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International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (IJESB)

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International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business (153 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessContextual Impact on Indigenous Entrepreneurs Around the World: Geographic Location, Socio-Cultural Context and Economic Structure
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Prescott C. Ensign 
    Abstract: The number of Aboriginal people in the world is greater than that of the US and almost equal to that of the EU. Yet politically and economically they are among the weakest. Entrepreneurship is viewed as a means of empowerment and wealth creation for Indigenous individuals and communities. This paper explores the impact that geographic embeddedness, Indigenous cultural factors, and mainstream economic structures have to help or hinder starting and operating an Aboriginal business. A conceptual framework of these contextual factors was constructed as an analytical tool for a qualitative deductive examination of these dynamics in cases, studies, and reports of over 50 remote, rural and urban instances of Indigenous entrepreneurship in 12 countries. Findings strongly point to the interconnectedness of these contextual factors, which provide opportunities for greater leveraging of enterprise creation and development. A Western-Eurocentric perspective and focus on the dominant cultures business model cause the underutilization of Aboriginal ways.
    Keywords: Indigenous entrepreneurs; Aboriginal businesses; embeddedness entrepreneurship; obstacles to Indigenous business; Indigenous culture; Indigenous entrepreneurial ecosystem.

    by James M. Crick, Dave Crick, Jessica M. Peixinho 
    Abstract: Earlier research has established the positive relationship between coopetition (the interplay between cooperation and competition) and company performance. However, typically a linear relationship is investigated and without potential moderating factors. This investigation draws upon resource-based theory and its association with the relational view, involving a mixed-methods research design. Quantitative findings are based on survey data from a sample of 101 smaller-sized vineyards and wineries in New Zealand (passing all major assessments of reliability and validity, including common method variance and endogeneity bias), but supplemented with how and why interview data from owner-managers of 20 firms. The results indicate that coopetition has a quadratic relationship with financial performance, suggesting that decision-makers should avoid engaging in not enough or excessive degrees of coopetition. Furthermore, industry experience positively moderates this quadratic link; for example, assisting decision-makers to facilitate access to trustworthy and complementary relationships offering mutually beneficial outcomes. This investigation offers unique insights that contribute to the extant literature regarding the relationship between coopetition and financial performance, additionally, practitioner implications and avenues for future research.
    Keywords: Coopetition; industry experience; resource-based theory; relational view; financial performance; small businesses; entrepreneurship; mixed methods research; New Zealand wine sector; resources and capabilities; inter-firm relationships.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10032033
  • Brain Gains: A Cross-Country Study on the Relationship Between Remittances and Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Joshua Bedi, Shaomeng Jia, Claudia Williamson 
    Abstract: This paper asks: do remittances promote entrepreneurship? Remittances have become one of the largest financial inflows for developing countries. By directly providing relief, remittances are an important income and capital source for family members of immigrant workers in home countries. We hypothesize and empirically document a positive link between remittances and entrepreneurship rates across countries. Our results suggest that remittances promote early-stage business development, particularly for opportunity-seeking entrepreneurs. In addition, we find that entrepreneurs with a secondary education and from a middle-class background benefit more from remittances.
    Keywords: Remittances; Entrepreneurship; Development; Immigration; Financial Inflows; Brain Drain; Brain Gain; Early-Stage Entrepreneurship; Opportunity-Driven Entrepreneurship; Diaspora Investment.

  • Financial literacy, value creation and firm performance. An investigation of Italian small and medium enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Andrea Quintiliani, Michele Modina, Massimo Arnone 
    Abstract: This article aims to determine the influence of entrepreneurs financial literacy for the growth of SMEs value. The paper verifies the hypothesis that there is a significant relationship between financial literacy and value creation, as indicated by economic value added (EVA
    Keywords: financial literacy; financial education; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; entrepreneurship; firm performance; value creation; economic value added.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10034839
  • What will (and should) sustainable digital maturity look like in business ecosystems? A Delphi study on the best practices, barriers and regulation of digital transformation   Order a copy of this article
    by Fabio James Petani, Ishraf Zaoui, Sergey Kovalev, Pascal Montagnon 
    Abstract: Digital transformation is a necessary condition for organisational survival and business success. The best performing organisations around the world adopt mature digital innovation strategies across functions and in every industry to compete through evolving products, services and organisational processes, pursuing new capabilities, resources and markets, via agile technologies and new business models. The capacity to capture business value through digital transformation involves managing a broad generative change in culture, corporate governance and executive leadership, across organisational dimensions. Entrepreneurs and organisations need to know more about which technologies, best practices and barriers will drive or hinder a sustainable digital maturity in the future of business ecosystems. A Delphi study is conducted with an international panel of experts from the academy, management consulting firms and industry leaders on how digital transformation might unfold and be regulated tomorrow, exploring ethical aspects of what sustainable digital maturity will (and should) look like.
    Keywords: digital maturity and transformation; sustainability; Delphi study; best practices and barriers; regulation; business ethics; digital technology regulation; responsible innovation; business ecosystems; expert forecast.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10035083
  • Perception of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs. Institutional celebration or stigmatisation?   Order a copy of this article
    by Beata Glinka, Eszter Megyeri, Gabriella Tabajdi 
    Abstract: Perceptions of entrepreneurship and attitudes towards entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs are a crucial element of a cultural context, influencing not only the way entrepreneurship is interpreted but also the behaviour of individuals as entrepreneurs, employees, and customers. The main purpose of this qualitative study is to assess and compare students perceptions of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs in three countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE): Poland, Czech Republic, and Hungary.1 The authors introduce concepts and theories on the cultural context of entrepreneurship and present brief relevant information about the economic background of the three countries under consideration. The results of the present study indicate that despite many common political, economic, and social forces shaping the situation in Poland, Czech Republic, and Hungary, perceptions of entrepreneurship tend to differ across areas. The paper contributes to the understanding of the cultural context of entrepreneurship in CEE countries and demonstrates that the perceptions of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs can be an important, and often overlooked, element of the cultural context of entrepreneurship, shaping the decisions and actions of individuals.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; cultural context of entrepreneurship; perception of entrepreneurship; CEE countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10034375
  • The role of the entrepreneurial leader: A study of Nigerian SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Ibiyemi Omeihe, Christian Harrison, Amon Simba, Kingsley Omeihe 
    Abstract: Growing evidence points to the role of entrepreneurial leadership in enhancing positive business outcomes. Yet little is known about the entrepreneurial leadership attributes and skills exploited by entrepreneurial leaders within a developing economy context. This study examines the role of entrepreneurial leadership within fashion SMEs. It exemplifies the entrepreneurial leadership attributes and skills employed by entrepreneurial leaders within Nigerian fashion SMEs. Based on 14 semi- structured interviews of entrepreneurial leaders, we found out that: (1) five broad skills namely; technical, conceptual, interpersonal, entrepreneurial and expectation management skills are employed by entrepreneurial leaders ; (2) entrepreneurial leaders rely on 7 attributes namely; hard work, long term view, passion, length of service, creativity, innovation and vision in the pursuit of their business ventures; (3) creativity and innovation are key attributes within the fashion sector ; (4) vision is described as the most important attribute an entrepreneurial leader should possess. Finally, this study recognises the interaction between attributes and skills, which serves as a foundation for understanding the transition process of entrepreneurial leadership attributes to skills. In addition, it provides new insights on the classification of competencies and it presents an instructive entrepreneurial leadership model for guiding such a categorisation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Leadership; Entrepreneurial Leader; Attributes; Skills; Small and Medium sized Enterprise (SME); Entrepreneurship; Leadership; Developing Economy.

    by Sandeep Singh, Rajni Bala, Priyanka Sharma 
    Abstract: The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between procrastination and entrepreneurial intentions. The available literature strongly indicated that procrastination has a negative effect on entrepreneurial intentions. In the present study relationship between entrepreneurial intentions was examined with avoidant and decisional procrastination. The data were collected from five MBA institutions of Mohali district of Punjab (India). Out of these five institutions, a sample of 199 students was selected based on convenience sampling technique. The results revealed that there was a significant impact of avoidant and decisional procrastination on entrepreneurial intentions and nature of the relationship was negative. The study provides a healthier scope of future research.
    Keywords: Procrastination; Entrepreneurial Intentions; Students; Avoidant; Decisional; Punjab; PLS-SEM; MBA.

  • Enablers and Inhibitors of Cloud Computing Adoption in Indian Small and Medium sized Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Devesh Kumar, Harsh Vardhan Samalia 
    Abstract: The information and communication technologies (ICTs) penetration and adoption among Indian SMEs is low because of the high cost of ICTs and other complexities involved in using and maintaining these. In such a scenario, cloud computing can be a good option for SMEs for accessing and using appropriate ICTs in a cost-effective way. Through cloud computing, SMEs can get access to the latest ICTs using internet on a pay-per-usage basis without actually buying and maintaining such ICTs locally. However, there are some challenges like security and privacy of business data, connectivity issues and vendor lock-in, which may prevent SMEs from using cloud computing. The objective of this study is to understand and assess factors which enable or inhibit adoption of cloud computing among SMEs in India. For this, data were collected from 121 SMEs from a prominent industrial area in the northern region of India. Confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis techniques were applied for data analysis and for drawing the conclusion.
    Keywords: cloud computing; adoption; India; small and medium enterprise; SME; micro; small and medium enterprise; MSME; information and communication technology; ICT; SaaS; enablers; inhibitors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10035809
  • Startup - India: An exploratory analysis of issues, challenges, and the road ahead   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarika Sharma, D.P. Goyal 
    Abstract: Startups are a rising trend among young budding entrepreneurs in India. Having a strong ecosystem globally ranked among third has given the rapid increase in the number of newly established startups. To promote the entrepreneurship in India, government has launched Startup-India initiative. But the percent of businesses that fail is also significant. There are various challenges faced by startups in India both in urban and rural area. The present study addresses the issues and challenges faced by startup companies in India through exploratory qualitative research. The method used for data collection is semi-structured interviews through open-ended questions. The investigation is based on a sample of 148 startups from all over India. The Inductive method was used for qualitative data analysis using the software AQUAD 7.0. The challenges emerged are also presented as a comparison with the existing literature. The findings and suggestions may be useful to the policymakers and entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Startup-India; Indian Startups; Challenges; Issues; Qualitative analysis.

