about the implementation of a circular economy or a critical review of its indicators at the country level. Using an institutional approach, this paper explores CE implementation strategies in advanced small open economies (SOEs) in the European Union (EU). We used a principal components analysis (PCA) and a clustering analysis based on data from the EU monitoring framework for the circular economy, specifically 13 small open economies
from 2010-2017. The main findings reveal three CE implementation strategies correlated with CE development stages: integrated to value chain, focused on institutional compliance and fragmented. Surprisingly, we found no evidence for the expansion of CE-related sectors based upon persons employed, value added or gross investments. This topic deserves further investigation, with important implications for future research and policymaking.
Keywords: circular economy; CE; strategy; small open economy; SOEs; implementation; principal components analysis; PCA; indicators.
From cleaner production to sustainability: multiple case studies in Uruguayan companies
by Florencia Kalemkerian, Silvia Lamela, Javier Santos, Martin Tanco
Abstract: Since the concept of cleaner production (CP) considers not only the environment but also the economic and social dimension, more scholarly attention is focused on studying the relationship of CP to sustainability. This research aims to present the main elements that contribute to successful CP implementation and sustainability in organisations. Eleven companies, mostly SMEs that adopted CP practices after a training course, were selected from different industrial sectors. The main results showed that the critical success factors most often cited for achieving successful implementation are commitment from top management and government support. Although some companies continue to implement sustainable practices, the majority apply CP only to comply with environmental laws, which results in a limited contribution to sustainability. Additionally, the analysed companies do not have standardised metrics to evaluate their sustainable performance, but CP serves as a guide to support their decisions. More effort is needed to make companies aware of the benefits of CP in other areas of organisations, and to integrate the three domains of sustainability when implementing CP practices.
Keywords: cleaner production; critical success factors; CSFs; sustainability; Uruguay; SMEs.
Assessment of issues related to international trade and environmental impacts (Emissions): an analysis for Brazil
by Weslem Faria, Vinicius Vale, Fernando Perobelli, Admir Betarelli Junior
Abstract: This study is aimed at evaluating the impacts of the Brazilian trade structure on the amount of emissions, that is, at identifying the main trade links of Brazil in terms of CO2 emissions. We have considered two simulations through a global computable general equilibrium model GTAP-E , calibrated with 2011 data. The first simulation specifies an incentive of 10% in the form of subsidies to Brazils world exports to all sectors and regions. Analogously, the second simulation specifies a reduction of 10% in import tariffs for all sectors and regions of Brazil. The main results indicate that incentives to exports and imports would increase the emissions in Brazil and in most other regions. Firstly, because of the increase in the economic activity level of those sectors that use energy products more intensely as intermediate inputs, such as the transport sector. Secondly, because of the relative cheapness of foreign products, which would facilitate the purchase of energy inputs by Brazil. The main CO2 emission channels of the Brazilian international trade are with the Rest of Europe and Argentina.
Keywords: International Trade; Emissions; Computable General Equilibrium Model.
Mura-Drava-Danube biosphere reserve: a long way from the original idea to the designation of the worlds first 5-country biosphere reserve
by Günter Köck, Gerhard Schwach, Arno Mohl
Abstract: The UNESCO '5-country biosphere reserve Mura-Drava-Danube (TBR MDD)', recognised by UNESCO in September 2021, connects Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia and Slovenia with their individual biosphere reserves (BRs) and 13 major protected areas along the three rivers Mura, Drava and Danube. It is with a length of 700 km and a size of 930,000 hectares Europe's largest coherent river protected area. This article describes the history of the development of the TBR MDD, also known as 'Amazon of Europe', from the first idea in the early 1990s to the designation of the worlds first transboundary BR consisting of five countries in 2021. In addition, the authors identified and discussed some factors which they believe have had a decisive influence on the emergence of TBR MDD.
Keywords: Mura-Drava-Danube biosphere reserve; UNESCO; transboundary biosphere reserves; 5-country biosphere reserve; history; river system.
