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International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (IJESB)

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International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (90 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Key Research Issues and Agendas in Start-up post-Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Vibhuti Tripathi, Akshita Dwivedi 
    Abstract: The lockdowns mandated for controlling virus spread altered social behaviour, and negatively impacted businesses and operations. As a result of social distance and staying at home, internet usage increased. Rise in digitalisation and e-commerce clearly indicates a new era of innovative business models and a variety of research agendas. It would be pragmatic to study these recent and inevitable changes, new challenges, and business opportunities. The study followed a systematic literature review approach. This review study is an attempt to systematically review, analyse, and classify the primary contributions published in managerial literature on COVID-19and start-ups; using VOSviewer software for tracing clustering solutions. This orderly reviewed literature study offers a holistic view of studies on start-ups affiliated with the COVID-19 crisis. The scope of study covers several themes that initially emerged concerning the entrepreneurial field. Challenges, innovation, and opportunities are found to generate significant interest in literature. The analysis shows how the epidemic forces businesses to innovate and offer multiple opportunities through digitisation. The study has some policy and managerial implications as well.
    Keywords: COVID-19; start-ups; pandemic; opportunities; business challenges; managerial perspective; entrepreneurship; digital business; systematic literature review; bibliometrics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10051059
     
  • Financial Ambidexterity of the Immigrant Family Businesses: The Role of Boundary Work and Behavioral Complexity   Order a copy of this article
    by Bryan Malki 
    Abstract: The immigrant entrepreneurs limited financing choices, and the various barriers preventing their access to the necessary financing in host countries have been extensively covered by the immigrant entrepreneurship literature. However, little is known about how immigrant family businesses (IFBs), at their startup level, manage to overcome these barriers and survive in host countries. Thus, this paper introduces the concept of financial ambidexterity of IFBs as the behavioral ability that some IFB owners develop to flexibly explore and exploit financing opportunities in both coethnic and mainstream contexts in host countries. In doing so, the paper draws on the complementary role of boundary work and behavioral complexity in determining the IFBs financial ambidexterity. As such, the paper contributes to the literature on entrepreneurial finance, and to the intersection between family business and immigrant entrepreneurship literature by introducing a mechanism that enables IFBs to overcome financing barriers in host countries.
    Keywords: Immigrant Entrepreneurship; Immigrant Family Business; Financial Ambidexterity; Entrepreneurial Finance; Behavioral Complexity; Social Boundaries; Boundary Work.

  • Employee entrepreneurial behavior in SME service development: A qualitative study on effectuation   Order a copy of this article
    by Reija Häkkinen, Juha Kansikas 
    Abstract: It is important to increase our knowledge about service cocreation that occurs between employees and customers. Customer-employee interaction is crucial for organizations financial performance and profitability. Cocreation needs effectuation as an entrepreneurial logic that supports transactions. Increasing sales by effectual customer-employee interaction creates new business opportunities. Cocreation by employees and customers enhances new service development. This study focuses on understanding employees entrepreneurial behavior. The study examines cocreation by employees and customers through effectuation and service-dominant logic. First, we understand employee effectual cocreation in the service context; second, we contribute to service-dominant logic by more accurately explaining the opportunities employees have to enable customer service cocreation. The qualitative study is based on one organization that operates in the service industry. The focus group discussions with the management and the employees (a total of 22 individuals) are analyzed by using the Gioia method. The first-order codes and the second-order codes are created by using content analysis. A grounded theory model is presented on effectual cocreation by employees and customers in service development. The results contribute to the management of organizational renewal and suggest improvements related to service-related entrepreneurial behavior. By understanding the possibilities brought about through greater support for employees creative inputs in organizations, we also enable incremental renewal and service development. This method creates opportunities for new innovations, customer and employee satisfaction, and flourishing organizations.
    Keywords: effectuation; causation; entrepreneurial behavior; entrepreneurship; renewal; service development; service-dominant logic; tourism; value creation; cocreation.

  • Understanding Female Entrepreneurial Success: A Phenomenological Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Charles Ackah, Kwame Adom, Golda Anambane 
    Abstract: Debates about the objectivity and subjectivity of entrepreneurial success has lingered in literature. Yet, the subjective conceptions of female entrepreneurial success, especially in developing contexts, is less understood. More so, knowledge about how female entrepreneurs in developing contexts go about achieving entrepreneurial success is limited. This study fills the gaps in literature by exploring the meanings female entrepreneurs attach to entrepreneurial success and how they go about achieving it. We adopt a qualitative research methodology, concentrating on the phenomenological approach. We gathered primary data from 30 female entrepreneurs from three neighbourhoods: Nima, North Kaneshie, and Labone. Thematic Network Analysis technique was the data analysis method. The study finds that entrepreneurial success is about the mobility of business across different business structure platforms (upward mobility of business structure) and business activities (inter-sectoral mobility of business activities and diversification). Network relationships are also among themes emerged as a factor of entrepreneurial success.
    Keywords: Female Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Success; Micro-Enterprise; Ghana.

  • MSMEs and Overland Trade Barriers: A Case Study of Indias Prominent Land Border Gateways   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahid-ul-Islam Dar, SANDEEP KAUR 
    Abstract: TIndias trade with South Asian nations remains a minuscule part of its global trade. India shares its land border with half of the South Asian nations. Its trade with these nations would be more economical through direct land routes compared to long circuitous routes. And the small business enterprises in the states sharing international land borders usually bear a strong inclination towards having trade relations with the bordering nations. Given this, the article attempts to highlight the impediments Indian MSMEs encounter in overland trade with Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal. The study draws on an exhaustive field study undertaken at integrated check posts (ICPs) Attari, Raxaul, and Petrapole connecting India, through land routes, to Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, respectively. This study uses the snowball sampling technique to bring to the fore the problems that MSMEs consider as trade impeding. The study finds that such enterprises involved in trade through the land borders perceive lack of financial resources, lack of government assistance, corruption, infrastructure inadequacy, customs regulations and procedures, and favouritism towards big businesses as strong impediments to their trade activities. During the field research, it was found that MSMEs are charged at par with big businesses for various services provided by the ICPs. The study suggests the calculation of charges for different trade-related services on an ad-valorem basis. Moreover, separate enquiry-cum-grievance redressal kiosks should be set up to address queries and complaints of MSME traders. Furthermore, concerning the severe lack of requisite information available with such MSMEs, the necessary information should be disseminated among these enterprises through regularly held trade fairs besides electronic and print media.
    Keywords: MSMEs; Integrated Check Posts; Land routes; Overland Trade; Attari; Raxaul; Petrapole. rn.

  • The Evolution of Business Incubation Practices over the Years: A Bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Aidin Salamzadeh, Jumana Nalakam Paramba, Samsudheen Karuthedath 
    Abstract: Incubation centres and accelerators are designed to help startups succeed by providing some service packs. Then, studies on business incubation have become increasingly important. The current study maps and analyses the academic literature on business incubation methods using bibliometric analysis. Vosviewer software is used, and papers published in the Scopus database between 1988 and 2021 are scrutinised further to determine publication trends, most used keywords, most published journals, and countries and institutions in the field of business incubation studies. We discovered that the number of papers published has recently increased, with the most published in 2020. Similarly, the United States took first place in publications. Besides, the study contributes to academicians, startup founders and policyholders. It allows academics to identify publication trends. Similarly, it provides a thorough understanding of the services supplied by business incubators. Finally, it could help policyholders devise relevant policies
    Keywords: Business Incubation; Bibliometric analysis; Startups; Vosviewer.

  • Refugee Self-Employment: How Resettlement Journeys Shape Entrepreneurial Behavioural Attributes   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadeera Ranabahu, Huibert P. De Vries, Zhiyan Basharati 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial behavioural attributes are ancillary to business start-ups and the development process. Refugees navigate complex economic, political, social, and cultural issues in their home, transition, and host countries. These multiple contexts that refugees are embedded in shape the development of their entrepreneurial attributes. Using qualitative data collected from 19 New Zealand refugee entrepreneurs, this study explores how refugee flight and settlement shape their entrepreneurial behavioural attribute development. The results indicate that hardships and asylum-seeking experiences, such as changing circumstances and living in multiple countries, create conditions or situations that enhance six key behavioural attributes required for self-employment. The refugees self-confidence, hard work ethic, resilience, adaptability, resourcefulness, and active learning attributes are sharpened due to their experiences in home, transition, and host countries. These key behavioural attributes facilitate entrepreneurial action and refugee integration through business start-ups and development in the host countries.
    Keywords: behavioural attributes; entrepreneur; integration; mixed-embeddedness; refugees; refugee entrepreneurship; settlement; transition.

  • DOMESTIC ABUSE: VOICE, EXIT, LOYALTY, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP   Order a copy of this article
    by Sanya Ojo 
    Abstract: Women who suffer domestic violence are trapped in abusive relationship for a number of reasons that relate to socio-cultural and economic rationalisation. Divorce is not always considered an option for many sufferers, hence, they suffer in silence. Against this background, this study explores ten cases of women in abusive relationships to determine the incidence of violence against women (VAW) in Nigeria. Through the application of the exit, voice, loyalty framework, the form, causes, effects, and management are appraised to determine the agency of victims.
    Keywords: Nigeria; Women; Domestic Violence; Culture; Entrepreneurship.

  • Intellectual Capital: A Linchpin for sustainable growth of Indian Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Priti Sharma 
    Abstract: In this study an attempt has been made by the author to explore the level of intellectual capital present in the enterprises and also to check weather intellectual capital can be a linchpin for the sustainable development of small and medium enterprises. A structured questionnaire with 90 statements from strongly agree to strongly disagree has been used for the collection of data and collected data has been analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings depict that the level of intellectual capital as well as the performance is very low in the sampled enterprises which gives an insight that performance would increase if investment on intellectual capital will be increased by the enterprises. The results of this paper will help the society in getting awareness that besides other financial or non-financial capital, intellectual capital too plays a very significant role in enhancing the performance of the enterprises
    Keywords: Intellectual Capital; Organizational performance; Small and Medium enterprises,.

  • Determinants of Startup Performance: An Empirical Analysis of Startups from Kerala, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aidin Salamzadeh, Jumana Nalakam Paramba, Samsudheen Karuthedath, Ratan J. S. Dheer 
    Abstract: Startup firms are newer businesses with several limits in their early phases. According to the Resource-Based View, it is necessary to implement numerous strategies. As a result, the current research highlights the numerous aspects that influence startup performance. The relationship between several elements (intellectual capital, business incubator characteristics, Entrepreneurial orientation and marketing strategies) that influence startup performance is investigated. These relationships are measured through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). As per the findings, startups must retain a significant amount of intangible assets in the form of human resources, their interrelationships, organisational structure and culture, and marketing strategies to function innovatively. Contrary to expectations, entrepreneurial orientation does not affect startup companies innovative performance. The study gives an insight into startup founders regarding the matters to be considered while starting a new venture. Likewise, it provides an opportunity for students to attract investment opportunities and connect with different parties in the startup ecosystem.
    Keywords: Intellectual Capital; Entrepreneurial Orientation; Business Incubation Services; Market information; startup performance.