  • Explaining Women Entrepreneurship in Bhutan: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Madhura Bedarkar, Yogesh Brahmankar, Tenzin Rabgay, Kinley Yangdon 
    Abstract: The study explores the experience of women entrepreneurs in the unorganised sector of Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to discover the experiences of the women entrepreneurs and 12 super-ordinate themes were drawn. It is found that the motivational factors to take up entrepreneurship varied from having to support family to taking up entrepreneurship as career option due to low education. Access to finance; work-family conflict; fragmented and saturated markets; lack of infrastructural support; difficulty in hiring employees are some of the challenges faced. The findings are mostly consistent with similar previous studies conducted in the region. The study proposes that sector-specific micro-finance schemes and a collaborative network of government and non-government organisations would help in addressing the challenges faced by women entrepreneurs. This research is among the initial studies conducted in Bhutan pertaining to women entrepreneurship and in particular using IPA to explore the in-depth experiences of the women entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurship; interpretative phenomenological analysis; IPA; Bhutan; informal and unorganised sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10038747
  • Understanding the Motivating Factors for Women Entrepreneurs: Empirical Insights from Indian Micro Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheela Bhargava, Rachita Rana 
    Abstract: This study is about women entrepreneurs engaged in micro enterprises, their socio-demographic characteristics, their challenges and the factors motivating them to start business in an urban setting in India. With the intention of attaining deep insights into the current conditions, motives and challenges of Indian urban women in entrepreneurship, a survey of 284 women entrepreneurs running micro enterprises in various areas of service sector like education, (e.g., play schools & coaching centers), beauty care & treatment (beauty parlours/salons), tailoring boutiques, day care centers (cr
    Keywords: Women entrepreneur; urban economy; factors motivating to starting business; socio-economic development; NCT (National Capital Territory) of Delhi; personal factors; economic factors; social factors; micro enterprises; service sector; entrepreneurship; MSMEs (Micro; Small and Medium Enterprises); economic development; financial constraints; government support.

  • Entrepreneur gatekeepers and adaptors of knowledge in emerging food processing clusters in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Anthony Ayakwah, Leandro Sepulveda, Fergus Lyon 
    Abstract: Development, prosperity and sustainable livelihoods in Africa requires knowledge and technology adapted to local contexts. This paper argues that entrepreneur gatekeepers within developing economy clusters can become potent conduits for adapting technology but research overlooks their role, particularly when they are operating as part of the informal economy. This study therefore addresses this knowledge gap through a qualitative empirical study of two food processing clusters in Ghana. Gatekeepers are identified as those entrepreneurs who bring tacit and codified knowledge to be shared throughout a cluster, and also adapt technology to local contexts. The informal nature of the African economy shapes these processes with knowledge shared through personal trust based relationships, the movement of labour between businesses and work of artisan engineers who adapt technology. Innovation support in an African context therefore needs to work with these entrepreneur gatekeepers as well as larger companies and public institutions.
    Keywords: entrepreneur gatekeepers; cluster; technology; food processing; informal sector; Africa; Ghana; multinational companies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10040785
  • Interpretive Structural Model (ISM) and MICMAC for Facilitators and Barriers to Small scale Potato Processing Industry among Self-employed Farmers   Order a copy of this article
    by Jaspreet Kaur, Ashima Gupta 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify the challenges and enablers for potato processing industry among farmers in Agra region, Uttar Pradesh, India. The study was exploratory in nature. It used interview method from farmers which included open ended questions with sample of five districts from Agra region. Interpretive structural model (ISM) was used to determine the structural relationship between different challenges identified from the interviews from farmers. The results of the study were two-fold. It included enablers and challenges to PPI among farmers. ISM resulted that, decreasing land size was the problem of much concern and root cause of the problem was low education level, unfavourable environmental factors and long supply chain. Further, MICMAC analysis helped to determine the most driving and dependence factors. Government policies, developing entrepreneurial intentions, technical know-how and expertise were found to be important enablers for PPI.
    Keywords: potato processing industry; PPI; farmers; agriculture; enablers and challenges; interpretive structural model; ISM; MICMAC analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10035965
  • Women entrepreneurship motivational factors: analysing effect through the conceptual competency-based framework   Order a copy of this article
    by Sucheta Agarwal, Vivek Agrawal 
    Abstract: The present study overcomes the void in academic literature by establishing a conceptual framework relating to women's entrepreneurship competency development. Based on an analysis of the current literature and using resource-based view theory, social learning theory, role theory, and the theory of social identity, this research provides a conceptual framework with personal, social, and environmental motivating factors as its core constructs for competency development for the growth of their enterprises. The motivational factors affect women entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial learning (formal and informal learning) to improve their skills, talent, and competencies, which help them achieve success in the development of enterprises. These factors are the balance between family and work responsibilities, self and social identity of women entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship education and training, experience of women, visibility and interaction with role models, influence of family and friends, awareness about government, non-government organisations (NGOs) and financial institutions promotional schemes, and impact of culture. It is one of the leading research that discusses women entrepreneurs' growth through the conceptual competency-based framework and it is also a contribution to the literature in women entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurs: social identity” support organisations; motivation; competency; entrepreneurial learning.

  • Social Media Marketing Adoption by unorganised businesses in India: A technology adoption model based approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Sarika Sharma, Archana Singh, Sonica Rautela 
    Abstract: The unorganised sector although not so well accepted but plays a major role in Indian economy and employment generation. These small businesses heavily rely on customers for their survival therefore marketing plays an integral part. Social media marketing (SMM) with its wide reach and affordability can help them provide much needed marketing boost. The purpose of this paper is to find the adoption intention of SMM by unorganised businesses. With the help of existing literature a theoretical model is proposed based on widely accepted technology adoption model (TAM). This model is then empirically evaluated with a data of 248 unorganised businesses in India using structural equation modelling (SEM). The results highlight that perceived ease of use impacts the intention to use social media marketing as well as it impact perceived usefulness. Cost effectiveness and interactivity have no impact on intention to use SMM. The moderating effect of gender and educational level is also presented in the paper.
    Keywords: Social media marketing; unorganised business; technology adoption model; structural equation modelling; cost effectiveness; interactivity.

  • Women-owned, home-based businesses: The effects of location on growth   Order a copy of this article
    by Zeevik Greenberg, Eli Gimmon, Yanay Farja, Yahel Kurlander 
    Abstract: Purpose: Building on institutional theory, this research explores spatial-institutional contexts differentiating between women-owned businesses located in periphery and core regions, and between home-based and away-from-home businesses. The design relies on mixed methods: we conducted a quantitative survey of 156 women entrepreneurs from core and periphery regions in Israel, followed by a qualitative survey of nine women entrepreneurs using semi-constructed, in-depth interviews. The characteristics of women-owned businesses were corroborated using a sample of men-owned businesses for comparison. The findings suggest that the choice of locating a business at home is often gender-driven, as it allows upholding of the gender contract while still breaking the glass ceiling. Furthermore, the findings suggest that gender and location affect business performance: women-owned home-based businesses in peripheral regions enjoy higher growth than similar businesses in core regions or similar businesses owned by men. The study bears practical implications for women entrepreneurs in peripheral regions, in all business sectors, suggesting that running a business from home is an advantage. Originality: This is a first-of-its-kind examination of the intersection between home-base and peripheral location and its effect on women-owned businesses, as well as the influence of spatial-institutional contexts on business growth. The study corroborates the institutional theory and the feminist perspectives of gender occupation by exploring factors that drive women to start and expand home-based businesses.
    Keywords: Women's entrepreneurship; Business growth; SME; Home-based; Peripheral regions; family.

  • Training needs for successful businesswomen: a narrative analysis of stories of women entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by May Portuguez Castro, Marcela Georgina Gómez Zermeño 
    Abstract: This research is a qualitative study that develops a narrative analysis of the entrepreneurial experiences of two women business owners in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico. This study sought to understand the training needs of female entrepreneurs from the experiences of these women who started their own companies. This issue of entrepreneurship arouses much curiosity and interest in the characteristics of the people who undertake it and how they develop their plans. It is essential to analyse the experiences of entrepreneurs to incorporate the lessons learned into training programs that fulfil the needs and learning styles of people starting and operating their own companies. The women consulted recommended as the key topics in a training program the incorporation of the family into the training processes, the methodologies for scaling up businesses, tools that facilitate the management of revenue, expenses, and earnings, activities that increase self-efficacy, how to search for funding resources and investment capital, and networking.
    Keywords: education for entrepreneurship; narrative research; gender equality; women and development; social justice; higher education; educational innovation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10032635
  • Drivers of Critical Thinking among Women Micro-Entrepreneurs in Ghana   Order a copy of this article
    by Fanny Quagrainie, Murat Erogul, Afia Dentaa Dankwa, Alan Kabalan 
    Abstract: The study investigates critical thinking behaviours of women micro-entrepreneurs in Ghana by examining how life experience, education, use of Internet, social engagement and self-criticism act as antecedents of critical thinking behaviours using age as a mediator. 336 women micro-entrepreneurs were identified in Accra and Tema. Findings reveal that antecedents of critical thinking in developed and developing contexts can vary and age is a mediator that equips women micro-entrepreneurs with knowledge and skills that are useful for critical thinking. The paper contributes to the female entrepreneurship literature that critical thinking among women micro-entrepreneurs can be enhanced as a socially situated practice, emphasising the emergent understanding of critical thinking as embedded within social processes and context.
    Keywords: critical thinking; micro-entrepreneurs; women; age; Ghana.