Localised strategies and principles of good governance for the Sustainable Development Goals: where do the local authorities in Turkey stand?
by İhsan İkizer
Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals have been set by the representatives of all nations on the Earth, for people, planet, prosperity and peace. It is accepted that cross-sectoral nature of the SDGs requires collective responsibility, multi-level collaboration among all stakeholders, with the participation of people, for whom these goals exist. This article has revealed that, among the 30 metropolitan municipalities in Turkey, where localisation of the SDGs and multi stakeholder local governance is rare, just a few of them have aligned their targets partially with those of the SDGs. Local authorities in Turkey do great jobs regarding many aspects of the 2030 Agenda; however, their works need a torch, in the form of a localised strategy of the SDGs, better governance and a sustainable, institutional mechanism for monitoring the progress. The motto of 'leave no one behind!' cannot be realised without full engagement of local authorities in this challenging process.
Keywords: 2030 Agenda; local authorities in Turkey; local governments; localisation of the SDGs; localised strategies; local governance; partnership and participation; principles of good governance; Sustainable Development Goals; SDGs; Turkey.
Varied perceptions of environmental impacts from informal public transport hubs in two sub-Saharan African cities (Nairobi and Ibadan)
by Vincent Onyango, Adebola Olowosegun, Dumiso Moyo
Abstract: This paper explored perceptions of the environmental impacts of informal public transport (IPT) in Ibadan, Nigeria and Nairobi, Kenya. Based on a questionnaire survey supplemented by exploratory factor analysis the results revealed unanimous agreement that IPT hubs and the infrastructure around them are perceived as having adverse impacts on local people and their environment. There exist statistically significant differences on the perceptions, including the latent factors underpinning them, at city level and across respondents backgrounds. The findings imply significant scope for urban planning practice and policy-making to find systematic methods to integrate the knowledge about IPTs perceived environmental impacts, from all urban citizens, as a means to pro-actively enhance their rights and inclusiveness. This will ameliorate a planning culture that often ignores the realities and concerns of the marginalised.
Keywords: informal public transport; IPT; environmental impacts; perceptions; Nairobi; Ibadan; urban planning.
Special Issue on: BEST2019 Advances in Waste Management and Treatment Technologies
Experimental investigation on cooling cogeneration plant for low temperature waste heat recovery process
by R. Shankar, Tangellapalli Srinivas, Wilfrido Rivera Gomez Franco
Abstract: The integration of absorption refrigeration cycle (VAR) and Kalina power system at suitable conditions minimises the components and input energy which is also useful for heat recovery process. Three pressure viz condensing pressure, source and sink pressure are maintained NH3-H2O mixture is used as operating fluid, in that 25% is ammonia and 75% weight capacity is water. The vapour ammonia produced in the separator runs the turbine after heated up in the superheater and operated between the boiler pressure and condenser pressure. The ammonia liquid is further throttled from condenser pressure to absorber pressure to achieve the cooling effect. The
turbine power output of 3.15 kW and 9.0 kW of cooling are obtained experimentally for the supplied temperature of 129 C from the boiler. Maximum energy utilisation factor (EUF) of 0.21 is obtained and it is further increased by rising ammonia concentration at the inlet of boiler and boiler temperature.
Keywords: VAR; aqua-ammonia; cogeneration; heat recovery; combined power and cooling; Kalina cycle etc.
Feasibility analysis of admitting gasified waste vegetable oil and non-edible oil blends with diesel in CI engine
by C. Sanjay Kumar, M. Karthikeyan, D. Premkumar, Supochang Walling, V. Kirubakaran
Abstract: The disposal of used waste vegetable oil is a significant concern from the pollution point of view. Several studies have already been made to produce biodiesel/blending with diesel in CI engines. However, the cost benefit analysis makes this process non-viable. Also, several works of literature are available in the admitting of non-edible oil blends in CI engines. This paper analyses the admitting the gasified waste vegetable oil (WVO) with non-edible oil (NEO) in CI engine. The mixture of WVO and NEO has been auto-gasified before admitting them in CI engine. Auto gasification is converting the solid combustible waste into the gaseous product with bio-oxygen and catalytic ash. This way, the temperature of the gasification process is reduced and makes direct admission is feasible. From the various trails, it has been found that the optimised performance ratio for the WVO and NEO mixture is 50:50. The cost-benefit analysis of bio diesel production and usage in CI engine has been analysed and reported in this paper. The EIA of WVO disposal has also been carefully analysed and reported.
Keywords: waste vegetable oil; WVO; non-edible oil; NEO; CI engine.