  • Does territorial inclusiveness affect immigrant propensity to entrepreneurship? A study in the Italian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Francesca Faggioni 
    Abstract: The research aims to understand the relationship between the inclusiveness of a host country and the propensity of immigrant population in becoming entrepreneurs. Since there is not unique consensus in extant literature about how inclusiveness can affect immigrants propensity to become entrepreneurs, the paper analyses this relationship using indicators and synthetic indexes developed from scholarly literature and institutional data. Italy is the context of investigation, since it is one of the EU countries that have more immigrants on its soil. Findings show several interesting insights for academics and policy makers and managers, such as the immigrants higher propensity to entrepreneurship in contexts in which inclusiveness is lower. The research is one of the few that make an in-depth contribution on both theoretical and practical side, offering a fresh snapshot on immigrant entrepreneurship in Italy both at a national and at a sub-national level.
    Keywords: territories; inclusiveness; immigrant; entrepreneurship; smallbusiness; regional study; Italy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10051443
     
  • Influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention among final year students of business colleges in Bhutan.   Order a copy of this article
    by Dawa Drakpa, Kinga Penjor, Sonam Choden, Tandin Om, Dorji Zangmo, Chencho Wangmo 
    Abstract: The study aims to investigate the influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention among final year students of the three business colleges at the Royal University of Bhutan. Four factors are identified based on Banduras self-efficacy theory. The data were collected from 262 final year students of three business colleges in Bhutan through an online survey. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that all four factors have a significant influence on entrepreneurial intention. Of which emotional arousal had the highest influences on entrepreneurial intention of students, followed by mastery experiences. The findings have clear inferences to policymakers in framing policies to address the youth entrepreneurial intention.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention; self-efficacy; Bandura’s theory; students; Bhutan.

  • The Influence of Entrepreneurial Traits on the Success of Startup Performance in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Dubey, Archana Shrivastava 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the significant influence of entrepreneurial traits (personality traits, networking, human capital/skills, experience and strategy) on the success of startup performance in India. This purpose has been achieved by gathering data from 100 selected startups from different sectors following the National Capital Region statistics. We employed both descriptive statistics and a confirmatory factor analysis to put forward the findings. The findings showed a significant influence of entrepreneurial traits on startup performance in India. Various factors like innovativeness, risk attitude, informal alliance, external networks, technological collaborations, business association and customer contact had a positive impact on the startup's success. The implication is that personal and non-personal factors influence the startup performance and formation processes. The findings of this study may be of significant help for the corporate sector, micro-small businesses, and the government to decide how young people can be trained to ensure startup success. The paper, therefore, recommended using this newly developed tool by policy-makers to improve and help the Indian government to understand what could be the possible new policies to implement and hence develop a new startup cultural environment.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Traits; Startup Performance; Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

  • Promoting Womens Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: The Case of the Worlds Largest Women-Owned Community-Based Enterprise   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Ahmad, Dwitya Amry, Punita Bhatt, Yubei Hu 
    Abstract: Policy makers view Community Based Enterprises (CBEs) as vehicles for promoting womens entrepreneurship (WE) in developing countries (DC). This paper is motivated by previous research that seeks to find conditions that generate durability and longevity in CBEs. Using the qualitative case study methodology, we undertook an in-depth investigation at Lijjat, arguably the world's largest and most durable women-owned CBE in India. Our aim was to unpack the antecedent conditions that made the case organisation robust, enabling territorial expansion and survival against more technologically sophisticated competitors. Results illustrate how religio-cultural factors and social capital were integral to the growth and robustness of Lijjat. We found the presence of a democratic governance structure, organisational routines that promoted social cohesion, and a business model which promoted strong collective entrepreneurship behaviours amongst its women members. We suggest that understanding CBE robustness from a gendered perspective holds considerable promise for promoting socio-economic development in DCs.
    Keywords: community-based enterprise; developing countries; women’s entrepreneurship; case study; India.

  • Entrepreneurial Innovations in Business Communication: A Systematic Review of 6G and Future Research Agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Pushpa Singh, Narendra Singh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to sytnhesise the previous research on various entrepreneurial innovations so as to present future research agenda to various management scholars, practioners and yiung buddy entrepreneurs. This purpose is achieved by systematically reviewing the papers to identify the role and prospects of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, and Blockchain in the sixth generation network. This paper reviews emerging technologies' primary contribution to clarify their role in business communication such as 6G. The finding reveal that entrepreneurial innovations and business communication are contemporary to each other. Emerging technologies are helping in the evolution of business communication by offering intelligent, transparent spectrum management, mobility management, interference management and resource management. However, current innovations assists real-time applications based on emerging technologies by providing higher data rate, low latency, network security and reliability. Further, the impact of this study offers a new dimension to practioners to sustain themselves in the global market.
    Keywords: AI; IoT; Blockchain; 6G; Business.

  • Gender diversity and innovation in family SMEs: an empirical study in Colombia   Order a copy of this article
    by Juan David Peláez-León, Laura Salas-Arbeláez, Mónica García-Solarte 
    Abstract: The most innovative firms worldwide are family businesses. However, some studies suggest that these firms do not invest much in innovation. Motivated by this contradiction and the limited knowledge regarding this topic in the Latin American context, this article aims to provide a greater understanding of the determinants that influence the level of innovation in family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Focused on the effect of gender diversity on the level of innovation in family SMEs, this study shows through a multiple regression analysis from a sample of 274 family SMEs in Colombia that gender diversity positively affects the innovation levels of family SMEs, especially in process innovation.
    Keywords: innovation; family firms; SMEs; gender diversity; Columbia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10051061
     
  • Lean Startup as A Model for Smart City Projects: The Case of Tel Aviv Yafo   Order a copy of this article
    by Arie Herscovici, Osnat Akirav, Gil Cohen, Limor Yehuda, Sagit Barel-Shaked, Labib Shami 
    Abstract: The global competition between cities over residents and businesses, as well as environmental considerations, force cities to employ ICT (Information and Communication Technology), to become more effective and efficient. This development is often labeled Smart City. We suggest that incorporating ICT often entails adopting managerial methods that are taken from the ICT industry, such as Lean Startup. This article illustrates it by a case study of Tel Aviv-Yafos Smart City project. The Lean Startup development process starts with a value and growth hypotheses, and a Minimum Viable Product (MVP) to test them. The test determines whether to continue the development (persevere), to make substantial changes (pivot), or abandon it altogether (perish). Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipalitys modus operandi, regarding its Smart City project, reveals many similarities with the Lean Startup model. Its acknowledged success suggests that it might be a suitable model for other smart city projects.
    Keywords: Smart city; lean startup; lean thinking; sandbox; Tel Aviv-Yafo.

  • Factors Affecting Motivation and Performance of Tourism Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay Kumar Pandey, Shewangizaw Getachew Terefe, Pradeep Joshi 
    Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the oldest civilisations and has huge tourism potential, but this industry has not developed as expected. Here tourism is not only a profit-earning source but also can be helpful in the poverty reduction strategy. This study has focused on the souvenir industry. Data for the study was acquired from 144 souvenir entrepreneurs. The study provides empirical evidence for the four pull motivational factors: initiation, independence, confidence, and alertness and the four push factors such as risk, dissatisfaction, effectiveness, and unemployment. The result indicated that pull factors like initiation and confidence and push factors like risk-taking positively affect sales, profit and asset performance. This study has generated new knowledge in the souvenir industry by investigating how the souvenir industry entrepreneur faces challenges in managing the business. This paper identifies the motivational factors of souvenir entrepreneurs that need to be considered by policymakers in Ethiopia to promote the souvenir industry.
    Keywords: motivation; pull and push factors; tourism; entrepreneur; performance; Ethiopia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10055896
     
  • ENABLERS OF SENIOR ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY ACROSS CHILE: AN ANALYSIS USING INDIVIDUAL-LEVEL GEM DATA   Order a copy of this article
    by ALFONSO JESUS TORRES-MARIN, Karla Soria-Barreto, Marcelo Leporati 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify the internal factors that lead seniors to start a new entrepreneurial venture in Chile, according to their different motivations (necessity or opportunity) and to understand the differences between high-and low-income regions. The analysis is based on individual data from the Adult Population Survey of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The sample uses information on people aged over 55 years in Chile between 2016 and 2018. A logistic regression analysis to test the influence of several internal factors on the propensity to engage in total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA) was performed. The research quantifies the different impacts that income, education, gender, social values, attitudes and perceptions have on the probability of senior entrepreneurial activity across different regions in Chile, according to entrepreneurs motivation. This paper will help governments to configure policies to support entrepreneurial activity in the senior demographic segment, considering regional and motivational differences.
    Keywords: senior entrepreneurship; silver economy GEM; regional entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship in Chile; opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2023.10052820
     
  • Women Entrepreneurs Vs. Women Employees A Comparative Study of Personality Traits and Success Factors of Women in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Jain Mathew, Tripti Arvind, Sridevi Nair 
    Abstract: In the current study, the researchers evaluate the relationship between personality traits, as defined by the big five personality traits, and success factors of women; as entrepreneurs and employees. The findings suggest that there are significant differences among women entrepreneurs and women employees on some parameters of Personality. In addition, Women Entrepreneurs were found to rate themselves significantly higher on the dimensions of Self Confidence; thereby indicating a stronger sense of belief in their abilities. The evaluation of the relationship between the Personality Traits and Success Factors revealed that in the case of Entrepreneurs, Personality traits were significant in predicting Success. As nations work to improve gender ratios in the labour force and as the number of women entrepreneurs grows, a better understanding of what constitutes success and the factors that could influence success are critical in supporting female participation in the economy; as entrepreneurs and employees.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurs; Employees; Big five; Personality traits; Success; Women; India.

  • Gender identity and entrepreneurial self-efficacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Jean-Paul Tchankam, Emmanuel Tchagang, Jean-Michel SAHUT, Maria Bruna 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explain the difference in the level of entrepreneurial self-efficacy between males and females, not by biological sex but by gender identity. The results of the overall effect of MANOVA reveal a significant difference between the level of students entrepreneurial self-efficacy based on their gender identity in Cameroon. Contrary to expectations, the self-efficacy of androgynous individuals is higher than that of masculine-typed, feminine-typed, and undifferentiated individuals, suggesting that todays students have a more balanced perception (masculine and feminine) of the nature of entrepreneurship. This study is one of the first to establish the link between gender identity and entrepreneurial self-efficacy, contributing to reinforcing the feminist approach according to which entrepreneurship is gendered by nature.
    Keywords: Sex; Stereotype; Gender identity; Entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

  • SMEs' strategies for dealing with the Covid-19 emergency: a case study in the Italian food industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Serena Strazzullo, Sara Pioggerella, Mark Anthony Camilleri, Ciro Troise, Aidin Salamzadeh 
    Abstract: The spread of COVID-19 has represented worldwide the biggest health emergency in recent years and has also caused extensive economic damage. It has pushed companies to reinvent themselves and adapt to new circumstances. This paper proposes an exploratory study to investigate the main resilience strategies and entrepreneurship ventures adopted by SMEs in the food industry to cope with the pandemic emergency. A survey was conducted through semi-structured interviews to collect data from 40 SMEs in Campania, an Italian region. A thematic analysis was then employed to analyse the data. Five major themes were identified, and each was addressed in turn, describing how often they come up, what they mean, and including examples from the data as evidence. The results show that most companies have undertaken innovative and digitisation strategies. On the other hand, the study revealed that few firms had adopted solely conservative strategies.
    Keywords: COVID-19; food industry; pandemic; resilience; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; strategies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10052220
     
  • The Effect of Institutional Asymmetry on Informal Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Gianluca Zanella, Cory Hallam, Teja Guda 
    Abstract: Scientific literature represents the informal economy in two opposite ways, either as a sector characterized by low wages and productivity, and as a provider of livelihood for billions of people around the world. Macroeconomic theories and studies provide contrasting explanations of this complex phenomenon. Using institutional theory, we develop a microeconomic approach from an individual perspective to understand the social dynamics that can explain the choice of informal entrepreneurship. Drawing from a rich tradition of cognitive models and institutional theories, this study provides evidence of the differential effect of institutional asymmetry on nascent entrepreneurs through attitudes and subjective norms. Social pressure exerts a critical role in differentiating the entrepreneurial process between formal and informal nascent entrepreneurs. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Informal entrepreneurship; Bolivia; institutional asymmetry; social pressure; emerging economies; pervasive informal economy.