  • Moderating role of Personal Attitude , Social Norms and Self efficacy on the relationship between Protean career pattern and Entrepreneurial orientation among students in India : A structural equation modelling approach.   Order a copy of this article
    by Meha Joshi, Girish Chandra Maheshwari, Rajan Yadav 
    Abstract: The change in the mindset of millennials has led to the emergence of several new career patterns. It has been observed over the years that millennials do not want to follow a rigid career path rather they look for unconventional kind of career, which is self-directed and value-driven, also called as Protean career. This paper aims at investigating the difference in Protean career orientation among the students of Management of select Business schools of Delhi based on their gender. Moreover, the study aims at understanding the moderation effect of Personal Attitude, Self-efficacy and Social norms on the relationship between protean career orientation and Entrepreneurial orientation of the students. Data was collected from 250 students pursuing Management education in select Business Schools in Delhi and NCR. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling and the software used was AMOS 20. The results show that there is no significant difference in the Protean career orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation of students based on their gender. Personal attitude and Social norms are found to be significantly moderating the relationship between Protean career orientation and Entrepreneurial Orientation. Self-efficacy did not show the moderation effect on the relationship between Protean orientation of students and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The study has several implications. The study would add some significant perspectives on the ongoing efforts towards giving a boost to Entrepreneurship in India to deal with present-day challenges of Unemployment. Also, it will help in understanding the emerging protean career among the students.
    Keywords: Gender; Protean career; Millennials; Self-efficacy; Entrepreneurship; Structural Equation Modelling; Social Norms.

  • The Utilisation of Digital Media for Branding Startups   Order a copy of this article
    by Demetris Vrontis, Alkis Thrassou, Milena Viassone 
    Abstract: The critical and irrevocably strengthening role of social media and mobile technology in brand building strategies is naturally reflected in extant literature. The latter, however, focuses on practices of established companies, without paying due attention to startups, and only considering specific aspects of these, such as their dynamic branding models and flexible branding processes. This paper aims at this gap and investigates how startups differ in their utilization of social media and mobile technologies for branding purposes, in terms of requisite means and aims. The findings highlight visible differences between startups and established companies, in terms of strategic aims, use and prioritisation of benefits gained and barriers to implementation. Methodologically, the research rests on a mixed-method approach comprising interviews, secondary data, observation, expert panel control and a multiple case study of three Italian startups; and conceptually develops descriptive findings towards prescriptive conclusions and implications of both scholarly and industry worth.
    Keywords: digital media; mobile technologies; social media; branding; startups; interviews; secondary data; observation; expert panel control; multiple case study.

  • Succession in times of financial uncertainty: a case of German construction family business through the accountants lens   Order a copy of this article
    by Zaidoon Alhatabat 
    Abstract: Succession in family businesses in times of financial uncertainty is the topic of the current study. The study highlights conflicts that may arise when sharing management and accounting functions and when seeking to determine senior management succession, as investigated through the accountants lens. Bourdieus theory of practice is used as exploratory and explanatory theoretical foundation, which supports data collection and analysis. A qualitative methodology is employed to focus in particular on family members perceptions of their family business situation and family habitus. Data was collected via two methods: interviews and participant observation, due to available access and also for the purpose of triangulation. The former took place formally and each interview was manually transcribed, the latter took place in an informal setting, thus no taping or immediate transcripts were possible. The studys findings illustrate a case of succession in a small German family business in times of financial uncertainty. It explores the habitus of the family in the context of the business, and utilises the accounting habitus to analyse data through the accountants lens.
    Keywords: German family business culture; Bourdieu; succession; family habitus; accountants’ habitus.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10032637
  • Social skills in family business succession: Going beyond economic-centred goals   Order a copy of this article
    by Hedi YEZZA 
    Abstract: This study builds on previous research on the required competencies of potential CEOs in the family succession process. Whilst aiming to improve the family business literature by exploring the particularities of emerging economies in Africa, this studys main objective is to highlight the importance of a successors social skills during the succession process, taking into consideration non-economic-centred goals. For this purpose, both qualitative and quantitative methods were applied. First, we conducted five qualitative case studies among Tunisian family business firms. Then, we strengthened our results with a quantitative study by using 105 questionnaires with family business companies that experienced at least one succession in their recent history. The results show that social skills play an important role and have a positive impact on non-economic-centred goals. These goals rooted in studies developed around the socio-emotional wealth concept will be discussed in this paper.
    Keywords: family business; social skills; successors; non-economic centred goals; socio-emotional wealth.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10036310
  • An Empirical Study on Present State of Agriculture Entrepreneurship and Its Barriers   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahul Dhiman 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify problems faced by agripreneurs in Himachal Pradesh. The study is conducted in three development blocks of Solan district of Himachal Pradesh using multi-stage random sampling. The findings of the study reveal the major barriers that are being faced by the agripreneurs in the state of Himachal Pradesh and reveals that agriculture is basic entrepreneurial activity adopted by the farmers followed by horticulture, livestock, fishery and poultry. Also majority of the farmers have inherited the business. It is also found that majority of the entrepreneurs feel that they are not taking advantage of any scheme since this involved a large amount of running around and also feel that procedure to make use of such schemes is cumbersome. This avoids them to remain away from using various government schemes. The study further reveals that the major problems faced by farmers are associated towards not having appropriate information regarding start up of an enterprise followed by lack of entrepreneurial skill or management skills, retention of labour force, shortage of knowledge to contract with workers, marketing problems, unavailability of information on changing state of affairs, inadequate scientific support, shortage of resources, large amount of paper work and tight repayment schedule. It is also recommended to the government to further simplify the process of making use of schemes and the development of marketing facilities in local areas.
    Keywords: Agripreneurship; agripreneurship barriers; entrepreneurial skills.

  • Exploring Organisational Agility in SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Saad Zighan, Nidal Dwaikat 
    Abstract: SMEs in Jordan are facing unanticipated and rapid changes in their business environment. With a view to improve the sustainability and survival of SMEs in Jordan, this study investigates the application of organisational agility in terms of innovation, flexibility, responsiveness, adaptability and resilience. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 53 furniture manufacturing SMEs in Jordan, the study finds that SMEs do not adopt agility in comparison to larger organisations. They face several resource constraints and financial frictions represent a severe obstacle for the development of SMEs agility. In terms of increasing their agility, the results show that manufacturing SMEs can leverage their employees skills and capabilities in an efficient and effective manner, which will, in turn, offer a significant and simultaneous effect on the organisational agility. The results also indicate that customer-orientation, service-provision and strategic collaboration have a substantial effect on the development of the SMEs agility.
    Keywords: SMEs; Agility; Innovation; Flexibility; Responsive; Adaptability; Resilience.

  • The Determinants of Non-family Employees Turnover Intentions in Family Firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Omer Yazici, Esra Memili, Pankaj C. Patel, Veland Ramadani 
    Abstract: While research on the organisational behaviour and HRM (i.e., organisational identification, justice, commitment, and turnover intentions) in family business contexts has been advancing, the empirical investigation of non-family employees perceptions has been still scarce. Drawing upon the family influence literature and organisational identification, justice, and commitment theories, we explore the determinants of non-family employees turnover intentions. Specifically, we examine the impact of non-family employees family firm identification and perceived justice on family firm commitment, in turn affecting turnover intentions. Furthermore, we examine the moderation effects of perceived family influence on these links. Our findings demonstrate that non-family employees family firm identification and perceived justice positively affect their family firm commitment, which in turn lowers turnover intentions. While family firm commitment mediates the relationship between family firm identification and turnover intentions, perceived family influence moderates the mediation effects of family firm commitment between family firm identification and turnover intentions.
    Keywords: non-family employees; employee commitment; turnover intentions; organisational identification; family business.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10031802
  • The importance of e-commerce adoption to boost small enterprise growth in the South African tourism industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Boris Urban, Willem-Friso Van Der Putten 
    Abstract: Recognising there are several problems related to e-commerce adoption, which is primarily researched at a large firm-level in developed countries, the purpose of this study is to evaluate factors that may influence e-commerce adoption amongst small and medium enterprises in the South African tourism industry context. Results indicate that organisational resources in terms of communication and commitment, and environmental resources in terms of market e-readiness were found to be significant factors in relation to e-commerce adoption. Moreover, the size of the enterprise was a significant indicator of e-commerce adoption across all factors related to the technology-organization-environment framework. By applying an empirical and theoretical lens this study has increased the relevance of both the technology-organization-environment framework and e-commerce adoption by expanding it from mostly a descriptive nature to a topic that examines important relationships between these constructs in an emerging African market context.
    Keywords: e-commerce; adoption; technology; organisational; environmental; small and medium enterprises; tourism; South Africa.