Special Issue on: ICONRER-2019 Smart Use of Resources and Strategies for Sustainable Development
Design of four-bar mechanism for vibratory tillage cultivator using five precision position method for path generation problem
by N.R.N.V. Gowripathi Rao, Abhijeet Kumar, Himanshu Chaudhary, Ajay Kumar Sharma
Abstract: Agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy. There are different agricultural operations that play a critical role in overall crop development. Farmers are in search of sustainable technologies that can contribute to their overall economy and improve efficiency. The paper deals to design a vibratory cultivator that saves the time and energy for the farming community. A four-bar mechanism is designed and developed to vibrate the cultivator. A proper analytical synthesis procedure is adopted, such as five precision position method for a particular vibratory tillage trajectory available from the literature. The dimensions of the four-bar mechanism are validated through MATLAB, and it is confirmed that the designed four-bar mechanism traces the path accurately for vibratory tillage operation.
Keywords: tillage; four bar mechanism; synthesis; precision position; trajectory.
A comparative analysis of game theory techniques for study of energy interactions in interconnected microgrids
by Mohammad Zeeshan, Majid Jamil
Abstract: The growing energy needs of society can be met with one or more microgrids working in conjunction. A need of a trading and scheduling mechanism for energy exchange among microgrids for sustainable development of the consumers is required. Game theory techniques have been widely utilised to study this interaction among microgrids. This paper seeks to analyse the different game theory-based energy trading techniques to elaborate on such models' efficiencies. The study is based on renewable energy generation and consumption in Denmark. Lexicographic egalitarian solution is proposed as a bargaining solution for two participating microgrids in an energy trading game. A comparison is performed between the proposed model and conventional techniques for inter-microgrid trading. The proposed bargaining solution depicts a fairness index of 0.974 compared to 0.946 for the Nash solution and 0.954 for the Kalai-Smorodinsky solution. The results of the proposed study provide a better insight into the various aspects of energy sharing algorithms and will help improve the utilisation of green energy.
Keywords: microgrid; game theory; distributed generation; energy trading; bargaining game.
Grid tied inverters for renewable energy systems - a review
by Sonu Kumar, C. Sethuraman
Abstract: Grid tied inverters are used to feed power produced by the renewable energy sources to the local power grid. India has a total grid interactive renewable power plant capacity of 84.39 GW, consisting of solar 31.10 GW, wind 36.93 GW, small hydro 4.61 GW and bio-power 9.94 GW. Solar and wind energy sources are most abundantly available in India and has various advantages over other energy sources but combining these two intermittent sources for the purpose of exporting the generated power through grid tied inverter has many challenging issues. In this paper, various literatures, standards and patents are reviewed to understand the function of grid tied inverters, power quality, islanding detection, overvoltage protection and safety issues. This review can help the readers in understanding the basics of the grid tied inverters and also provide information on selecting the suitable inverters for renewable energy applications.
Keywords: grid tied inverters; controllers; renewable energy; solar; wind; standards; patents; power quality.
A review on production processes, performance and emissions analysis of hydrogen as a fuel in I.C. engines
by Monu Rajora, Dilip Sharma, Digambar Singh, Sumit Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar Sharma, Amit Jhalani, Ipsit Mishra
Abstract: The energy demand increases continuously with rapid increase in the world's population. Continuous depletion of limited non conventional energy resources forces the move towards alternate energy solution. Hydrogen is the environment-friendly and most promising source to meet future energy demand. Non-toxic, non-metallic and high energy content make the hydrogen as a future generation fuel. The main sources of hydrogen production are hydro, biomass, nuclear, wind, geothermal, and solar. Hydrogen can be produced from different methods like thermal, biological, electrical, and photonic. This review article provides detailed information about the production processes of hydrogen, and performance and emissions analysis of hydrogen when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. Brake thermal efficiency of the engine increases with the increase of hydrogen energy share at high and moderate loads. However, at low loads, the efficiency decreases. Carbon-based emissions (HC, CO and CO2) under dual-fuel mode decreases substantially at all loads due to carbon content in the fuel. This review will help researchers to get the significant details of hydrogen production processes and its optimum utilisation in internal combustion engines.
Keywords: hydrogen; internal combustion engines; hydrogen production processes; performance analysis; emissions analysis.