  • SETTING AFFAIRS BETWEEN ENTREPRENEURIAL SELF-EFFICACY, VALUE, MOTIVATION AND INTENTIONS THROUGH SERIAL MEDIATION   Order a copy of this article
    by Sandeep Singh, Priyanka Sharma, Sandeep Singh, Amarjit Kaur, Pooja Mehta, Rajni Bala 
    Abstract: This study ponders upon factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions by examining serial mediation effect of perceived value of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. The current study contributes to the body of knowledge by looking into an unobserved relationship that suggests a metaphor connecting entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), perceived value (PV), entrepreneurial motivation (EM), and entrepreneurial intentions (EI), which is itself an exclusive model to hypothesise and test. To achieve the objectives of the research, simple random sampling technique was used, and data were collected from 260 MBA professional students. After applying Royston multivariate normality test, non-parametric technique of structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for further analysis. A significant serial mediation effect of perceived value of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention was established. The findings proved that perceived value of entrepreneurship plays a role as the mediator between entrepreneurial self- efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, while entrepreneurial motivation performs as a mediator between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. Serial Mediation Effect of EPV and EM on ESE and EI is acknowledged in this study as a contribution to the body of literature. Results of this study have implications for entrepreneurship practice, organizations, and governments to examine the demands for entrepreneurial training and to adopt plans for growth of the economy.
    Keywords: perceived value; entrepreneurial motivation; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; entrepreneurial intention; serial mediation.

  • The effect of founding team characteristics on start-ups performance. The case of Campania   Order a copy of this article
    by Adele Parmentola, Michele Costagliola Di Fiore 
    Abstract: There is a growing interest in the entrepreneurship literature on studying start-ups and how they can achieve high performance. Authors usually classify start-ups growth factors into three main categories: the entrepreneur, the firm, and the socio-economic environment characteristics. rnHowever, more recent studies have shown that many start-ups are founded by a team and not by a single entrepreneur. Consequently, the success of new ventures also depends on the founding team characteristics, especially focusing on team heterogeneity. rnThis paper aims to investigate how entrepreneurial team heterogeneity affects start-up performance, and based on our hypothesis, we empirically testing this relationship in the context of Campania\'s innovative start-up ecosystem.rn
    Keywords: founding team characteristics; entrepreneurial team heterogeneity; demographic heterogeneity; informational heterogeneity; personality heterogeneity; tenure heterogeneity; innovative start-up’s; start-ups’ performance; new venture performance; entrepreneurship; small business; Campania Region.rnrn.

  • PATENTS, INVESTMENTS IN R&D, AND MARKET VALUE: AN ANALYSIS BY COMPANY SIZE   Order a copy of this article
    by Fernando Henrique Taques, Leonardo Fernando Cruz Basso, Nelson Areal 
    Abstract: This research aims to understand whether organisational innovation can explain the market value of companies based on indicators of patents published, patents cited, and R&D expenditure. This empirical study performed a sample of 1,342 companies from 1985 to 2016 with fixed-effects and random-effects panel data models and quantile regression for panel data. There was partial support for the evidence that innovation positively affects companies market value. This result could differ from the indicator applied in the estimates and methodology used and the companys size. Regardless of the empirical method, the total variables assets and gross revenue were able to explain the variations in the market value of organisations in most models. However, the coefficients found are different between the sample quantiles suggesting that the companys size may be relevant.
    Keywords: innovation; patent; R&D; market value; size.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10055964
     
  • Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Financing in the Manufacturing Industry: demand-side determinants of bank credit access in Mozambique   Order a copy of this article
    by Benedito Junior, Pedro Falcão, José Esperança 
    Abstract: This paper examines the demand-side factors that influence small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) access to bank financing in the manufacturing industry in Mozambique. A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was applied, starting with quantitative research on a sample of 347 SMEs followed by qualitative research on 30 SMEs. Managers experience, firm size, gross profit, and equity were found to be the only statistically significant determinants of SMEs access to bank credit. The most important themes identified by the qualitative research were risk tolerance, financial literacy, financial management skills, loan terms offered, service quality, lessons learned, cultural aspects, managers beliefs, and internal aspects. This study fills a research gap by examining the demand-side factors that influence SMEs access to bank financing in the manufacturing industry in developing economies. The results provide a deeper understanding of which determinants are crucial in order to ensure effective strategies and tools in developing countries. An important implication is that policymakers need to implement holistic approaches that prioritise demand-side factors.
    Keywords: bank financing access; SMEs; small and medium-sized enterprises; manufacturing sector; demand-side factors; manager experience; Mozambique; developing economies; sequential explanatory design; logistic regression; thematic analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10056674
     
  • Inputs of the social life theory of Ingold to entrepreneurial network: a tetratype model of relationships.   Order a copy of this article
    by Caroline Merdinger-Rumpler, Odile Paulus, Olga Bourachnikova 
    Abstract: This empirical research studies the nature of relations entrepreneurs have with their network stakeholders. Inspired by Ingolds social life theory (2017a), a comprehensive methodology was adopted to study a specific context of student-entrepreneurs engaged in a three-year entrepreneurial team-action learning programme. We propose a typology that sheds light on the nature of social network relations through characteristics like the various intensities ranging from weak to strong, then the type of perception student-entrepreneurs have of the stakeholder (from resource, person to support or key player), their openness, and finally, the transformative potential of their inner self or the entrepreneurial project levels. Ultimately, we present a tetratype model of relations that opens a new view on the entrepreneurial network.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial network; Ingold; Social life theory; Relationship model; Business model; Entrepreneurial education; Entrepreneur's stakeholders; Experiential learning; Human support for entrepreneurs.

  • Succession in family businesses: an opportunity to change the business model   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Ouiakoub, Thierry Poulain-Rehm 
    Abstract: Succession is a critical moment in the life of family firms. It often takes several years, during which time the predecessor gradually gives way to their successor. Although it can be an opportunity to change the business model (BM), the predecessor can often find it difficult to accept. Here, we report on a study of the characteristics of the BM in a sample of Moroccan family businesses, and explore the role of succession in its evolution. Our results show that inter-generational renewal is a key determinant. In particular, we find that a period of joint management, when the successor and their predecessor share responsibilities, allows the successor to propose changes. This approach also ensures that any conflicts that may arise between the predecessor, who seeks a certain level of stability, and the successor, who is hungry for change, can be managed by a dialogue that unfolds within the family.
    Keywords: business model change; succession; family business; conflicts.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10053650
     
  • Entrepreneurship and resilience: evidence from Lebanese SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Diala Kabbara, Latifa Attieh, Bahi Fatha 
    Abstract: Increased market uncertainty and natural disasters over the past years have posed serious obstacles to the survival of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and forced many firms to seek resilience. This study aims to explore the resilience of SMEs in Lebanon in times of crisis. The study drew on resilience entrepreneurship literature and focused on the importance of the entrepreneur to absorb the external shock and survive during the crisis. A quantitative approach was adopted, and primary data was collected through a survey of Lebanese SMEs. The findings reveal that the main factors that affect the resilience of SMEs are entrepreneur self-efficacy and adaptability. The study concludes by discussing possible policy and managerial implications as well as suggested areas for future research.
    Keywords: resilience; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; adaptability; resourcefulness; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10054285
     
  • Impacts of Information System Maturity on SME Performance and the Contribution of Dynamic Capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug 
    Abstract: An examination of the digitalisation accomplishment and digital capabilities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), called information system (IS) maturity, has become a significant concern for the managers of SMEs. By drawing support from dynamics capabilities theory, this study explores the determinants of IS maturity and how IS maturity influences the business performance of Cameroonian SMEs. To investigate the gaps in the literature, we propose a structural research model. This model is analysed using partial least squares approach on 212 Cameroonian SMEs with functional IS. We highlight that dynamic capabilities are effective explainers of variance in IS maturity, underlining these assets importance to a firms business performance. The outcomes of this study serve as components for SME managers two consecutive goals. First, the availability of effective dynamic capabilities to SMEs helps in the improvement of IS maturity. Second, a high IS maturity level allows SMEs to improve their business performance.
    Keywords: Cameroon; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; dynamic capabilities contribution; information system maturity; SME performance; dynamic capabilities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10053880
     
  • Developing industry-wide information management capabilities in British Columbias tree fruit industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Svan Lembke, Youry Khmelevsky, Lee Cartier 
    Abstract: This study provides a critical evaluation of the BC tree fruit industrys information management capabilities. It introduces a method to identify weaknesses across the value chain and make recommendations for improvements. Information from in-depth interviews and documentation provided by major industry stakeholders is used to identify and describe the type of data collected and used by the industry. This is analysed using the CMMI maturity model for technology development. A map of the industrys information architecture is created and shows six main information management weaknesses, including raw data gaps in fruit production, sales and marketing, and water use and irrigation management. As an industry composed primarily of small and mid-size businesses, these weaknesses make it increasingly difficult for BCs tree fruit growers to collaborate within the industry cluster and adopt the technology innovations necessary to compete with large, often vertically integrated producers from other regions.
    Keywords: tree fruit industry; agriculture; industry information management; collective entrepreneurship; cluster; innovation; British Columbia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10053317
     
  • Optimism, economic concern, trust in the government, and entrepreneurial intention during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharon Garyn-Tal, Shosh Shahrabani, Sara Lev, Helen Roberts 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent worldwide economic crisis had a profound impact on the economic situation and decision-making abilities of many individuals, and particularly potential entrepreneurs. The current study investigates the factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions in the context of COVID-19. An online questionnaire was used to collect data among 682 adults in Israel during 2020. The results reveal that optimism orientation, trust in the government, and economic concern exerted a collaborative and interactive influence on the entrepreneurial intentions of Israelis. The research makes both theoretical and practical contributions by exploring new relationships among various factors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings suggest that economic policy should provide temporary economic support during crisis periods to reduce the economic concerns of potential entrepreneurs and boost their optimism level, in turn encouraging new entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Optimism; Covid-19; Trust in the government; Israel; Economic concern.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10058884
     
  • International Social Entrepreneurs: Exploratory Research From 4 Case Studies   Order a copy of this article
    by Caio Sousa, Edson Sadao Iizuka 
    Abstract: The social enterprise emerges as one of the innovative alternatives in the field of social entrepreneurship. This study explores cases of international social enterprises, something that is valued by researchers in the field, but which is a rare event even in global cases. Using a qualitative methodology, based on four case studies with in-depth interviews, the results contribute to the social enterprise literature by proposing a conceptual structure, the definition of international social entrepreneurs and the mapping of cases around the world. The article occupies a theoretical and practical gap in the field of social entrepreneurship and allows researchers to carry out their studies based on a clear theoretical definition. In addition, managers and entrepreneurs can have a systemic view of social entrepreneurial activities at a global level. Future research could expand the sample of international social entrepreneurs and develop scales for quantitative research.
    Keywords: international social entrepreneur; social entrepreneurship; social enterprise; international entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10054637
     