  • Kosovos Initial-Stage Venture Capital Market: Challenges and Perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by Herolinda Murati-Leka 
    Abstract: The market evolution is a consistent process associated with different challenges which increases the complexity of an economy. One of the main barrier facing in this process would be the disparity of information known as the presence of asymmetric information in these markets. Asymmetric information problem is especially severe in developing markets. This study provides new insights into research on venture capital in emerging markets with a special emphasise in the case of Kosovo. The idea of this paper is to examine the state of the market of Kosovo in general, than analyse and understand the business environment and other macroeconomic conditions in order to have a deep view of the Kosovos economy. The recommendations given in this study not only have important implications for the start-up companies and the business area in general, but also have a significant meaning for the policy making of government to make the business climate a relatively fair information environment for perspective domestic and foreign venture capital investors.
    Keywords: venture capital; emerging markets; ICT; SMEs; start-ups.

  • The Extent of Technological Innovation Adoption among Micro, Small and Medium Food Processing Enterprises and its Effects on Poverty Reduction   Order a copy of this article
    by Kenneth Barroga, Agnes Rola, Dinah Pura Depositario, Larry Digal 
    Abstract: This studys main research question as contextualised for Davao region, Philippines, is what are the effects of the extent of technological innovation adoption (TIA) among micro, small, and medium food processing enterprises (MSMFEs) on the persistent developmental issue of poverty? This study involved DOSTs Small Enterprises Technology Upgrading Program (SETUP) under which financial assistance for MSMFEs is provided to enable them to adopt technological innovations to boost productivity. Primary data were obtained through a census of 52 MSMFEs and key informant interviews. The analytical tools used were a composite index construction, an ordered logistic regression analysis, and a before-and-after approach to impact evaluation. The adoption indices ascertained which MSMFEs did not adopt the technological innovations of SETUP and which ones adopted less, moderately, and highly or fully. There was a positive and significant impact of TIA on MSMFEs annual gross sales, employment, and daily wage rates of direct workers; thus, contributing to poverty alleviation. Given these promising findings, this study suggests that, among the menu of available poverty reduction strategies, one with far reaching potential is that of strengthening the MSMFEs through TIA.
    Keywords: impact assessment; ordered logistic regression; poverty; SETUP; SME; technological innovation adoption; TIA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10037155
  • Entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents: A study of undergraduate students in the Uttarakhand state of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Shweta Belwal, Rakesh Belwal, Anamika Chhetri 
    Abstract: Successful promotion of entrepreneurship requires an understanding of entrepreneurial intentions (EI) among the subjects. The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between EI and its antecedents concerning the undergraduates in India. This research is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Extending the TPB framework, a hypo-deductive research-based approach was used to test the hypotheses associated with EI and its antecedents. An adapted version of the Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) was used to collect data using the survey method. Partial Least Square method was used to test the hypotheses. The results reflected that personal attitude, perceived behavioural control, and University Support make a significant positive impact on the EI of undergraduates. No significant positive association between other antecedents of EI (i.e., entrepreneurial support, social norms, general self-efficacy) and EI was found. The moderator effect of gender and family background between the antecedents of EI and EI was not supported. The outcomes appeal establishment and promotion of social norms favouring entrepreneurship which appear neutral, at this stage. The outcomes reiterate the importance of personal attitude, perceived behaviour control, and University Support as the key influencer in the given context and demand university authorities and policymakers to boost EI of students by taking cognizance of these factors.
    Keywords: India; Entrepreneurial intention; undergraduates; antecedents; education.

  • Entrepreneurial motives in Greek rural areas: "Opportunity" or "Necessity"?   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is vital he development and sustainability of rural areas. This research examines the motives for entrepreneurship in rural areas in Greece and delves further into the form of entrepreneurship based on the motives prevailing in these areas. The data collection was conducted through personal interviews totalling 240 questionnaires, disseminated among entrepreneurs. Understanding business motives may provide valuable information for policymakers to facilitate or develop a favourable business environment in rural areas. Equally important is the identification of entrepreneurship (opportunity or out of necessity), as it can shape the socioeconomic development of the rural communities in which the businesses are located. The search for motives for start-up business activity, especially in rural areas, is important, as it demonstrates the extent to which activities are real business efforts based on an internal need, or recognition of an opportunity, or a response to adverse economic circumstances, including unemployment.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial motives; ‘necessity-opportunity’ entrepreneurship; rural areas; ‘push-pull’ theory.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10034008
  • Towards More Qualitative Research Paradigms in Nascent Entrepreneurship Research   Order a copy of this article
    by Maha Aly 
    Abstract: This paper argues that the research community may need to pay more attention to the value of qualitative research paradigms for the identification of behavioural patterns of nascent entrepreneurs. It presents a methodological approach to gain insights that complement significantly the current mainstream quantitative research. This paper highlights, justifies and explains the methodology used in an empirical study (example) exploring the behavioural patterns of nascent entrepreneurs in Germany during the early bootstrapping phase. Both grounded theory and ethnographic research techniques are used to uncover hidden explanations for entrepreneurial decision-making. Weaved together by methodological triangulation, the paper shows the potential explanatory power of qualitative research in the context of nascent entrepreneurs. It allows for an in-depth view into why and how qualitative methods are used to address certain behavioural patterns in the field of entrepreneurship. The mix of methods here is not common in the context of entrepreneurial empirical research, but borrowed from anthropology.
    Keywords: research methodology; qualitative; inductive; grounded theory; ethnographic research; nascent entrepreneurship; anthropology.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10038749
  • Reward crowdfunding and the success of campaigns: exploring the role of social capital of entrepreneurs and investors   Order a copy of this article
    by Ciro Troise, Sergey Yablonsky 
    Abstract: Crowdfunding is a popular fundraising system leveraged by several entrepreneurs to support their business, in particular start ups and SMEs. This research presents a first examination of social capital developed within crowdfunding platforms by the two main actors involved in this mechanism, namely the entrepreneurs and the investors. The research examines the impact of social capital of both these actors on funding success. We use several parameters in order to measure social capital and we collected data through Ulule, a well-known platform of reward-based crowdfunding. The results show that projects backed by entrepreneurs before the launch of their own project positively affect the funding success, while the projects followed by entrepreneurs have negative effects. Instead, projects followed by investors have a positive impact on funding success as well as the number of expert investors. The research will offer several implications for different stakeholders.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; social capital; crowdfunding; entrepreneurs; investors.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10032639
  • Epistemology of Business Incubators and the Incubation theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Apoorv Ranjan Sharma, Balvinder Shukla, Manoj Joshi 
    Abstract: This scholarly contribution attempts to explore the role of business incubators (BIs) on Indian start-ups, leading to unanswered queries. Can it impact innovation? How does it leverage job generation? Does it lead to an effective business creation? The authors manoeuvred to an important posit on BIs impact on job generation, wealth creation and economic development of India. Primary data through structured and unstructured interviews was chosen as a research method, with founders of start-ups, entrepreneurs and BIs. Out of the existing 40 BIs spread across PAN India, barring few, most responded. A healthy start-up spin-off from these BIs leads to job generation in turn wealth creation. The research provides an insight to the Indian perspective based on the interaction with the founders of start-ups and BIs. The authors propose a new business incubation model based on mentoring, which has been tested in reducing the start-up mortality rate by 1%.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; start-up; business incubators; accelerators; job generation; wealth creation; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10042114
  • Multiculturalism and Entrepreneurial Expansion   Order a copy of this article
    by Maher Al-Sayah, Charbel Salloum, Quentin Lefebvre, Laura Salloum, Diala Kabbara 
    Abstract: The social environment plays an important role in forming an individuals ex-ante entrepreneurial experience. Living in a socially diverse environment compels people to be more open toward other communities and their practices. This study is based on revealing the correlation between the fast and multinational Lebanese entrepreneurial expansion and Lebanese social diversity, where cognitive cultural intelligence represents an important part of the ex-ante entrepreneurial experiences. A linear regression was established to analyse the following four topics: the correlation between cognitive cultural identity and adaptation capabilities and business flexibility; the correlation between cognitive cultural identity and the perception of new opportunities; the correlation between cognitive cultural identity and lower entrepreneurial costs; and the link between cognitive cultural identity and faster application accomplishment. The latter revelations are evaluated based on the Lebanese foreign expansion influenced by the countrys extremely diverse social environment. An adapted form of the endogenous growth theory was introduced to fit into the studys approach toward the topic in question.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; cognitive cultural intelligence; endogenous growth; social identity; diversity; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10038884
  • Do Self-Employment Determinants Have a Gender at the Macro Level? A Panel Analysis of OECD Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Brahim Gaies, Adnane Maalaoui, Leo Paul Dana 
    Abstract: This study investigates whether female self-employment at the country level is similarly or differently impacted by the same factors as is male self-employment. In order to determine these factors, we referred to three major theories explaining the entrepreneurship determinants at the macro level, namely institutional theory, eclectic theory and gender theory. The hypotheses arising from this theoretical framework are tested on the basis of a panel data analysis for the 36 OECD countries over the period 20002014. Our analysis reveals that while certain factors (social perception of entrepreneurship, economic development and gender equality in nascent entrepreneurship) play the same role at the national level with regard to female and male self-employment, other factors (unemployment and normative support for entrepreneurship) have a different influence.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurship; applied entrepreneurship in macroeconomics; panel data; Generalized Least Squares (GLS) panel regression model; opportunity discovery; gender gap.