A review on hybrid nanofluid: current research and sustainable development for turning operation
by Anup A. Junankar, Jayant K. Purohit, Nikhil V. Bhende
Abstract: In turning operation, the cutting fluid performs the important function of lubrication as well as cooling at cutting tool-work material machining zone. In the view of sustainable development for the machining domain like turning operation, nanofluid as a cutting fluid provides significant results as compared to conventional cutting fluids. Nanofluid appeared as a capable cutting fluid due to its effective thermo-physical properties. In current work, various types of the hybrid nanofluids utilised as cutting fluid for machining operations were studied. Also, the thermo-physcial properties, and preparation methodologies of hybrid nanofluid were presented. For the appropriate hybridisation of different nanoparticles, the methods for synthesis and characterisation are presented briefly. The comprehensive review for the application of monotype and hybrid nanofluid in turning operation is stated with noticeable facts. The review study concluded that hybrid nanofluids are significant as compared to monotype nanofluids for turning operation. The utilisation of hybrid nanofluid in turning operation resulted into one of the important sustainable developments.
Keywords: hybrid nanofluid; sustainable development; cutting fluid; turning operation.
A review of different configuration of hybrid energy systems with case study analysis
by Uttara Das, Sarbani Mandal, Somudeep Bhattacharjee, Champa Nandi
Abstract: Increasing energy demand worldwide is directly related to the power generation process. Carbon emissions cum greenhouse gas emissions have direct contact with global warming and climate change. Energy generation from conventional power plants is the cause of a huge amount of environmental pollution. Different renewable energy sources are a great option to fulfil all the criteria as these are cost-effective, environment-friendly and abundantly found in nature. But renewable energy sources are varied in nature and for overcoming this problem; renewable energy-based hybrid system is a better solution. This paper reviews various challenges and recent developments in the area of the hybrid renewable energy system and also reviewing a backup system like pumped hydro energy storage system (PHES). We also discuss some real-world case studies of renewable energy-based hybrid power plants adopted in various parts of the world. This paper concludes with suggestions for future research opportunities in this field.
Keywords: renewable energy; hybrid system; greenhouse gas reduction; cost-reduction; backup system; pumped hydro energy storage system; PHES.
Study on physico-chemical treatment of effluents from biomass gasifier power generation system
by Sunil L. Narnaware, Samir Vahora
Abstract: The study aimed at a physico-chemical treatment of effluent/wastewater generated from the biomass gasification power generation system. A laboratory study determined the optimum dose of lime (CaOH2) as coagulant and alum (Al2(SO4)318H2O) as flocculants in the proportion of 1:1 g/l of effluent which later applied in the field experiment. The field results showed that freshwater used once could be used for two more recirculation by giving physical settling treatment. Thereafter, the chemical treatment with a predetermined dose of lime and alum was given due to increased load of tar and SPM which made possible to use the wastewater two more recirculation. After fifth-time use, the turbidity increased to 118.3 NTU which could not be brought down further with chemical treatment. The cost of chemical treatment for laboratory-grade chemicals was found ₹0.85 per litre of effluent and ₹0.10/litre of effluent for commercial grade chemicals.
Keywords: gasifier; syngas; effluent; tar; physico-chemical treatment.
Forest waste to energy in the Himalayan region: technical and economic evaluation
by Arvind Singh Bisht, N.S. Thakur
Abstract: The Himalayan subtropical pine forests spread all over the Himalayan region. Every year during the summer season, dry leaves (pine needles) fall from the trees and cover the forest area, destroying soil fertility and also cause forest fires. The energy recovery from waste biomass through gasification process is receiving renewed interest. In this present study, pine needle biomass gasification characterisation along with economics of energy generation are carried out. Results indicate that a maximum of 135 kJ/mol of energy is required for the complete gasification of pine needle biomass. The energy released per kg of pine needle gasification is found to be 15.66 MJ/kg. It produces producer gas of calorific value 5.07 MJ/Nm3. This producer gas is used in a 100% producer gas engine generator set for electricity generation. The levellised unit cost of electricity (LUCE) varies between 6.5 INR/kW to 14.84 INR/kW under the different financial and operating conditions.
Keywords: energy; biomass gasification; TGA; pine needle; kinetic investigation; regional bioenergy development; Himalayan region; forest fires; bio-energy; renewable energy.