  • TOWARDS UNDERSTANDING FINANCIAL DECISIONS IN INFORMAL MICROBUSINESSESS: EVIDENCE FROM A DEVELOPING COUNTRY   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahmoud Khalik, Luis Javier Sanchez-Barrios, Natalia Hernandez-Vargas, Jennifer Mora Mora 
    Abstract: Through an integrative perspective, we extend the literature on capital structure of informal microbusinesses. Our approach considers the financing decision and the various financial decisions and their impact on cash generation for personal purposes. A dataset of 892 Colombian informal microbusinesses were explored to identify various business configurations using Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Method. Through a logistic regression, we regressed the probability of early cash generation for personal purposes on business configurations and initial financing. Four microbusiness configurations emerged: Typical informal, owner-oriented, over-indebted, and informal lenders. Results show that informal microbusinesses are distinctive in terms of their financial decisions. Initial financing provided by formal lenders and payday lenders delay early cash generation. The contrary occurs when initial financing is provided by private informal lenders and to typical informal microbusinesses. Results indicate that different configurations require customized initiatives rather than a one-size fits all approach for informal microbusinesses.
    Keywords: Informal microbusinesses; Capital Structure; Financial decisions; Cash management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10059536
     
  • The Role of Social Business in Poverty Alleviation: From the Social Exchange Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by M.F.M. Amir Khashru, Chieh-Yu Lin, Yi-Hui Ho 
    Abstract: The objectives of the study are to analyses the role of social business in poverty alleviation by considering the new entrepreneurs (NEs) program adoption as a mediator. This study used the social exchange theory (SET) to examine the perception of the new entrepreneurs and local people on how social business reduces poverty through the NEs program. The study engages a four-year-long ethnographic approach and conducts in-depth interviews with 31 NEs businesses in Bangladesh. These findings illustrate that social businesses are recognised for poverty alleviation through NEs program, considering two goals, i.e., business training with financial support and, at the same time, NEs grow into self-sustaining businesses, and creating many jobs to lift local poor people out of poverty. The result is genuinely to gain a deeper understanding of the holistic social business in poverty alleviation. This study offers novel theoretical and empirical insights and implications for practitioners.
    Keywords: social business; poverty alleviation; new entrepreneur; NE program; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10053881
     
  • The Resilience of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in Indonesia: Covid-19 Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Fitri Ismiyanti, Putu Anom Mahadwartha, Zunairoh Zunairoh, Bobby Ardiansyahmiraja 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effect of risk-taking on innovativeness, also the impact of entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness, and adaptive strategy on the resilience of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME). This study was conducted on MSME actors throughout Indonesia and the analysis used was Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results show that risk-taking positively affects innovativeness, while entrepreneurial orientations, innovativeness, and adaptive strategy have a significant positive effect on resilience. This research implies that MSME actors who can survive the Covid-19 pandemic must consider taking risks, continuously innovate, have an entrepreneurial spirit, and are always adaptive to change. The innovations that MSME continues to make increase the company's competitiveness under any circumstances, including during the Covid-19 pandemic. MSMEs that have high innovation will have high resilience under any circumstances.
    Keywords: MSME; risk-taking; entrepreneurial orientation; innovativeness; adaptive strategy; resilience; Covid-19.

  • The impact of the passion for teaching entrepreneurship: A conceptual model   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen TAVAKOLI, Miruna Radu-Lefebvre, Alain Fayolle 
    Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that the passion for teaching entrepreneurship substantially contributes to the effectiveness of education programmes. This paper conceptually explores the role of teachers in entrepreneurship education (EE), with a focus on student outcomes. Specifically, the paper focuses on the impact of harmonious and obsessive passions for teaching and entrepreneurship on student-level outcomes such as programme satisfaction, learning and venture creation. Our conceptual model contributes to the EE literature by revealing the underestimated role of passion for teaching entrepreneurship in EE.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education; effectiveness; outcomes; entrepreneurship education effects; impacts on students; teacher’s role; coach; mentor; passion for entrepreneurship; passion for teaching; harmonious passion; obsessive passion.

  • Institutional Entrepreneurship: Insights For Researchers   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamaki Onishi, Evelyn Micelotta, William Wales 
    Abstract: Recognising that entrepreneurs' actions are shaped by institutional environments, recent years have witnessed a growing stream of research on institutional entrepreneurship. Institutional entrepreneurs are actors with sufficient resources, who create new institutions or transform existing institutions. Despite this centrality of resources, prior literature has not thoroughly explored the strategic implications of such resources. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of the institutional entrepreneurship literature using a resource-based lens and identified a sample of 155 papers published from 1980 to 2019. Our coding analysis identified tangible and intangible resources and resource mobilisation strategies in the institutional entrepreneurship literature. We propose a resource-based process model with three phases: emergence, elaboration, and expansion and apply this model to offer insights into resource mobilisation strategies during business and social entrepreneurship processes.
    Keywords: resources; resource mobilisation; institutional entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship; social entrepreneurship.

  • Knowledge capital acquisition of SMEs: comparative analysis of ICT branches   Order a copy of this article
    by Tomasz Sierotowicz 
    Abstract: Research studies on knowledge capital (KC) focus on its utilisation and transfer of knowledge mainly by large enterprises. KC is subject to single-stream analyses as an internal enterprise resource. This paper presents the results of research conducted in a relatively new field of KC acquisition as well as allocated expenditure to KC. This research focused on innovative small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) belonging to the two branches of software and hardware development in Poland (20072019). Empirical data allowed to use the dynamic rate of change. The main conclusion of a comparative analysis revealed that KC acquisition in the SMEs should be described as a simultaneous dual-stream (internal and external) process, and KC acquisition and allocated to it expenditure differs significantly between compared branches. Future research can focus on comparative analyses of different branches, thereby extending our knowledge of the importance of KC in business.
    Keywords: knowledge management; knowledge capital; empirical comparative analysis; knowledge acquisition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10054499
     
  • Modelling the Drivers and Barriers of the Dry Fish Supply Chain Traceability for Micro and Small Enterprises in India : An ISM and MICMAC Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by ARUN JOSE, Shanmugam Prasanna Venkatesan 
    Abstract: The adoption food traceability system in dry fish supply chain deserve attention. For implementing a food traceability system, it is essential to identify the variables and analyse their inter-relationships that impact its adoption. This research aims to model the major drivers and barriers and their interrelationships in the dry fish supply chain in India's Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) using interpretive structural modelling (ISM) and Matrices dImpacts Croises Multiplication Appliqu
    Keywords: Supply chain traceability; Dry fish; Micro and Small Enterprises; Interpretive structural modelling; MICMAC.

  • An Empirical Ecosystem-based Study of Making the Leap from Employment to Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Vianey De Oliveira Costa, João J. Ferreira, Patrick J. Murphy 
    Abstract: Making the leap from traditional employment to a fulltime entrepreneurial career is one of the most difficult but important decisions that entrepreneurs face. In this paper, we clarify the challenges of making the leap and delineate strategies for engaging and surmounting them. Practicing entrepreneurs tend to rely on generalised social support or expert guidance from social network or the popular press. However, the helpfulness of those resources is of limited value to many entrepreneurs because almost no entrepreneurship research has examined this topic. To address the gap, we conducted in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs in Brazils burgeoning start-up ecosystem. Each participant entrepreneur made the leap to become a founder or co-founder of a new business venture with varying levels of success. Based on QSR NVivo content analysis and axial coding, our findings revealed that success to be associated with certain factors: delineating experiential wisdom and conceptual knowledge and harmonising these two types of intellectual capital, integrating technical and managerial competence as much as possible, and engaging markets and communities wholly separately. We detail the implications for practicing entrepreneurs, the organisations employing them, and for entrepreneurship research and theory.
    Keywords: career development; career transition: entrepreneurship; small business; entrepreneurial decision; entrepreneurial challenges; boundary conditions; skills and capabilities; qualitative research; NVivo.

  • Production efficiency of aquaculture farm Vannamei white shrimp in Chachoengsao province, Thailand: A stochastic frontier analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanokwan Tammaroopa, Panya Mankeb, Suneeporn Suwanmaneepong, Harry Jay Cavite 
    Abstract: Although shrimp farmers have expanded their operation and market through government support, their technical efficiency remains in question as they compete with other shrimp farmers in the area. This study investigates the technical efficiency of Vannamei white shrimp farmers and explores the factors affecting their inefficiency using the stochastic production frontier approach. Data were collected from 450 shrimp farmers in Chachoengsao, Thailand. Data were analysed using the stochastic frontier production function. Results showed that technical efficiency level was approximately 87%, implying a potential 13% growth in output if inefficiencies are addressed. Furthermore, farmers who receive training on shrimp farming are more efficient than farmers who do not. Farmers with higher educational attainment are more likely to be efficient implying the importance of providing information access and developing farmers technical knowledge on shrimp production. Thus, increased technical knowledge could enable farmers make better decisions and attain higher levels of technical efficiency.
    Keywords: technical efficiency; vannamei white shrimp; stochastic frontier.

  • New Media Technologies and Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from the Covid-19 Period   Order a copy of this article
    by Bharti Pandya, Shreesha Mairaru, Asma Buhannad, Leena Daroo 
    Abstract: COVID-19 has disrupted the status quo affecting the sustainability and survivability of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are the backbone of UAEs economy representing 94% of companies and employing around 86% of the workforce. During COVID-19 SMEs have reinvented their strategies to recover from their unexpected and unimaginable losses and have embraced new media technologies. The heterogeneity of strategies and tactics adopted by SMEs (of UAE) needs a systematic investigation to understand how they leveraged new media to re-invent themselves to recover from the pandemic. The research aims to understand the key challenges faced by Emirati-owned SMEs to engage various stakeholders during COVID-19 and to examine the role played by new media technologies to sustain the business. This phenomenological study presents the strategies adopted by SMEs using new media technologies during COVID. The results of this research will benefit SME entrepreneurs, policymakers, business strategists, scholars, and new media providers.
    Keywords: new media technologies; sustainability; strategies; challenges; COVID-19; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; new media; NMTs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10055264
     
  • How does a simplified Performance Measurement System affect decision making within SMEs?   Order a copy of this article
    by Abram Kok 
    Abstract: Although performance measurement models are frequently used by larger companies, little is known of the impact and possibilities for SMEs and how they could support decision-making within these smaller companies. Larger companies have more possibilities to structure and design processes and procedures that make decision making based on performance indicators part of the overall company policy. Theoretical findings are indicating that implementing a PMS could support the decision- making processes in SMEs and help them improve their management processes and strategic control. PMSs should support SMEs to manage uncertainty, to innovate their products and services, and to sustain evaluation and change processes (Garengo, Biazzo, & Bititci, 2005). The aim of this research is to find out whether it is possible to design and test a simplified model to measure performance for SMEs in order to facilitate better decision-making. As SMEs face challenges in keeping up with bigger companies, testing a tailor-made model that is designed to facilitate measuring performance amongst SMEs could be a giant step forward. The model will be analysed through a SMART-PLS structural equation measuring tool. This article will focus on a more specific set of contingency factors and hypotheses that will be tested on the basis of a conceptual model. In a later stage it will be tested empirically and produce specific measurable outcomes.
    Keywords: Performance measurement system; Decision support system; SMEs; Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM); Contingency factors; Organisational success.