    by Saikat Gochhait, Miriam Cano-Rubio, Rocío Martinez-Jimenez, Sabiha Fazalbhoy 
    Abstract: In the Arab world, families control most of the businesses located in Asia and the Middle East countries where gender gaps exist and where women have less freedom to directly influence their personal and work lives. In the host countries, formal institutions play a crucial role in affecting womens entrepreneurship. However, many informal factors, such as gender roles and stereotypes, can influence womens behaviour with respect to entrepreneurship. Therefore, this paper analyses the primary motivations of women entrepreneurs in a different cultural environment, Spain, where less than 5% of the adult female population launches businesses. Finally, it discusses how the previously mentioned stereotypes of Arab women influence their initiative in running a business in a psychologically and culturally distant country such as Spain.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurship; Arab world; Spain; motives and obstacles; gender stereotypes; total early stage entrepreneurial activity; TEA;Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; GEM; UAE; technological innovations; cultural environment; interpretative phenomenological analysis; IPA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10041299
  • The impact of COVID-19 crisis on Hungarian small- and medium-sized enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Peter Karacsony 
    Abstract: The main purpose of this study is to determine the impact of coronavirus (Covid-19) on small- and medium-sized businesses in Hungary. Coronavirus has a wide-reaching effect on the economy. This study researches the events of the last few months and the impact of the coronavirus on Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises and their operation. In other words, how has the life of small and medium-sized enterprises been changed by the coronavirus in Hungary? To test the hypothesis, the data of the questionnaire survey was used to assess the effects of the COVID-19 crisis among Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises. After preliminary processing of the data, questionnaire data from 318 companies were used for further analysis. Only SMEs were included in our sample. In addition, companies with incomplete questionnaires were excluded. During the research it was confirmed that the coronavirus had a significant effect on the daily operation of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises and on the changes in the number of employees. The study provides a clear insight into the early impact of the Covid-19 outbreak on Hungarian SMEs, and it assesses the measures taken by Hungarian SMEs during the crisis. This study is novel and up-to-date, and thus can help better understanding of the economic issues of recent months and serve as a basis for further research.
    Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; Hungary; small- and medium-sized enterprises; economic crisis; management; governmental measures; home office work; profitability; risk.

  • Ownership experience: its relevance to Philippine micro and small entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheevun Di Guliman 
    Abstract: This study primarily investigated whether facets of an entrepreneurs human capital predict their ability to identify and eventually pursue an entrepreneurial opportunity. Based on a survey of 390 Philippine micro and small entrepreneurs, through a personally administered questionnaire, this study also probed on the reasons, which led them to business ownership. The regression results suggest that ownership experience is positively related to both entrepreneurs identification and eventual pursuit of such entrepreneurial opportunity. Moreover, the identification of entrepreneurial opportunity is positively driven by the entrepreneurs social welfare motive yet negatively related to an entrepreneurs financial motive. However, results showed that financial motive was the foremost reason that led them to business ownership. Finally, the findings of this study suggest that in economies where resources are limited, entrepreneurial programs may focus more on those with higher ownership experience as they can translate opportunities to actual business.
    Keywords: MSMEs; micro; small and medium enterprises; human capital; opportunity identification; opportunity pursuit; ownership experience; necessity-driven; financial motive; social entrepreneurs; developing country; Philippines.

  • Entrepreneurial imaginativeness, foresightedness and experiential tourism delivery   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Joshi, Dhiraj A, Meenakshi Gandhi, Soumi Roy, Niharika Jaiswal 
    Abstract: In a volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous (VUCA) world, when all others perspire in chaos, entrepreneurs perceive opportunities! The story of India City Walks, (ICW) is an expedition to the world of opportunities that laid in the disguise of heritage tourism. The purpose of this study is to capture the venture ideation of ICW, based on the imaginativeness of the protagonist and to identify the value of heritage tourism. The entrepreneurial actions were captured using qualitative research techniques, identifying the incumbent firm from amongst 50 start-ups in the tourism cohort. In this research, exploratory research design was adopted with comprehensive research approach and building theory from case. The research attempts to reflect how an entrepreneur Sachin Bansal (Sachin) by harnessing experiential learning, inculcated innovation in the heritage tourism industry by incepting a start-up, ICW, which has remodelled on how heritage & experiential tourism is viewed from Indian perspective.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial actions; imaginativeness; innovative practices; India City Walks™; ICW™; Sachin Bansal; City Explorers®; Delhi Walks®; Chief Explorer®; small business; foresight.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10041925
  • Revisiting Entrepreneurship Education: Implications from Recent Findings in Biology   Order a copy of this article
    by Ravinder K. Zutshi, Wee-Liang Tan 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship education has grown from the early days when there were only a few schools offering courses. The content of the education is drawn from various disciplines. Most of the disciplines that entrepreneurship draws from are from human sciences for example, economics, philosophy, sociology, and psychology. Human sciences are uncertain sciences. However, advancements in the biological sciences, genetics and neurobiology enable scholars in mind-sciences and decision theory to better understand human decision process. It has serious implications for entrepreneurship education. In this paper, we explore these developments and the implications for entrepreneurship education.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education; advances in biology and neuroscience; implications for entrepreneurship programmes.

  • From perceptions to performance to business intentions: what do women and men entrepreneurs really see?   Order a copy of this article
    by Dafna Kariv, Oren Kaplan, Mihai Ibanescu, Luis Cisneros 
    Abstract: This study aims to decipher women and men entrepreneurs pursuant intentions related to their entrepreneurial business contingency by decoding their perceptions of the environment as opportunities or hurdles to their subsequent financial performance. Drawing on the effectuation model and entrepreneurial self-efficacy, our study reinforces findings on gender differences in perceptions of opportunities and hurdles, particularly on womens higher levels of hurdle as well as opportunity perceptions, revealing womens wider range of financial performance relative to men based on their hurdle and opportunity perceptions. Contradicting some existing research, our study revealed gender similarities in the perceptual conversion of hurdles and opportunities into business intentions, hence introducing novel perspectives on these relations. Implications of the gender and effectuation perspectives for higher education are discussed.
    Keywords: business performance: business intentions: gender.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10034846
    by Muhammad Iskandar Hamzah, James M. Crick, Dave Crick, Syukrina Alini Mat Ali, Noor'ain Mohamad Yunus 
    Abstract: Guided by resource-based theory, this study examines the nature of the relationship between an entrepreneurial marketing orientation (the interplay between market-oriented and entrepreneurially-oriented behaviours) and small business growth. Survey responses were collected from 421 smaller-sized firms in Malaysia. After assessing the statistical data for all major robustness checks, hierarchical regression was used to evaluate the conceptual framework. The results suggested that on their own, market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation have linear (positive) relationships with small business growth. More importantly, an entrepreneurial marketing orientation exhibited a nonlinear (inverted U-shaped) association with small business growth. Thus, owner-managers are faced with the challenge of fostering an optimal-level of an entrepreneurial marketing orientation to avoid potentially harmful performance consequences. Consequently, unique insights have emerged regarding the complexities of the marketing/entrepreneurship interface, with stronger evidence pertaining to the dangers of implementing too little or too much of an entrepreneurial marketing orientation.
    Keywords: market orientation; entrepreneurial orientation; entrepreneurial marketing orientation; small business growth; resource-based theory; emerging economies; Malaysia. small business growth; resource-based theory; emerging economies; Malaysia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10049915
  • Wine and Craft Beer in Baja California: An Approach to Innovation through Label Design   Order a copy of this article
    by Mayer Cabrera-Flores, Creta Cota-Cota, Sialia Mellink-Méndez, Alicia Leon-Pozo 
    Abstract: This paper offers an initial approach to innovation analysis through label design in two products emblematic of Baja California: wine and craft beer. The study was prompted by the boom that both industries have experienced in recent years in the region, and focuses on the innovation diffusion link of Hansen and Birkinshaws (2007) model. In the model, this link is directly associated with product commercialization processes and strategies, which in the 2006 Oslo Manual corresponds to marketing innovation. To that end, an instrument was developed, validated by experts in graphic design, and used to analyze various features to estimate the degree of innovation in labels. These features include the types of materials used, presentation of information, visual design, and persuasiveness through purchase intention. The instrument served as a basis to evaluate a series of regional wine and craft beer labels, using focus groups for data collection. The relevance of this study lies in generating knowledge on stimulating and managing creative and innovation processes within the wine and craft beer industry in Baja California, through product branding with a focus on label design, and determining whether innovation in labeling contributes to influencing brand perception and purchase intention among customers.
    Keywords: Labelling innovation; wine industry; craft beer; cultural and creative industry; marketing.

  • LaunchIt: A case study of entrepreneurship education   Order a copy of this article
    by Denise Cumberland, Whitney Peake, Sharon Kerrick, Mary Tapolsky 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the impact of a US Midwestern universitys ten-week entrepreneurship training program on participants attitudes, knowledge gained, and level of satisfaction with the course. We used a pre/post-test quasi-experimental design and collected data from 41 participants in the spring of 2019. The results showed that attendees increased their knowledge of key components of venture formation, improved their perceived behavioural control (PBC), and were highly satisfied with the program. The findings contribute to the literature on entrepreneurship education.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship training programs; entrepreneurial education; perceived behavioural control; PBC.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10054402
  • Strategic Business Model Canvassing for Terracotta Pottery Entrepreneurs in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anupama Panghal, Shweta Dahiya, Shilpa Sindhu, Parveen Siwach, Bharat Dahiya 
    Abstract: The paper discusses strategic entrepreneurship vis-à-vis terracotta pottery production in Delhi, India. Pottery artisans face changing regulatory and market forces, which could result in a severe financial and technological burden on them. The study suggests strategies to protect this sustainable and traditional art of entrepreneurship. Present status of business of potters' community is examined using the business model canvas (BMC) and Porter's (2001) industry analysis and value chain model, and a new BMC is proposed. The strategies based on the new BMC are modelled through Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory Technique (DEMATEL). To sustain entrepreneurship of terracotta art in India, the proposed strategies include stakeholders to focus on reducing production costs, conducting training and development, promoting product innovation, and exploring direct marketing channels and new customer segments.
    Keywords: business model canvas; BMC; terracotta pottery; Porter’s industry analysis; strategic entrepreneurship; DEMATEL; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10035507
  • High-performance work practices and labour productivity: the contingent effect of family governance   Order a copy of this article
    by Frank Mullins, Pankaj C. Patel, Esra Memili, Veland Ramadani 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the family governance context on the relationship between high performance work practices (HPWPs) and labour productivity. This study uses cross-sectional data from the 2011 Workplace Employment Relations Survey on 193 UK establishments. Our findings demonstrate that firms with family governance have a stronger, positive HPWPs-labour productivity relationship compared to other firms. Furthermore, firm size matters as the effect of family governance strengthens this relationship as firm size increases. This paper contributes to the research on the contextual factors that determine the effectiveness of HPWPs by highlighting the role of the family governance context including its boundary conditions on the basis of firm size.
    Keywords: High performance work practices; Labour productivity; Family firms; Firm size; Corporate governance.