A building bio-climatic design tool incorporating passive strategies in residential dwellings design of composite climate of India
by Sanjay Kumar, Anuj Mathur, K.B. Rana, Chandan Kumar
Abstract: The objective of the present work is to assess the potential of different passive design strategies using the bio-climatic approach in residential spaces across the composite climate in India. For this purpose, a modified building bio-climatic design chart based on composite climate specific adaptive thermal comfort zone (CZ) has been used. The climates of four major cities namely Delhi, Jaipur, Lucknow, and Hyderabad, have been selected for bio-climatic analysis using typical meteorological year (TMY) data. The results from the bio-climatic analysis showed that comfort can vary 30% to 60% of the total time during summer and 43% to 70% of the total time during the winter season, respectively. During warmer half of the year (March-October) natural ventilation, sun shading, and direct evaporative cooling proved to be the better choice for passive cooling. However, passive solar heating only provides the noticeable result for improving indoor comfort conditions during the colder half of the year (November-February) for all selected cities. Finally, this study put forward a guideline matrix for the use of passive design schemes in buildings for composite climate of India.
Keywords: bio-climatic design chart; adaptive comfort zone; passive design; composite climate; India.
Enhancement of quality of polypropylene by optimisation of injection moulding parameters with genetic algorithm
by Deepak Kumar, G.S. Dangayach, P.N. Rao
Abstract: Plastic injection moulding (PIM) represents one of the most important processes in the mass production of precise plastic parts with intricate geometries. Polypropylene (PP) is the widely used material related to plastic parts for automobile and packaging industry. It was observed that thermal shrinkage and warpage in plastic parts are the most prominent defects and affects the quality of plastic parts. In this paper, a methodology has been presented for reducing the thermal shrinkage and warpage along with the maximising the impact strength (IS) of virgin polypropylene (PP). To obtain the optimum values of injection moulding parameters, Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) was used. Overall, six parameters were chosen for the experiment. The linear graph was utilised to know the effectiveness and interactions of the parameters. Thus, with Taguchi method minimum thermal shrinkage of 4.67%, minimum warpage of 1.8 mm and maximum impact strength of 56.7 J/m were obtained in PP specimens. With this methodology, prediction equations and mathematical models for thermal shrinkage, warpage and IS of PP were developed which are useful for industrial applications. With multi objective genetic algorithm, these mathematical models were optimised.
Keywords: plastic injection moulding; Taguchi's orthogonal array; thermal shrinkage; warpage; impact strength; polypropylene; multi-objective genetic algorithm.
Analysis of biochar from carbonisation of wheat straw using continuous auger reactor
by Ashish Pawar, N.L. Panwar
Abstract: The agricultural residue is considered as one of the promising organic biomass materials for getting energy-rich products (such as biochar, bio-oil, and syngas, etc.) via thermochemical conversion route. In the current study, the biochar was produced from wheat straw using continuous auger reactor and analysis of produced biochar in terms of product yield, energy yield, and its physicochemical composition. Carbonisation of wheat straw was carried out in a continuous auger reactor at four different temperatures i.e., 350°C, 400°C, 450°C, 500°C by keeping 5 min of residence time respectively. The maximum mass and energy yield of wheat straw biochar was recorded at 400°C. The wheat straw to biochar conversion efficiency in a continuous auger reactor was about 30%. The higher heating value (HHV) of produced biochar was varied from 20 MJ/kg-23 MJ/kg, so it indicates that biochar can be efficiently used in thermal applications. The physicochemical characterisation of biochar produced at 400°C was also carried out at bioenergy laboratory. The obtained biochar showed higher carbon content of 70%, H/C and O/C ratio were found to be 0.022 and 0.29, respectively.
Keywords: wheat straw; energy; biochar; carbonisation; auger reactor; agro waste.