  • Street Vending and Poverty: An Empirical Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamil Khan, Anwar Shah 
    Abstract: This paper examines the comparative earning opportunities of moveable street vending and daily wage work as source of livelihood for the poor in Quetta, Balochistan. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data is collected from 120 participants, with 60 each from the street vending and daily wage work sectors. Descriptive and Inferential statistical techniques, including logistic regression, are used to analyse the data. Our descriptive analysis indicates that street vending offers more significant earning opportunities for the poor than daily wage work. However, the logistic regression model does not provide strong support for street vending as a better source of livelihood in terms of poverty alleviation. Furthermore, the study reveals that eviction by local authorities is a major issue faced by street vendors, limits their income and perpetuates poverty.
    Keywords: Street vending; Daily wage work; Poverty.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10057502
     
  • Encouraging craft skills and female entrepreneurship through creativity: A case study of a social enterprise in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Gaitri Kumari 
    Abstract: The present study is established on Hagen's Theory of Social Change. It attempts to justify the theory of social change and explains how continuing technical progress brings social change in a traditional society. This study argues that the innovative approach can facilitate female entrepreneurship by endowing craft skills. The objectives of the present case study are two-fold. First, the present case study aims to understand the significance of the endowment of craft skills to bring social change in the rural setting of Jharkhand, India. Second, the study explores the inexorable entwining of social entrepreneurship and female entrepreneurship by demonstrating the role of innovative approaches in fostering an entrepreneurial ecosystem for females. A descriptive case study methodology was adopted. The outcome of the case study suggested that innovative social enterprise support led to social change resulting in female entrepreneurship and empowered rural-tribal women of Jharkhand.
    Keywords: Social Entrepreneur; Female Entrepreneur; Skill development; Socio-economic Development; Artisan.

  • Religiosity and Entrepreneur's Subjective Wellbeing: Moderating role of Spiritual Intelligence   Order a copy of this article
    by Subhan Shahid, Yasir Mansoor Kundi, Rahman Ullah 
    Abstract: The study aims to investigate attitudinal antecedents of entrepreneurs' subjective wellbeing, specifically religious and normative beliefs while considering the moderating role of spiritual intelligence. The data were collected from 212 entrepreneurs in Pakistan and analyzed through the structural equation modeling technique. The results revealed that religious and normative beliefs are positively related to entrepreneurs' subjective wellbeing. Furthermore, spiritual intelligence was found to positively moderate the aforementioned relationships. The research contributes to the emerging scholarship on religion and entrepreneurship by embracing religion as a noteworthy subjective wellbeing component that cannot be overlooked for individuals engaged in highly demanding entrepreneurial careers. Furthermore, the study brings novel insights into the current knowledge of the relationship between religion and entrepreneurship from an Islamic preceptive in the context of the developing country, which indeed contributes to the limited scholarship on other religions.
    Keywords: Religiosity; religious beliefs; normative beliefs; spiritual intelligence; and subjective wellbeing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10059012
     
  • Information Technology Entrepreneurs, Leadership Styles and Employee Engagement: Examining Mediating Effect of Artificial Intelligence
    by Muskan Khan, Neha Nagar, Manuha Nagpal, Deepika Chaudhary 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the moderating part of trust among the studied leadership styles and the implementation of AI. The exploration intentions are to identify the relationship between compassionate and empathetic leadership in the implementation of AI that will influence employee engagement among the employees of information technology entrepreneurs. The conceptual framework has been developed, which is novel and not yet explored. The data was collected in three phases to evade the common method variance. The investigation employs a quantitative research methodology, and PLS-SEM 4.0 is used for data analysis. The respondents were employees of companies involved in the IT sector in India. We discovered that vital assets like a leader’s skill with technology and ability to use technology can result in the development of dynamic capacities. The study concludes with implications and suggestions for leaders, policymakers, and practitioners. The research constraints and potential directions are discussed.
    Keywords: compassionate leadership; empathetic leadership; employee engagement; trust; artificial intelligence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10059067
     
  • The retirement transition from self-employment: comparing the solo self-employed and company owners in Finland   Order a copy of this article
    by Kathrin Komp-Leukkunen 
    Abstract: Retirement from self-employment is receiving increasing attention due to population ageing. It is a critical event for the self-employed, influencing their identity and well-being. It also is a critical event for their businesses, influencing the national economy. This study explores differences in the retirement transition between the solo self-employed and company owners. A multichannel sequence analysis and cluster analysis are carried out with Finnish register data, tracing the ages 50 to 69. Findings show that the solo self-employed form a homogenous group, retiring at age 65 with an old-age pension. They follow state pension regulations. In contrast, company owners form a heterogeneous group, displaying agency. Some retire with an old-age pension at 65. Others work until 56 and receive a pension from 65 on. Others switch to employment and then retire with a pension at 65. A non-employment or employment spell before retirement means that businesses have untapped potentials.
    Keywords: self-employment; retirement; retirement transition; solo self-employed; solo self-employment; company owners; work; pensions; Finland; population ageing; later retirement; register data; multichannel sequence analysis; cluster analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10064674
     
  • THE EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED ORGANISATIONAL JUSTICE ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR IN WORK ENVIRONMENTS
    by Vjosë Latifi, Gadaf Rexhepi, Veland Ramadani, Agron Hajdari, Iliriana Miftari 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of perceived organisational justice on ethical behaviour in work environments. The quantitative approach was employed in this study to grasp and validate the conceptual framework. The research was guided by a positivist survey research technique. A questionnaire was used as a data collection tool and 200 employees are involved in the study. SEM with SmartPLS was also employed as a data analysis tool. This study adds a better understanding of organisational justice’s role in employees’ ethical behaviour. In terms of practical contributions, the research offers suggestions for governments, policymakers, and the business community regarding how to recognise and incorporate the effects of perceived organisational justice on ethical behaviour in the work environment. The main findings of the research show that organisational justice has a positive relationship on the ethical behaviour of employees.
    Keywords: organisational justice; ethical behaviour; work environment; Kosovo.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10057676
     
  • Tryst with Covid-19 crisis: a content analysis-based perspective on women entrepreneurs
    by Pooja Jha, Pallab Sikdar 
    Abstract: The outbreak of COVID-19 virus exposed the high vulnerability of women entrepreneurs. The impact was multifaceted and included issues like demand drop, business survival struggle, work-life balance, employee well-being, need for business diversification, etc. Given such challenges, our understanding of how women entrepreneurs respond to crises and ensure business sustenance remains limited. This study fills this gap in extant literature. Our study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on women entrepreneurs. It highlights the struggle and resilience shown by women entrepreneurs during the pandemic, and contributes to existing knowledge on crisis management. In addition, policies to deal with future crises have been offered. A sample of women entrepreneurs were interviewed qualitatively. The elicited responses were analysed through content analysis to derive themes based on an inductive approach. The study reveals how women entrepreneurs navigated and manoeuvred through the crisis by adopting new ways of business continuance. Implications offered as part of the study can serve to scholars and policymakers as a roadmap for devising strategic interventions to deal with future crises and black swan events.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurs; crisis; resilience; content analysis; developing countries; policy support.

  • Assessment of humanistic tourism resources by SMEs in Central Vietnam
    by Nguyen Hoang Tien  
    Abstract: This article analyses and evaluates the role of humanistic and cultural resources for the purpose of tourism development in parallel with economic development of central provinces of Vietnam which compared to other provinces are considered to be less favoured by nature but instead are rich and abundant in humanistic, cultural, spiritual, historical resources created via many generations and multiple historical periods. Based on theoretical and conceptual review, practical and empirical analysis, review of national resources policy, and founded on own objective and subjective assessments of multiple man-made tourism resources, the article has proposed a set of integrated solutions to improve the efficiency of exploitation and the effective use of humanistic and cultural tourism resources for the purpose of tourism industry and services development and also socio-economic advancement of Central Vietnam. The proposed solutions could be generalised to the nationwide humanistic and cultural tourism development both now and in the future.
    Keywords: tourism industry; tourism resources; humanistic tourism resources; resources policy; resources management; exploitation; assessment; SMEs; Central Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10058381
     
  • Compassionate Entrepreneurship and Cognitive Workaholism: Mediating Role of Artificial Intelligence Adoption
    by Ruchi Rayat, Manuha Nagpal, Deepika Chaudhary, Sudha Panwar 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine whether there is an association amidst compassionate entrepreneurship and cognitive workaholism and how artificial intelligence adoption might act as a mediator. This study is a novel in comparison to other association studies and in terms of its conceptual approach. In order to avoid the common method variance, the data collection was broken up into three waves. The researcher makes use of a quantitative research approach and PLS-SEM 4.0 for the analysis in order to complete the evaluation of the framework. The respondents were Indian entrepreneurs active in India’s 'micro, small, and medium enterprises' (MSME and SMEs). The findings revealed that there is an association amidst compassionate entrepreneurship and cognitive workaholism. Secondly, the adoption of artificial intelligence acts as a mediator. Discussion was given in the context of previous research that has enhanced the literature. The researchers concluded with suggestions for practitioners, policymakers, and entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: compassionate entrepreneurship; artificial intelligence; cognitive workaholism; PLS-SEM; MSME and small scale industries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10058439
     
  • Local-oriented economic branches as drivers of local markets in non-metropolitan areas: Evidence from Greece   Order a copy of this article
    by Andreas Gkouzos, Manolis Christofakis 
    Abstract: The paper uses an economic base model and shift share analysis to demonstrate the role of local-oriented economic branches and their contribution to the economy of Greek non-metropolitan areas. A minimum requirement approach based on economic base theory and a differential shift approach based on shift share model are implemented. Noticeable local-oriented economic branches as local economic advantages appear in functional urban areas. On the other hand, the local shares of economic branches are quite low in the neighboring areas to the largest metropolitan centres indicating the impact of distance in their local economic structure. Finally, the smallest populated spatial units appear to be associated with greater local-oriented economic branches in the mainland space of Greece, although the spatial unit of insular space shows the lowest localness.
    Keywords: local-oriented economic branches; local economic advantages; Greek non-metropolitan areas; minimum requirement approach; differential shift approach.