  • Digital Microfinance Crowdfunding for Disconnected Women Entrepreneurs in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Endrit Kromidha, Nidhi Yadav, P. Vigneswara Ilavarasan 
    Abstract: This paper advances the knowledge on digital microfinance crowdfunding for women entrepreneurship and development by comparing environment and project factors in India. The empirical evidence is based on projects enacted by 626 poor and digitally disconnected women borrowers listed in Rang De, Indias first digital social enterprise platform for crowdfunding and microfinance. The findings show that, even when the borrowers are digitally and socially disconnected from their funders, success is more a result of environmental factors than of project-specific characteristics. This differs from what is suggested by developed country crowdfunding research in regard to the importance of proximity and direct links between borrowers and investors. The importance and gender-specific role played by intermediaries in relation to digitally disconnected borrowers is also acknowledged, driving more attention to gender equality and to the digital divide for access to finance.
    Keywords: microfinance; women entrepreneurs; developing countries; access to finance; entrepreneurship networking; digital inclusion; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10035623
  • Prioritising the determinants entrepreneurial firms in the sustainable supply chain networks using fuzzy TOPSIS approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahtab Sherafati, Mahdi Bashiri, Piyya Rafi-Ul-Shan, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial ventures play as key pillars in the supply chain networks. Therefore, through decision-making approach, this study aims to prioritise entrepreneurial firms in the supply chain and to select the ones that perform properly in the network. In this regard, three main criteria are taken into account: Surrounding environmental, Entrepreneurial firm capabilities and Individual entrepreneurial capabilities and characteristics; including several sub-criteria for each. As for the methodology, a fuzzy TOPSIS approach is used to prioritise entrepreneurial firms, which considers the ideal solution with linguistic weights. As such, a sample of 141 Australian firms has been taken from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) database. Our findings confirm that the proposed method for prioritising the determinants entrepreneurial firms lead to designing a sustainable supply chain.
    Keywords: Prioritising; Entrepreneurial firms; Sustainable supply chain; Fuzzy TOSIS approach.

  • An Empirical Evidence of Structural Change in Production Parameters of MSMEs under Economic Reforms in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Akhilesh K. Sharma, Sushil K. Rai 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of economic reforms on structural change in production function of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in India. The paper examines the effect of economic rerorms on parameters of production of MSMEs located in the eastern region of Uttar Pradesh, a province in India. This study is based on the analysis of primary data collected from small firms located in the region. It has used neutral and non-neutral technical change constant elasticity of substitution production function for the analysis. The results indicate that the efficiency of the production process has increased and MSMEs have become more independent and capital intensively during economic reforms. Further, the result shows that the value of the elasticity of substitution between factors of production decreases in non-neutral technical change while it has increased in neutral technical change under reform process. Finally, the study reveals that the production function is reflecting a negative return to scale and downsizing is the natural repercussion of the reform process.
    Keywords: Economic reforms; MSMEs; Structural change; CES production function; Cross section data.

  • A Study of Women Successors in Multigenerational Family Firms and the Development of their Leadership Roles   Order a copy of this article
    by Jim Cater, Marilyn Young, Harold Doty 
    Abstract: Although significant interest exists concerning women in family firms, a well-defined picture of rntheir involvement in leadership is lacking. We examine the development of the leadership roles of rnwomen in a qualitative study of 19 multigenerational family firms in the U. S., using a grounded rntheory approach and the theoretical lens of the resource-based view of the firm. In-depth interviews rnrevealed four steps of leadership development: Next Generation Managers, TMT Executives, rnMatriarchs, and Dominant CEOs. We summarise our findings with seven propositions and a model rnof the development of the leadership roles of women successors in multigenerational family firms.
    Keywords: family firm; family business; succession; successors; qualitative; leadership; development; qualitative; case study approach.

  • The Theoretical Basis of Relevant E-Entrepreneurship Results: A Systematic Literature Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Dhia Qasim, Ashraf Bany-Mohammed, Francisco Liñán 
    Abstract: The e-entrepreneurship field is a relatively novel one, suffering from a lack of theories and models, as researchers are deriving theories from other disciplines, such as economics, psychology, etc. To consolidate as a discipline, e-entrepreneurship studies need a systematic classification of previous and current contributions that can support the development of theories and research. The purpose of this study is to run a systematic literature review (SLR) to categorise the theories and models found from a total of 105 e-entrepreneurship publications over the period from 2008 to September 2020. A citation analysis has also been performed to identify 25 influential works that may be seen as foundational milestones in this field. The results revealed some critical research gaps and the need to develop new theoretical frameworks able to combine and extend the classical models of innovation, entrepreneurship, and technology to specifically tackle the e-entrepreneurship field of research.
    Keywords: e-entrepreneurship; electronic entrepreneurship; e-commerce entrepreneurship; electronic commerce; systematic literature review; SLR; citation analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2023.10051152
  • A Review of SMEs Clusters and the Need for Cluster Branding in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Manmeet Bhamra, Kaushal Kishore, Sanjay Pal 
    Abstract: Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are considered to be one of the main driving forces of economic development in emerging markets. SMEs in India have gained importance in the recent past due to globalisation and the constantly changing business environment. SMEs contribute a lot in economic development as it creates employment opportunities and supports the government in achieving higher growth rates. Additionally, it also helps an economy to do better in international trade. It is evident from the literature that significant work has been done on cluster management globally but not much work is done in the context of clusters in India with a focus on SMEs. Considering the importance of branding in almost every sector, authors tried to analyse the work done on cluster branding in India on SMEs through extensive literature review. The study is an endeavour to investigate the need and process of cluster branding to make SMEs clusters more efficient in India and the emerging markets.
    Keywords: Small & Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs); Cluster Brand Management; Branding Strategies; SMEs Clusters in India; Competitive Advantage; SMEs post Covid-2019. Role of Government in promoting SMEs; Strategic Collaboration.

  • A Study on the Entrepreneurial Opportunities, Indian and Global Economy in 3D Printing Sector   Order a copy of this article
    by Piramanayagam Sethu Ramalingam 
    Abstract: The main aim of the research was to explore all the opportunities, economic aspects, and challenges faced by various 3D printing industries, entrepreneurs, and consumers. 3D printing is a revolutionary digital production technique in Industry 4.0 that can transform the manufacturing sector to a new dimension and thereby creating a lot of opportunities and paved the way for economic growth both in the global and Indian industries. Moreover, the possibilities and availabilities of the 3D printing business opportunities for the entrepreneurs were studied based on their domain-specific areas such as application, manufacturing, programming, design, and development. In recent decades, most of the industries have focused on 3D printing technologies as it has arbitrary potential in all the sectors, single universal machine for producing intricate shapes and having online remote access. The present study also considered quick prototyping, fast manufacturing, along with the current novel methodologies in fabricating 3D elements. The advancements in 3D printing technology for various other industries like electrical industries in inventing receptors, circuit boards, etc. were deliberated. Thus the outcome of this specific study could be used to identify the entrepreneur company models in 3D printing and its business version by considering economic growth.
    Keywords: 3D Printing;Entrepreneurship; Global and Indian Economy; Additive Manufacturing.

  • Cultural values and innovation in indigenous entrepreneurship: a case study from Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Fikri Zul Fahmi, Nabilla Dina Adharina 
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the mechanisms through which cultural values affect innovation in indigenous entrepreneurship, particularly in Indonesia, situated in the Global South. We examine two cases of long-established hand weaving activities in Lombok, using qualitative research methods. Our findings show that cultural values reflecting high levels of integration among actors, commonly found in homogenous societies, act as social capital in promoting innovation by facilitating the transfer of new knowledge and encouraging collective learning among the economic actors. However, the entrepreneurs past time orientation and their embeddedness as evident in values such as preserving tradition and respecting collective existence restrains their ability to embrace change. We identify that their lack of future orientation prevents innovation through opening up new markets. However, this outlook encourages them to respond to current market trends.
    Keywords: innovation; cultural value; indigenous entrepreneurship; Global South; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10052689
  • Role of entrepreneurship in social enterprises and master weaver enterprises: case of handloom weaving industry, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Manas Ranjan Bhowmik, Rajendra Narayan Paramanik 
    Abstract: Purpose of this article is to analyse the interface between institutions and entrepreneurship for small businesses within the informal manufacturing sector i.e., handloom weaving industry in India. Also comparing efficiency in different institutional settings within the same industry is another purpose. Through a primary survey data have been collected and a Data Envelopment Analysis has been applied in order to compare efficiency of different institutions within handloom weaving sector. From the theoretical and empirical analyses, it has been observed that weavers working under the master weaver institution is more efficient than weavers working under the cooperative institution. Entrepreneurial dynamism is a determining factor in explaining higher efficiency of master weaver institution in comparison to cooperatives.
    Keywords: Informal Economy; Entrepreneurship; Handloom weaving; DEA; Efficiency; India; Cooperatives.