Effect of B20 and B30 jatropha biodiesel blends on combustion characteristics of mullite coated LHR DI diesel engine
by Sharad P. Jagtap, Anand N. Pawar, Subhash Lahane
Abstract: For conform suitability of biodiesel in an internal combustion engine, the improved performance and reduced emission characteristics are required. These characteristics belong to combustion characteristics of fuel. In the present experimental analysis, various combustion characteristics of conventional and modified engines are analysed for the use of biodiesel blend fuels. For modification, Oerlikon Metco-6150 (Al2O3 + SiO2) mullite powder material was coated on the crown of the piston, cylinder head and both valves of single cylinder DI diesel engine. Coating was carried out by using atmospheric plasma spray process. Characteristics from both engine operations by using two jatropha biodiesel blends (B20 and B30) were compared with the diesel fuelled CE operation. Ignition delay with biodiesel blends B20 and B30 at CE operation was decreased by 0.49°CA and 0.54°CA respectively. It was further reduced during LHRE operation. Similarly, the MRPR with biodiesel blends B20 and B30 at CE operation was decreased by 0.42 bar/°CA and 0.54 bar/°CA respectively. Although the MRPR is slightly higher in LHRE, it was less in CE operation with diesel fuel. By this way, the variations in pressure, temperature, premixed, diffused, after burning, combustion duration, etc. and their effects were discussed.
Keywords: diesel engine; biodiesel; METCO 6150 mullite material; LHR engine.
Wind speed trend analysis along the Indian coast for 40 years
by Bhasuru Abhinaya Srinivas, Surendra Singh Kachhwaha, Garlapati Nagababu
Abstract: Wind speed trend analysis will help to understand the impact of climate change on wind energy resources. Therefore, the present study investigates the wind speed trends at six locations along the Indian coast using the 40-year (1979-2018) ERA-Interim reanalysis wind speed data. The cumulative changes and variation in trends for wind speed are computed by using first-degree polynomial regression analysis. Further, annual variability, seasonal variability and cumulative changes in the wind power density are calculated. From the results, it has been observed that trends of wind speed are incremental at two locations (Rameshwaram and Kanyakumari) and decremental at the other four locations. The maximum cumulative change in wind speed of 2.5% occurs at the Rameshwaram with an increasing trend of 0.04 m/s/decade. The extreme values of wind power density are observed during the post-monsoon season, a decrement of 40% at the Jakhau and, an increment of 24.78% at the Rameshwaram.
Keywords: climate change; ECMWF; wind speed; trend analysis; Indian coast; wind power density.
Special Issue on: Sustainable Development and Economic Growth in Developing Countries
Analysis of regional sustainability status of the healthy Batik Village from social, economic, and ecological perspectives
by Ikeu Tanziha, Sri Awalia Febriana, Katharina Oginawati, Yessi Crosita Octaria, Risti Rosmiati
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the regional sustainability of the healthy Batik Village from social, economic, and ecological perspectives. It was conducted in July 2019 in Kulon Progo, Special Region of Yogyakarta. Furthermore, the survey data were analysed using the RAPFISH ordination technique through the multidimensional scaling (MDS) method. The index and regional sustainability status of the healthy Batik Village were accessed using these methods. It also identified sensitive attributes affecting the sustainability index of social, economic, and ecological dimensions through the leverage analysis. The analysis results showed that the ecological dimension had the lowest index value (23.9) or in the poor category. The social and economic dimensions showed sufficient status with indices of 62.92 and 61.13, respectively. The policy implications for improving the sustainability status from sufficient to good need to manage the sensitive attributes of these three dimensions.
Keywords: regional sustainability; multidimensional scaling; MDS; healthy batik.
Green banking: a strategy for attainment of UN-Sustainable Development Goals 2030
by Syed Asim Ali Bukhari, Fathyah Hashim, Azlan Amran
Abstract: All over the world, countries are facing severe climate change and environmental degradation. Green banking has been developed and adopted as a banking ideology to reduce the adverse environmental impact of various polluting industries. The purpose of this study is to develop a multidimensional framework for green banking adoption which is in line with the United Nations-Sustainable Development Goals (UN-SDGs) 2030. Green banking can play an important part in the attainment of the UN-SDGs 2030. This study demonstrates the dimensions of green banking adoption that can be
adopted by banks in order to facilitate the environmental sustainability of the
country. The study proposes the framework for green banking adoption based on the natural resource-based view (NRBV) of the firm. The first-order constructs in the framework have been derived from the green capabilities proposed in NRBV of the firm. These reflective constructs lead towards the second-order construct of green banking adoption. The proposed framework is developed and justified on a theoretical basis and through secondary data.
Keywords: green banking adoption; UN-SDGs 2030; green building; green audit; green financing; green capabilities; natural resource-based view; NRBV.