  • Barriers restricting indigenous women from becoming successful entrepreneurs. empirical evidence from India
    by Jogeswar Mahato, Manish Kumar Jha 
    Abstract: The present study empirically examines the barriers restricting indigenous women from becoming successful entrepreneurs in the Odisha state of India. The present study has analysed the samples of 596 indigenous women entrepreneurs collected from 12 villages across the four districts of Odisha. The authors have analysed the significance of barriers to indigenous women entrepreneurship in the rural Indian context. Structure equation modelling has been used to validate the hypothesised relationships formulated in the study. The findings of the study highlighted that social, personal, financial, production and marketing barriers are significant barriers that restrict indigenous women from becoming successful in their entrepreneurial activities. Acknowledging these barriers could help indigenous women entrepreneurs to become more focused and strategic towards mitigation of these impediments. Government and society must work together to remove the barriers in the path of successful entrepreneurs to encourage Indian indigenous women in rural settings.
    Keywords: barriers; entrepreneurs; indigenous women; successful; rural India; social; personal; financial; production; marketing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10058827
     
  • Role of Start-ups in poverty alleviation and entrepreneurial environment in India
    by Monika Saxena, Rahul Dass, Mitra Amini, Utkarsh Das 
    Abstract: Poverty continues to be an albatross with which India has been constantly grappling. Poverty alleviation is important as this developing economy is a huge market and it has a cascading impact on economies across the world. Start-ups have the potential to create jobs which in turn can help in the upliftment of the rural poor by increasing their income resources. The objective of this paper is to show the impact of innovation, digital technology, and funding of start-ups on poverty eradication. Data has been analysed through statistical and econometric tools. Causal relationships of entrepreneurial activity with respect to different variables have been factored in. Results showcase that the role of start-ups, digital absorption, and global innovation index has a significant relationship with entrepreneurial activity. It is of interest to policy makers as it identifies the factors which have prominent role for poverty eradication in the form of increase in entrepreneurial activity and subsequent strategy formulation.
    Keywords: poverty; entrepreneurship; start-ups; innovation; India; economy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10058941
     
  • Measuring the Effectiveness of Entrepreneurial Trainings in Rural Self-Employment Training Institutes (RSETIs): A Proposed Model
    by Pawan Kumar, Ritu Kumra 
    Abstract: This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the training and development programme of rural self-employment training institutes (RSETIs) in rural India by proposing a conceptual model to measure training effectiveness quantitatively. Primary data was used and collected through a self-administered questionnaire. The data was collected from 588 trainees of rural self-employment training institutes from nine districts of Punjab covering the Majha, Malwa, and Doaba regions of Punjab State in India. The data was analysed by applying confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS software. The proposed model in this study was used to measure the effectiveness of RSET entrepreneurial training institutes and results revealed that the training provided by rural self-employment training institutes in India is effective and the results confirmed that it can be measured by latent variables of business performance, satisfaction level, and benefits derived from training to trainees as well as to society.
    Keywords: training effectiveness; rural self-employment training institutes; RSETIs; business performance; satisfaction level; benefits derived.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10059432
     
  • Survival instincts of Chinese entrepreneurs in the UK: adaptation or hibernation
    by Daniel Prokop, Saloomeh Tabari, Wei Chen 
    Abstract: Surviving a crisis requires a unique set of responses from a firm. This paper examines migrant entrepreneurs and their responses to COVID-19 pandemic. These entrepreneurs are disadvantaged in their markets, typically due to cultural differences, but also other barriers that include outright discrimination by native populations. Consequently, global crisis has a more severe meaning to migrant entrepreneurs who struggle in the best of times. Empirically we focus on interviews with Chinese entrepreneurs in the UK, employing template analysis to disentangle the data. We find two key mechanisms these entrepreneurs employ to respond to crisis: adaptation and/or hibernation. Adaptation is about introducing changes in response to altering market conditions, it is a proactive response. Hibernation is a passive response characterised by deliberate shutdown and/or slow-down of operations, with business continuity funded from accumulated financial reserves. The paper concludes that policy should be more sensitive to enabling responses that ensure firm survival.
    Keywords: firm survival; crisis; COVID-19; entrepreneurship; Chinese businesses; migrant entrepreneurship; UK.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10059695
     
  • An integrated approach of factors influencing entrepreneurial success: Evidence from women-owned MSMEs in India.   Order a copy of this article
    by Jogeswar Mahato, Manish Kumar Jha 
    Abstract: The present study aims to examine the factors influencing entrepreneurial success in women-owned MSMEs in India. The study has interviewed 529 indigenous women entrepreneurs working across the four districts such as: Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Koraput and Rayagada in Odisha, India. Structure equation modelling has been used to examine the factors influencing the creation of successful MSMEs. The results of the study highlighted that the integration of social capital, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial training, government policy, access to finance, business infrastructure and market linkage significantly contribute to the success of women-owned MSMEs in India. The study will add knowledge to the literature on women entrepreneurship and benefit the new-age and existing women entrepreneurs in creating and running their enterprises successfully and sustainably. The study will help policymakers create policies towards the sustainable establishment of women-owned MSMEs in emerging economies. The stakeholders are supposed to do much more to assist women entrepreneurs to succeed in their business ventures.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial success; factors; social capital; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial training; government policy; access to finance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10059955
     
  • Exploring the Impact of Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Effectuation on Opportunity Recognition
    by Atthaphon Mumi, Patsorn Siewsamdangdet, Tudsuda Imsuwan, Pornpiya Muangkhiew 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship research has examined the importance of opportunity recognition in the creation of new businesses. However, a complete understanding of this concept is lacking, requiring further investigation from multiple perspectives. This study utilises the effectuation theory to address this limitation, emphasising controlled resources and opportunity recognition through entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and effectuation. Our analysis of 293 potential entrepreneurs using partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) demonstrated that entrepreneurial self-efficacy significantly affects opportunity recognition and is mediated by effectuation, which includes experimentation, affordable loss, flexibility, and pre-commitment. This study offers entrepreneurial self-efficacy, which is necessary for opportunity recognition, to the emerging theory of effectuation. It also addresses the need for theoretical research on entrepreneurial opportunities. Thus, our findings have important implications for academics and practitioners interested in understanding the complex dynamics of entrepreneurship and improving new venture creation.
    Keywords: affordable loss; effectuation; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; ESE; experimentation; flexibility; opportunity recognition; pre-commitment.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10060134
     
  • Entrepreneurial orientation in joint projects during the COVID-19 crisis: A fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis approach for Brazilian cases
    by Olivier Coussi, KADÍGIA FACCIN, Bibiana Volkmer Martins, Anass Mawadia 
    Abstract: This research explores the combination of innovation practices (based on causation, effectuation and bricolage) used in joint projects between universities and industries that lead to open innovation. The projects studied were carried out during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. We used fuzzy qualitative comparative analysis (Fs-QCA) to examine 13 Brazilian projects. The main results show two combinations of practices that result in open innovation success among universities and industries. Both combinations include a high level of effectuation; this result is expected in a time of crisis such as that caused by COVID-19. When a project involves only industry partners, a combination of effectuation and bricolage is employed. A university’s presence on a project means that causation behaviour is a necessary condition. This ‘causation’ condition in university-industry collaboration projects seems to reinforce the critical barriers to collaboration between universities and industry.
    Keywords: COVID-19; Brazil; open innovation; Fs-QCA; university-industry collaboration; joint projects; causation; effectuation; bricolage.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10060467
     
  • Hardships and Challenges Faced by Entrepreneurs of MSME: A Bibliometric Review and Future Research Agenda
    by Baxiskumar Patel, Prakashkumar Patel, Hardik BHADESHIYA 
    Abstract: The current study aims to thoroughly evaluate the available literature on the hardships and challenges that India’s micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) encounter, specifically from 1990 to 2022. Very few studies have used bibliometric analysis to investigate the hardships and difficulties experienced by Indian entrepreneurs. The current research examines 702 articles taken from the Web of Science database using VOSviewer to display the data. Analyses of keyword co-occurrence, co-citation, journals, and co-authorship were included in the study. Further, a hypothetical CHRYSALIS Model is proposed to assess and visualise the hurdles of Indian MSMEs for giving sustainable solutions for its future development.
    Keywords: bibliometric review; challenges; hardship; micro; small and medium; MSMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10060917
     
  • Indigenous Entrepreneurship in India: Addressing Barriers to Sustainable Growth and Development
    by Kumar Gaurav, Jogeswar Mahato, Sateesh Kumar 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economic growth of the nation. Indigenous entrepreneurship is gaining importance due to its inclusive growth and development in India. Their cultural, social, and economic contexts frequently present unique difficulties for them in starting and maintaining their businesses. The present study has reviewed barriers that indigenous entrepreneurs face in their journey. In this research, the barriers that obstruct the sustainable growth and development of the indigenous entrepreneurs are explored and a contextual relationship among them is established using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) and MICMAC analysis. The study determines eight factors that act as barriers to sustainable growth and development of indigenous entrepreneurship. Understanding these barriers will help policymakers, stakeholders, and indigenous communities create focused strategies to aid and empower indigenous entrepreneurs in their quest for sustainable growth and development.
    Keywords: Business; Development; Indigenous Entrepreneurship; Social; Economic; Sustainable Growth; ISM; MICMAC; Rank; Relationship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061007
     
  • Unity in Diversity: Revolutionising SMEs Through Inclusive Corporate Boards
    by Charbel Salloum, Hajer Jarrar, Laura Salloum, Jean-François VERDIE 
    Abstract: This study investigates the implications of gender diversity within top management teams on firm performance, risk, and executive pay, concentrating on a sample of 105 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Lebanon over a three-year period (2014-2016). Adopting a quantitative methodology, data was collected through closed-ended surveys utilising nominal, interval, and ratio scales. Analysis via linear regression revealed that while gender diversity on the board of directors showed no discernible influence on the examined variables, a heightened presence of women in managerial roles positively affected the firm’s return on investment and narrowed the wage disparity. These findings challenge the prevailing view in the Lebanese context, which largely perceives women as primarily homemakers, and highlight the tangible benefits of gender diversity for SMEs’ growth and evolution. Notably, the research offers a unique perspective by focusing on Lebanon, a nation grappling with the integration of gender diversity practices in boardrooms amid cultural and religious constraints.
    Keywords: gender diversity; top management team; board of directors; performance; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061150
     
  • The impact of CSR on corporate financial performance: Evidence from SMEs of tourism industry in Southern Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Hoang Tien  
    Abstract: The study has carried out a comprehensive analysis of the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on the corporate financial performance (CFP) in the tourism industry. Author has combined qualitative and quantitative research to evaluate the impact of CSR on CFP directly and through the intermediate factors. The object of the research is small and medium enterprises (SMEs) established and operating in Southern Vietnam. The study is one of the few to investigate the mediating effect in the relationship between the CSR and the CFP, especially the mediating effect of corporate reputation. The study results have supplemented theoretical basis that the CFP is increasingly influenced and affected by activities related to CSR, and especially the mediating factors. Based on the research results, the study has proposed several governance implications and policy recommendations to help managers, entrepreneurs and policy makers in the process of implementing CSR strategy to enhance the CFP.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; corporate financial performance; CFP; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; mediating factors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061247
     
  • Key Demographic and Socio- Economic Factors of Entrepreneur’s Success in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Pawan Kumar, Ritu Kumra, Sumesh Dadwal 
    Abstract: The study employed a quantitative research approach to investigate how demographic and economic factors influence the success of entrepreneurs using theoretical lens of human capital theory. It meticulously explores an array of critical variables that encompass various facets of the entrepreneur’s journey. Data was collected by purposive sampling of 588 respondents who had received training from Rural Self Employed Training Institutes and subsequently became entrepreneurs. The collected data was analysed using statistical techniques, such as regression analysis, t-tests, confirmatory factor analysis using (AMOS) software to assess the relationships between the key variables and entrepreneurial success. Through a comprehensive analysis of the variables, the findings of this study illuminate that among the demographic factors under scrutiny, formal education emerges as a notable contributor to entrepreneurial success. Moreover, the adoption of contemporary technology, the respondent’s income level, and the training received from Rural Self Employed Training Institutes emerge as pivotal factors that play a central role in determining the success trajectory of entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Rural Self Employed Training Institutes; RSETIs; demographic factors; socio-economic factors; entrepreneurial success; entrepreneurial trainings; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061197
     