  • Providing conditions for the development of small business in the Russian agroindustry   Order a copy of this article
    by Gulnara Nigmatullina, Olga Shilkina, Elina Kipchakbaeva, Oksana Frolova, Guzel Salimova 
    Abstract: The paper considers the mechanism of state support for small agricultural businesses and its impact on the efficiency of agricultural production in different categories of farms, budget efficiency, the need and prospects for directing budget funds for the development of small businesses in agriculture. Farms are divided into groups depending on the marginal revenue. The efficiency of allocating budget funds of the consolidated budget is calculated. The paper describes an original approach to providing conditions for the long term development of small businesses in agriculture. Small business development in agriculture must take into account not only the scale of production but the industry specifics as well that depends much on climatic conditions and soil fertility. These factors are of particular relevance for state support considerations and economic performance. The manuscript presents an analysis of subsidising small businesses in the Russian Federation. The slowdown in economic growth requires additional funds into small agricultural enterprises having obvious prospects for development. The paper contributes much to further research on emerging markets. It can be valuable for players in the agricultural sector being subject to subsidy provision from the state.
    Keywords: agribusiness; budget efficiency; cost-efficiency of agricultural production; state support for agriculture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2020.10051056
  • The Technological Incubators Program as a growth generator of peripheral areas in Israel   Order a copy of this article
    by Gil Cohen, Limor Yehuda, Sagit Barel-Shaked, Labib Shami, Arie Herscovici, Osnat Akirav 
    Abstract: In this research we examine the peripheral technological incubators program in Israel. Our aim is to learn what are the required structural and supporting conditions that may result in a substantial social economic environmental change of peripheral areas. Moreover, the existing literature examines different challenges that peripheral incubators face; nevertheless, they do not offer a holistic model that integrates those factors that will maximize the chances of a newly born technological venture to survive at early stages and thrive in later stages of its development. We used the value chain concept to frame such a model, arguing that the technological incubator must support and facilitate technological companies' path through the different stages of their evolutions to ensure their sustainability and maturity in the peripheral area. We interviewed CEOs of peripheral incubators, and used the peripheral town of Katzrin as a case study, in order to study the synergy and dependencies between the incubator and the region. We found that the main challenge of a peripheral incubator is to build an ecosystem that can support the newly born ventures during their development in the incubator and after they leave the incubator. That can be achieved by depending on local strategic partners to serve as mentors to the newly born companies, and by providing an access to scientific facilities in universities or hospitals.
    Keywords: Technological Incubators; Periphery; Regional; Accelerators.

  • The role of educational institutions in combating educational unemployment and developing future entrepreneurs: Insights from Indian experts   Order a copy of this article
    by Jitendra Kumar Dixit, Dianne Welsh, Sucheta Agarwal, Veland Ramadani, Vivek Agrawal 
    Abstract: Industries across the globe are reporting a lack of skills among fresh graduates. When educated degree holders do not qualify for job opportunities, educated unemployment occurs. This study draws on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) methods to identify and rank factors contributing to the role of educational institutions in driving educated unemployment. The findings indicate a misfit in the implementation and execution of academic programs by educational institutions, thus uncovering a need for a strategic blueprint.
    Keywords: entrepreneurs; educational institutions; educated unemployment; entrepreneurial intentions; India.

  • What are the characteristics of a survivor? Evidence from bankruptcy analysis of newly formed Japanese SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Hong Xu 
    Abstract: We analyze the bankruptcy of newly created Japanese small and medium-sized entities (SMEs) from 2003 to 2011 by comparing various features with newly formed but surviving companies during the same period. First, we root our study in Penroses resource-based firm theory and Barneys sustained competitive advantage framework and follow prior SME research results (mainly Storeys small business) to identify the features of bankrupted SMEs in Japan. Then, we use t-tests and logit regression to verify the validity of these identified features. Finally, we use the verified features to build prediction models using machine learning techniques and test the prediction effects.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized entities; SME; bankruptcy; newly formed firms; resource-based view theory; RBV; sustained competitive advantage framework; entrepreneur experience; machine learning; Japan.

  • The Impact of Social Media Use on Firm Performance: A Study of Egyptian Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Hadia FakhrElDin, Ahmed Ayman, Rania Miniesy 
    Abstract: Even though numerous studies have examined the effect of information technology on business operations, a few have addressed the effect caused by social media on micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). This research attempts to fill this gap by focusing on the impact of social media use on the performance of MSMEs in Egypt, an emerging market in the Middle East, by adopting the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the task technology fit (TTF) framework. Data is collected through self-assessment questionnaires conducted with a sample of 383 MSMEs in Cairo. The structural equation modelling technique is employed to analyse the data collected. The findings suggest that social media is crucial to the development of MSMEs due to its positive effect on their performance. This suggests that the ecosystem in countries like Egypt should be supportive of all measures that enhance the effective use of social media by small firms.
    Keywords: firm performance; micro; small and medium enterprises; MSMEs; social media; emerging market; technology acceptance model; TAM; task technology fit framework; task technology fit; TTF.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10040409
  • Multi-layered Entrepreneurship: Perspectives of Women Candidates for Mayor   Order a copy of this article
    by Osnat Akirav, Arie Herscovici, Limor Yehuda, Sagit Barel-Shaked, Labib Shami, Gil Cohen 
    Abstract: In the last two decades the number of women involved in politics locally and nationally has increased worldwide. In addition, researchers have begun to incorporate a gender perspective into all public policies so that they counter gender bias and produce gender equality in politics and society. In accordance with this new approach, we combined three research fields--womens entrepreneurship, their political ambition and gender mainstreaming. We argue that the mutual effect the research fields have creates a new way to define and operationalize entrepreneurship, which we call multi-layered entrepreneurship. To test our model, we conducted in-depth interviews with women candidates for mayor in various peripheral areas in Israel. We found that women define entrepreneurship in a more comprehensive and inclusive manner than men. While they have political ambition, their motives for entering politics differ somewhat from those of men. Finally, the effect of their political ambition on gender mainstreaming strengthens the need for a gender perspective in all public policies.
    Keywords: Multi-layered entrepreneurship; women’s entrepreneurship; women political ambition; local government; gender mainstreaming; Galilee and South peripheries.

  • Profitability and market analysis of the piggery industry in the Prestea/Huni-valley municipality of Western Region, Ghana.   Order a copy of this article
    by Samuel Afotey Anang, Anthony Anning 
    Abstract: The study aimed at determining the profitability and market analysis of the piggery industry in the Prestea/Huni-valley municipality of Western Region, Ghana. Using purposive and snowball sampling methods, the study engaged 20 pig farmers and 130 pork consumers in the study area. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. The study revealed that the piggery industry, which is highly dominated by male and small-scale farmers, is mostly undertaken by pensioners on full time basis. The industry was found to be profitable with 44% Gross Margin and Profitability Index of 1.05, but the industry is stifled with challenges such as feeding cost and availability of labour. Access to market was found not to be a challenge but farmers are to diversify their products, improve upon feeding and sanitation. Again, efforts by corporate bodies and government to subsidize input costs will make the industry more lucrative to create more jobs.
    Keywords: Ghana; piggery; multiple regression; gross margin; breakeven analysis; profitability.

  • Corporate social responsibility, entrepreneurial motivation and integrative quality of life among Ghanaian small business owners   Order a copy of this article
    by Fanny Quagrainie, Murat Erogul, Alex Adom 
    Abstract: The study develops a model to examine the moderating influence of entrepreneurial motivation on the relationships between CSR initiatives and integrated quality of life. Employing a case study approach with mixed-method techniques, data is collected using questionnaires and interviews. Small business owners (SBO) engage in CSR initiatives but rejects the use of corporate to refer to such activities. The measurement model was a good fit for CSR initiatives, subjective and existential quality of life, while that of objective quality of life was rejected by the study. SBO should be considered by policy-makers when designing and developing interventions that concentrate on enhancing quality of life. The study operationalizes the extent and form of quality of life using CSR initiative and demonstrates how both entrepreneurial pull and push motivations interact to determine the effects on quality of life.
    Keywords: small business owners; social capital; integrated quality of life; entrepreneurial motivation; Ghana.

  • Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Evidence from the 50 U.S. States   Order a copy of this article
    by Gibson Nene, Ariuna Taivan, Zheenhzheng Gao, Qianyu Zhang 
    Abstract: This paper examines the link between economic growth and entrepreneurship for each of the 50 U.S. states for the period 1988 to 2014. Results showed that entrepreneurship caused economic growth in 23 of the 50 U.S. states. Our findings also showed evidence of bi-directional causality in 13 states and that economic growth caused entrepreneurship in 7 states. In addition, the absence of a causal relationship between growth and entrepreneurship was recorded for 7 states. The existence of a relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth is confirmed in 43 of the 50 U.S. states. Entrepreneurial activity is found to be an important driver of economic performance in 36 of the 50 U.S. states as shown by the entrepreneurship causing growth and bi-directional causality results. The findings also support the argument that the link between entrepreneurship and economic growth may vary within the same country. However, we do not find evidence that entrepreneurship only drives economic growth in wealthy states and not in poor states. Policy makers should invest more in programs tailored to attract and maintain entrepreneurial activity in their states to realise greater economic performance.
    Keywords: U.S. states; Causality; Entrepreneurship; Economic growth.