  • Analysing the roles of owner’s personal factors in determining the sustainability of women owned SMEs during crisis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ratih Dyah Kusumastuti, Rifelly Dewi Astuti, D. Viverita 
    Abstract: The pandemic significantly affected small and medium enterprises (SMEs) worldwide, including women-owned SMEs. Some had to close their operations; others survived or even thrived during the crisis. This research aims to analyse the roles of owners’ personal values, literacy in marketing and finance, entrepreneurial competencies, and entrepreneurial resilience in influencing the sustainability of women-owned SMEs in Indonesia. A focus group discussion with four women SME owners was conducted to obtain insights on factors influencing firm’s sustainability during the pandemic. Based on the FGD and current literature, a research model was tested using a survey of 235 women SME owners. The results show that owner’s personal values have the most substantial influence on her entrepreneurial resilience, leading to SME’s sustainability. This paper contributes to the SME’s crisis management and women entrepreneurship literature by pinpointing which personal factors are vital for women-owned SMEs’ sustainability during a crisis, especially in an emerging country.
    Keywords: women SME; SME sustainability; entrepreneurial resilience; entrepreneurial competencies; personal factors; personal values; emerging countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061268
     
  • The role of leadership behaviour in shaping the sense of work in SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Hoang Tien  
    Abstract: The article revolves around the two concepts associated with two different areas of management. It is the leadership behaviour of company’s staff belonging to the management classes and the sense of work of ordinary employees performing their tasks or functions on a daily basis in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), where the direct or non-direct relationship between these two groups of workers often takes place. The research question in this article is related to the role of leadership behaviour of managerial staff in forming and reinforcing belief and trust in the sense of work for employees. The article has tested a number of hypotheses underpinning this special relationship, thereby giving some critical recommendations and focal implications for managerial and non-managerial staff in SMEs. In addition, the article also has pointed out some limitations of the study as a basis for research adjustments in the future studies.
    Keywords: leadership behaviour; sense of work; meaning of work; management staff; ordinary employees; superior; subordinate; belief; trust personal relation; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061498
     
  • Exploitation of humanistic and cultural tourism resources by SMEs in Ho Chi Minh City   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Hoang Tien  
    Abstract: Tourism development is the ongoing trend to boost the socio-economic development of world’s economies. To strengthen development, it must be based on tourism resources. This article studies the opportunities to exploit the inherent cultural and humanistic resources to develop tourism in Ho Chi Minh City, one of the most dynamic and developed mega cities in Vietnam. Based on a number of basic research methods commonly applied in humanities and social sciences, from information and facts analysed based on the secondary and primary data collected in recent years, in addition to the recommendations put forward for different management levels, the author have proposed a set of diversified and integrated solutions for the purpose of more effective exploiting humanistic tourism resources dedicated for SMEs operating in the tourism industry to compensate for Ho Chi Minh City’s significant number of limitations in terms of natural tourism resources possession and effective exploitation.
    Keywords: tourism resources; humanistic tourism; festival; cuisine; craft village; historical sites; cultural sites; SMEs; Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061563
     
  • SUPPORTING THE DIFFUSION OF INNOVATIVE SMES. THE ITALIAN EXPERIENCE.   Order a copy of this article
    by Giuseppe Scandurra, Antonio Thomas, Andrea Appolloni 
    Abstract: Innovative SMEs are believed to be of fundamental importance for a territorial context’s social and economic development. Countries have adopted many policies to favour the diffusion of innovative SMEs, even if the results often appear contradictory. This study verifies the effectiveness of a specific decree-law encouraging entrepreneurs to open up their businesses to systematic innovations by analysing the financial and economic performances obtained by 617 innovative SMEs in the five-year period 2016-2020. Findings reveal that most SMEs who benefited from the measures envisaged by the decree achieved an acceptable situation, with valid profitability and a bearable financial and economic balance. The main implication of this study is that the polarisation of support measures on the enhancement of human resource skills can be at least as important as sources for access to financial resources.
    Keywords: innovative entrepreneurship; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; financial and economic performances.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061924
     
  • Religious social capital and entrepreneurial opportunity exploitation of Indian Muslim youth entrepreneurs in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Kaka, Caren B. Scheepers, Anastacia Mamabolo 
    Abstract: The rate of entrepreneurial activity among South Africa’s youth, a group aged 18 to 35 years, is low. The role of religion in promoting entrepreneurship among South Africa’s youth remains relatively under-researched, despite the importance of religious social capital as a contributor to entrepreneurial success. We explore how entrepreneurs rely on their religious social capital to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities. The narrative qualitative study was conducted in the context of the Indian Muslim community within South Africa. The data gathered from 12 Indian Muslim entrepreneurs showed that their social capital influences their pursuit of meaning when engaging in business activities. Pursuing meaning influences how they construct and access networks, resources, and trust-modulated or regulated business transactions. These elements of pursuit of purpose and meaning, resources, networks, and trust-modulated activities influenced by their religious social capital, contribute towards business development by providing opportunities for expansion and access to customers.
    Keywords: religion; entrepreneurship; ethnic; social capital; network ties; trust; Indian Muslim; South Africa.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10061942
     
  • Analysing Rural Tribal Entrepreneurship in SMEs in the State of Jharkhand   Order a copy of this article
    by Kumar Gaurav, Akanksha Shukla 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship in India is a vital part of the country’s economic structure and contributes to its overall economic growth. Tribal entrepreneurs are found in urban and rural locations, although the proportion is substantially higher in rural areas. These tribal entrepreneurs are mostly engaged in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This research aims to analyse the tribal entrepreneurs-based businesses in different SME sectors based on various growth criteria using WASPAS and AHP, a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. The combined approach is an appropriate method regarding the accuracy or the verification of the accuracy. The research presents the ranking of alternatives, i.e., the involvement of tribal entrepreneurs in various small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Based on the analysis, out of seven alternatives, NTFP-based enterprise is the most preferred medium and manufacturing-based enterprise is the least preferred sector by tribal entrepreneurs of Jharkhand.
    Keywords: tribal entrepreneurs; small and medium enterprises; SME; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; WASPAS; analytical hierarchy process; AHP; indigenous.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10062113
     
  • How do policy instruments shape the potential to become solo or employer entrepreneurs?   Order a copy of this article
    by Dieter Bögenhold, Martha O’Hagan-Luff, Zulaicha Parastuty, André Van Stel 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial potential is an important concept in the field of entrepreneurship that precedes entrepreneurial intentions. In this paper, we investigate the antecedents of entrepreneurial potential of individuals who are currently not in self-employment using data from a large-scale survey of the adult population. We make the following contributions to extant literature. First, we distinguish between entrepreneurial potential to hire employees (i.e., to become an employer entrepreneur) and entrepreneurial potential to work alone (i.e., to become a solo entrepreneur). Second, we focus specifically on policy-related determinants of entrepreneurial potential, while distinguishing between perceptions of institutional conditions and direct support variables. Our empirical analysis reveals that respondents who indicate that the receipt of direct support with setting-up their business idea (over other types of direct support) would help them start a business are significantly more likely to have (strong) potential to become a solo entrepreneur (i.e., without employees), but significantly less likely to have (strong) potential to become an employer entrepreneur (i.e., with employees). Our results therefore suggest that policy programmes designed to stimulate new business formation may indeed lead to more entrepreneurs but not necessarily to more employer entrepreneurs creating additional wage jobs.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial potential; new business formation; employer entrepreneur; solo entrepreneur.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10062711
     
  • Information technology entrepreneurs: a study to revisit positive psychology   Order a copy of this article
    by Richa Shekhar, Vandna Sharma 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the positive psychology of IT industry. The current inquiry using mixed-method methodology has tried to comprehend the courage dimension in the psychological capital factor structure for IT entrepreneurs. Apart from hope, efficacy, resilience and optimism (HERO) dimensions several other positive psychological resources may be included in its framework. The current paper is organised into two phases. The study in phase 1 conducted qualitative investigations using the paradigm-model approach. The findings identified courage as a probable psychological resource through 24 in-depth interviews. To verify the finding of qualitative investigation, the phase-2 study empirically examined the same on a sample of 224 Indian IT entrepreneurs. The expanded measurement model (expanded psychological capital or EPC) is compared with original PsyCap HERO model using structural equation modelling. The findings show initial support for the novel five factor expanded psychological capital (EPC) framework including original HERO dimensions and courage.
    Keywords: psychological capital; expanded psychological capital; EPC; courage; structural equation modelling; SEM; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063089
     
  • Institutional complexity and SME strategies: a Western Balkans perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Tine Lehmann 
    Abstract: This article examines the institutional complexity shaping SME strategies in the Western Balkans. Considering SMEs’ pivotal role in transition economies demands a clearer understanding of institutional complexity. Employing an institutional theory perspective and an inductive grounded theory method, we unveil the significance of institutional voids and asymmetries in complex institutional settings. We demonstrate the influence of the EU integration process in moving from institutional voids to institutional asymmetries. Additionally, two opposing institutional logics emerge as dominant in the Western Balkans, adding to institutional complexity. We can affirm that institutional complexity propels an escape-type internationalisation as the main SME strategy. With this research we entangle the institutional complexity in transition economies and contribute valuable insights for policymakers, emphasising the need for targeted policies amid ongoing transition processes.
    Keywords: institutional complexity; institutional voids; institutional logics; institutional asymmetries; internationalisation; SME strategies; transition economies; Southeast Europe; Western Balkans; EU integration.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063143
     
  • Using projects to innovate business models in Kazakhstani food industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Laura B. Baizhanova, Duissekul A. Kunanbayeva, John K. Christiansen 
    Abstract: This article discusses the organisation of the introduction of open innovations and project management into existing business models in the food industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan by comparing them with foreign experience. The comments and suggestions are based on an empirical qualitative study conducted at Rakhat JSC and on the basis of a desk study conducted by the Danish company Arla Foods. In the study on the example of the company Rakhat JSC, the authors note that the quality management system covers all areas of the companys activities, in particular, quality control includes the correct operation of equipment and machines, compliance with production standards, the high-quality performance of the duties of each employee, taking into account the wishes and feedback of consumers, as well as constant and continuous input quality control of raw materials and final quality control of finished products.
    Keywords: food industry; project management; business modelling; business project management; innovations.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063144
     
  • Evaluating the growth, challenges and social impact of a social enterprise: a case from Japan   Order a copy of this article
    by Shiaw Jia Eyo  
    Abstract: The increasing interest in social enterprises and social entrepreneurship in Japan sets the backdrop for this research. However, the domain of social impact measurement by these enterprises remains underexplored. This paper aims to investigate the growth and challenges faced by a social enterprise, examine methods for measuring social impact, and assess readiness for impact scaling. Employing a case study approach, the research demonstrates a pragmatic method for social enterprises to assess and enhance their impact, utilising the value impact chain approach and the SCALERS model. The findings highlight the intricate balance a social enterprise must maintain to achieve its dual objectives of social value creation and financial viability. Furthermore, the managerial insights derived from this study are particularly beneficial for small enterprises, providing strategic insights on focusing resources and prioritising actions in environments marked by resource constraints.
    Keywords: social enterprise; social entrepreneurship; social impact; social impact measurement; scaling social impact; Japan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063176
     
  • Analysing motivational factors for indigenous entrepreneurs in the Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Kumar Gaurav, Akanksha Shukla 
    Abstract: To foster inclusive growth and sustainable economic development across developing countries, it is important to comprehend the driving forces motivating individuals' entrepreneurial endeavours. The study investigates the motivational factors that stimulate individuals to participate in entrepreneurial activity among indigenous communities. The study has identified eight motivational factors through comprehensive review of literature and experts' opinion and examined their association using DEMATEL (MCDM) method. The study results highlighted that motivational factors influence entrepreneurial aspirations among indigenous or tribal communities. Education (M7) is ranked top among the causal factors and validating market needs (M3) is the most negligible effect factor. The findings have significant contribution to the existing literature and policy formulation in the area of indigenous entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; indigenous entrepreneurs; tribal; motivational factors; DEMATEL.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063363
     
  • Unveiling the landscape of female entrepreneurship in Albania: a comprehensive literature review   Order a copy of this article
    by Kladiola Gjini  
    Abstract: This study conducts a systematic literature review to explore the landscape of female entrepreneurship in Albania. The review aims to provide an overview of the main trends and highlight the scholarly literature related to female entrepreneurship, with the intention of generating interest and incentive further research in this field. The findings reveal the relatively new emergence of female entrepreneurship in the Albanian economy and the limited availability of data and policies addressing the unique challenges faced by women entrepreneurs. The review emphasises the importance of fostering an enabling environment through measures such as improving access to finance, enhancing educational and training opportunities, and promoting supportive networks. It concludes by providing insights and recommendations for future research and policy interventions to promote and empower female entrepreneurship in Albania.
    Keywords: Albania; female entrepreneurship; gender equality; economic growth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063394
     
  • How a coopetition-oriented mindset and competitive intensity drive coopetition behaviour to support export scale-up activities in a post-crisis environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Mahdi, David Crick, James M. Crick, Wadid Lamine, Martine Spence 
    Abstract: This study unpacks the complexity of the relationship between a coopetition-oriented mindset, coopetition activities (collaboration with competitors), and competitive intensity. The research setting features passive exporting firms seeking to scale-up sales abroad in an immediate post-crisis period (after COVID-19). Following 20 field interviews, a survey of 306 under-resourced wine producers in the USA was utilised in the model testing stage. Findings evidence respective significant positive relationships between first, a coopetition-oriented mindset; second, competitive intensity, and engaging in coopetition activities. A non-significant moderation effect existed regarding competitive intensity on the coopetition-oriented mindset - coopetition activities relationship. The field interviews offer unique insights highlighting that pivoted coopetition practices in the move from a passive to active exporting involvement following a crisis can take time to achieve benefits. Not least, because decision-makers face new levels of competitive intensity across product-market strategies, affecting the nature of their coopetition partners.
    Keywords: competitive intensity; coopetition; crisis; mindset; passive exporters; resource-based theory; scale-up.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063429
     
  • Effective Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Japanese Organisations   Order a copy of this article
    by Natsuko Tokaji, Charbel Salloum, Hajer Jarrar, Jean-François Verdie 
    Abstract: This study investigates the influence of sustainability practices on the adaptability of Japanese firms in international business environments. Utilising a sample of 384 Japanese firms, with participation from two board members and two marketing department members each, the study aggregates 1,536 observations to analyse the relationship dynamics. Through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and regression analysis, the study demonstrates that the business sustainability adaptability method (BSAM) significantly enhances Japanese entity adaptability (JEA), with communication (COM) and adaptation level of globalisation (ALG) serving as critical moderators. Comparative insights highlight the distinctive sustainability approaches between Japanese firms and their global counterparts, offering theoretical and practical implications for international business strategy. This research enriches the discourse within resource-based view, institutional theory, network theory, and stakeholder theory, positioning sustainability as a strategic imperative in global competitiveness.
    Keywords: sustainability; corporate adaptability; entrepreneurship; cross cultural management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063692
     
  • Circular entrepreneurial ecosystem: a hybrid review and research agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdollah Mohammadparst Tabas, Mohsin Abdur Rehman, Christina Theodoraki, Hanna Komulainen, Wisdom Kanda 
    Abstract: The importance of circular economy and entrepreneurial ecosystems are continuously growing. Despite the proliferation of related literature in recent years, there is a lack of systematic and holistic review that consolidates and provides intersectional perspective on circular economy and entrepreneurial ecosystems. Therefore, the present hybrid review combines bibliometric analysis and systematic literature review methods. By collecting relevant scholarly articles from the Web of Science database platform, this study explores the interconnected themes of the circular economy and entrepreneurial ecosystem, and based on this, the concept of the circular entrepreneurial ecosystem emerged. This intersectional view advances the understanding of the actors who collaborate to enhance resource efficiency and minimise waste generation by emphasising repair, reuse, refurbishment, sharing and recycling as key strategies for sustainable development. The study identifies three dominant research themes and sheds light on the significance of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in the transition towards a circular economy.
    Keywords: circular economy; entrepreneurial ecosystem; circular entrepreneurial ecosystem; CEE; sustainability; bibliometric and systematic literature review; SLR.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10063693
     
  • Factors affecting sustainable entrepreneurial behaviour among youth community: assessment through interpretive structural modelling and MICMAC approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Shivam Bhardwaj, Sucheta Agarwal, Vikas Tripathi 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship has become a crucial force for global economic development, innovation, and job creation. The concept of sustainable entrepreneurship, which integrates economic, social, and environmental objectives, has emerged as a response to this shift. Youth, particularly in India, hold a significant role in entrepreneurship due to their potential to shape the socio-economic environment. Growing youth population and diverse socio economic environment of India provide an ideal environment for research into the factors influencing sustainable entrepreneurial behaviour of the youth. This study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors determining sustainable entrepreneurial behaviour among the youth community by investigating the interaction among various factors. The study develops a conceptual model using interpretive structural modelling (ISM) and MICMAC approaches, finding that government policies, entrepreneurial education, social capital, achievement, risk-taking, self-efficacy, entrepreneurial attitude, and sustainable entrepreneurial intention all contribute to encouraging sustainable entrepreneurial behaviour among the youth community.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial education; interpretive structural modelling; ISM; India; sustainable entrepreneurial behaviour; SEB; sustainable entrepreneurial intention; SEI; attitude; youth community.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10064115
     
  • Social network analysis: unveiling the joint investment patterns of shark tank entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasser Shahrasbi, Tai-Yin Chi, Paul A. Beckman 
    Abstract: This research illustrates an important application of social network analysis in the entrepreneurship and venture capital domain. Using secondary data from the shark tanks TV show and graph analysis, our research unveils patterns in sharks' investment decisions that are not apparent using other methods like statistical analysis. Our network analysis over multiple seasons of the show reveals that the number of single investments increased almost perfectly linearly over time while double investments decreased mostly linearly, implying that most sharks (investors) find more value in investing solely than jointly with other investors. Our results also show that one particular shark (Mr. Kevin O'Leary) invested jointly (versus individually) at a much higher rate than the other Sharks. We hypothesise that this may have been attributed to his experience in financial investments and risk management, which resulted in taking more financial risks than other investors. We discuss how these results were not possible to obtain without relying on social network analysis and graph theory.
    Keywords: social network analysis; venture capital; entrepreneurship; joint investing; graph theory; shark tank.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10064279
     
  • Bibliometric analysis of social media research in SMEs: a review and way forward   Order a copy of this article
    by Nordin Norfarah, A.K. Siti-Nabiha, Seyedh Mahboobeh Jamali, Nader Ale Ebrahim 
    Abstract: This paper seeks to determine the trend of social media research in the context of small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and present the future research direction in this area. The documents were collected through a keywords title search from the Scopus database. The relevant documents are analysed using bibliometrics analysis, and qualitative systematic review to understand their structure in terms of theme, method, and theory used. This research found 141 documents from the Scopus database on SMEs' social media from 2011 to 2021. The systematic review of 20 top-cited per year (TCpY) papers are classified into three themes; SMEs' social media adoption, social media for SMEs' strategy, and innovation powered by social media in SMEs. The most popular theory used is the diffusion of innovation. Based on critical analysis, major gaps and future research are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: social media; SMEs; bibliometric; a systematic review.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10064280
     
  • The impact of technostress on small business owners burnout: the mediating role of strain   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexandre Benzari, Anis Khedhaouria, Olivier Torrès, Alain Cucchi 
    Abstract: A revised stress-strain-outcome (SSO) model of burnout was empirically tested with a large sample of 239 small business owners. Our model differentiates the consequences of strain into short-term and long-term consequences to study the mechanisms through which technostress (technostressors) affects strain (short-term consequence) and job burnout as an outcome (long-term consequence). Our results revealed three technostressors (techno-induced work overload, techno-induced job insecurity, and techno-induced role ambiguity) to be positively and directly associated with small business owners' strain. There was no direct effect of technostressors on burnout. Considering the short-term and long-term consequences, strain fully mediated the relationship between technostressors and burnout. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: small business owners; technostress; technostressors; strain; burnout; information and communication technologies; ICTs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10064281
     
  • Intrafamily successor's motivation and its impact on success of business: a case of construction sector family businesses in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Harish Kumar Singla, Pradeepta Kumar Samanta, Srividhya Sridharan 
    Abstract: One of the unique features of the Indian family business is its relation-based practices. Therefore, a successor may join the family business not just because of his/her own choice but may join it as a part of the family tradition or compulsion. Hence, it becomes important to find the impact of intrafamily successor's motivation on the success of their family business in India. In this study, authors developed a structural equation model-partial least square (SEM-PLS) based on the data gathered from the respondents. All the respondents belong to construction family business. The results of the SEM-PLS suggest that autonomous and external motivation, both led to opportunist behaviour of the successor and it also leads to the success of a business. The model is fit with an R2 of 36%. The study proposes a model which indicates that autonomous and external motivation lead to opportunist behaviour and success of business in the Indian context for the construction sector.
    Keywords: family business; intrafamily; second generation; successor; success; construction sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10053314
     
  • The influence of the farmer and his family on the adoption of short food supply chains   Order a copy of this article
    by Magali Aubert, Geoffroy Enjolras 
    Abstract: In a search of higher income and lower dependence on intermediaries in the food chain, family farms are increasingly adopting short food supply chains (SFSCs). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of farm entrepreneurs and their family in defining the implementation of SFSCs. We use the 2010 Exhaustive Agricultural Census of French farms and implement a logit model. The results underline the fact that young and educated farm entrepreneurs are more likely to promote SFSCs. The presence of the family on the farm as well as the involvement of family members play a key role in the choice of SFSCs. However, the marital status of a farm entrepreneur and the involvement of their spouse have no specific influence. This research sheds new light on the key role played by families in supporting productive and marketing strategies of farms.
    Keywords: family-run management; short food supply chains; SFSCs; farming.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10064282
     
  • Business model renewal and firms' performance: the role of preventive vs. promotion mindsets   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukanlaya Sawang, Arun Sukumar, Poh Yen Ng, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi 
    Abstract: This study explores the role of an entrepreneurial mindset in buffering the relationship between the recurrent business model renewal and firms' performances over time. Using the Comprehensive Australian Study of Entrepreneurial Emergence (CAUSEE), a three-year longitudinal study, this paper examines the role of preventive and promotion mindsets in business model renewals and firm performance. A sample of 599 young firms (in the first wave) was used in exploring the role of entrepreneurial mindsets in business model renewals and firm performance. Factor and regression analysis were the main methods used to understand the relationship between promotion mindset versus prevention mindsets in the business model renewals. The results showed that the impact of business model renewal was greater for promotive mindset than preventive mindset entrepreneurs in the beginning. Over time, subjective performance (as a consequence of business model renewal) appears to improve slower among promotive mindset than the preventive mindset entrepreneurs. However, for objective performance, the improvement seemed to be slower among promotive mindset but non-significant effect among the preventive entrepreneurial mindsets.
    Keywords: business model; entrepreneurs; mindsets; regulatory focus theory; RFT; latent growth; SMEs; entrepreneurial mind; self-regulatory orientations; prevention-focus; promotion-focus; entrepreneurial performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10064283