  • Exploring Entrepreneurial Opportunity Recognition in Tourism: A Study of Cameroon   Order a copy of this article
    by Roland Atembe 
    Abstract: Although opportunity recognition is an important element of entrepreneurship, the research on patterns and factors influencing entrepreneurial opportunity recognition within the tourism sector remains scarce. Using a qualitative approach and narrative face-to-face interviews with tourism entrepreneurs in Cameroon, this study explores the factors that inspire the creation of tourism-related ventures. Due to the countrys high level of entrepreneurship, Cameroon was an ideal context for exploring opportunity recognition patterns. Also, Cameroons specific cultural aspects often cause its collectivist specificities to affect entrepreneurial intention even more than economic variables. The interviews in this study were captured and analysed using an inductive approach. Their results show that ethnic values, prior knowledge and experiences, experimental observations, socialisation and interaction, and social lifestyle are drivers of tourism entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. Other motivations including entrepreneurial intention and cultural and social transitions significantly contribute to tourism entrepreneurship. The paper proposes a framework aimed at enhancing a holistic understanding of opportunity recognition. It also generates new insights relevant for creating and operating ventures with high growth potential. The study furthermore provides implications for policy building and the development of a strategic framework for entrepreneurship development.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Opportunity; Tourism Entrepreneurship; Opportunity Recognition; New Venture creation; Cameroon; Tourism Enterprise.

  • Female Immigrant Entrepreneurship: A Contextual Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Imran Sarihasan, Ádám Novotny, Natanya Meyer, Domicián Máté 
    Abstract: This study examines the relationship between female entrepreneurship, immigrant entrepreneurship, and the entrepreneurial context. The primary objective is to investigate the extent to which the host countrys entrepreneurial context accounts for differences in the start-up rates of immigrant entrepreneurs. The lack of research on immigrant entrepreneurship makes it challenging to capture changes in this phenomenon. A quantitative approach using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data was adopted to determine the relationship between womens/mens entrepreneurship parity ratios and the degree of immigrant entrepreneurship in different countries. Linear regression (OLS)models showed that differences in female/male entrepreneurship indicators (fear of failure and early-stage entrepreneurship activity) significantly impacted the proportion of immigrant entrepreneurs in different countries. The findings suggest that immigrant women can considerably increase the proportion of new businesses in countries where women are more entrepreneurial. However, these new firms are more likely to be driven by necessity as opposed to opportunity.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial context; immigrant entrepreneurship; cross-country perspective; female entrepreneurship; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; GEM.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10045942
    by Anil Mehta, Smita Sharma, Sona Sen 
    Abstract: There has been a tremendous emphasis on inclusion of entrepreneurship education at the University level. However, many factors are also responsible to enhance this spirit of entrepreneurship. The study will examine if present system of education is an asset to the development of entrepreneurship among students. The correlation values depict a weak negative correlation between entrepreneurial core and work core (0.323) and between social core and entrepreneurial core (0.296), a negative medium correlation between social core and individual core (0.447) and between social core and economic core (0.500). A medium positive correlation was found between individual core and economic core (0.517). The factor analysis suggests that the motivation to turn into an entrepreneur arises from the work core and economic core and to some extent from the social core. Higher education institutes should therefore channelise their efforts to motivate students to enhance their skills.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; motivation; higher education; university students; skill; economic core.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2023.10051153
  • Family Business Trans-generational Succession in Extreme Contexts: A Socio-Emotional Wealth Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Grace Khoury, Niveen Eid, Elena Noor Khoury 
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the family business literature by exploring the link between trans-generational succession and Socio Emotional Wealth (SEW) from an institutional perspective. It examines the neglected role of the macro environment in the formation of SEW. A single case study of a family firm is investigated. The firm has successfully experienced trans-generational succession in Palestine, an extreme context that is underrepresented in the current literature. Findings are drawn based on the utilisation of an exploratory inductive research approach. Results reveal that having an opportunistic entrepreneurship style is a driving force in exploiting the macro environmental challenges which exist where family firms operate. Along with adopting micro mechanisms at an organisational level, a collective nature of SEW characterised by strong family identification was formed. The paper concludes by presenting a fresh perspective of constructive trans-generational succession of family firms operating in volatile environments and exhibiting resilience to uncontrollable challenges.
    Keywords: Socio Emotional Wealth (SEW); trans-generational succession; family business; extreme context; Palestine.

  • Environmental sustainability and circular economy in SMEs: A qualitative approach from the Spanish experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Francisco Villegas Pinuer, Joan Llonch Andreu, Pilar López Belbeze 
    Abstract: The need for companies to define sustainability-based strategies has gained more relevance in modern society. In lieu, this study examines environmental sustainability (ES), the implementation of circular economy (CE) practices, and their conceptual relationship with SME managers. The methodology employed is in-depth interviews applied to SME managers of Catalonia (Spain), a prominent business area in Europe. This study reveals the slow incorporation of ES in SMEs through CE tools such as recycle, recovery, and reuse in the final stages of their production process. The knowledge about CE tools and their potential, the low pressure from customers regarding environmental issues, and the lack of communication and incentives to adopt ES norms can explain this behaviour. The development of environmental public policies for SMEs and an ecosystem that allows the exchange of resources and collaboration help decrease these companies overall resource use.
    Keywords: environmental sustainability; circular economy; competitiveness; small and medium enterprises; SMEs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10044414
  • Farmers' typology in an environment of policy reform   Order a copy of this article
    by Sagit Barel-Shaked, Labib Shami, Arie Herscovici, Osnat Akirav, Gil Cohen, Limor Yehuda 
    Abstract: Agricultural policy reforms and the changing regulatory environment have pushed farmers towards adopting different strategies in accordance with their characteristics, perceptions, capabilities, and skills. This study explores Israeli egg farmers' strategies in an environment of an emerging policy reform, which threatens their economic viability and sustainability. An innovative theoretical framework consisting of farmers' typology is constructed, and an analysis of farmers' conceptualizations in a changing environment of policy reform is established. The study results suggest three contrasting identities of farmers; Farmer as farmer, motivated by noneconomic goals, due to the psychological attachment to his farm and land, ideology, and conservative perception; Farmer as guest, employing a passive approach and maintaining a short-term perspective; Farmer as entrepreneur, adopting an active approach of opportunity recognition and exploiting potential for growth. As arises from the study results, farmers are heterogenous and adopt different strategies to manage in a dynamic environment. Policymakers should acknowledge this research suggestive theoretical framework, when designing an agricultural policy reform.
    Keywords: policy reform; agriculture; Galilee periphery; farmers' typology; entrepreneurship.

  • The circular, step by step - three core domains, social entrepreneurship model   Order a copy of this article
    by Limor Yehuda, Sagit Barel-Shaked, Labib Shami, Gil Chohen, Osnat Akirav, Arie Herscovici 
    Abstract: Studies in the field of social entrepreneurship introduce and discuss entrepreneurial behaviours and actions, in order to contribute to social entrepreneurs in running their venture, and in achieving the aspired social value. However, the core domains that entrepreneurial behaviours and activities actually address, which are supposed to be at the base of the establishment and operation of social enterprises, are neither discussed nor presented in the literature. The current study aimed to reveal these core domains, and by that, to formulate a working model, which is relevant to any social enterprise, by conducting a case study based on a social enterprise called The New Guardian Organization. This is third sector organization, which has been operating in Israel over the past 13 years, in order to reduce agricultural crime. In order to conduct the case study and reveal fundamental core domains which are at its base, in-depth interviews were conducted with four main leading figures in the organization; additionally, three more central figures in the organization were interviewed. In addition, media articles, a Knesset report, police annual reports and the organizations surveys regarding agricultural crime and the organization's activity were analyzed. The study's findings yielded a circular, multi-step - three-core domain social entrepreneurial model, relating to the establishment and operation of a social enterprise. The model demonstrates the central role of the human, the material, and the operation method domains in the process of establishment and operation of social enterprise, and also the interaction between these domains, which repeats itself in almost every step of the model.
    Keywords: Social entrepreneurship working model; social enterprise establishment; social enterprise operation; core domains in entrepreneurship; crime reduction; third sector organizations; social entrepreneurs; behaviour characteristics of social entrepreneurs.

  • Informal Self-Employment Within the Non-Observed Economy of Israel   Order a copy of this article
    by Labib Shami, Gil Cohen, Osnat Akirav, Arie Herscovici, Limor Yehuda, Shagit Barel-Shaked 
    Abstract: This study estimates the size of the non-observed economy, and the share within it that stems from informal economic activity among the self-employed, using a modified currency demand approach adapted to the Israeli economy. By assessing the demand for currency arising from the economic activity of the self-employed, the extent of informal self-employment is estimated as a percentage of GDP. According to the model, the share of the non-observed economy and informal economic activity among the self-employed has been characterized by a downward trend over the last decade. In 2019, the informal economic activity among the self-employed reached nearly NIS 102 billion, 65% of the size of the non-observed economy. The rest stems from illegal activity, which accounts for about NIS 55 billion.
    Keywords: Informal Economy; Demand for Money; Tax Evasion; Informal Labour Markets; Illegal Behavior.

  • Contextualising Innovative Firms Foresightedness in a VUCA world   Order a copy of this article
    by Niharika Jaiswal, Manoj Joshi, Ashok Kumar 
    Abstract: Recently, there has been renewed interest in understanding factors and contexts that influence innovative firms. However, mechanisms and boundary conditions are yet to be understood. Accordingly, we contend that foresightedness and readiness are important factors that help start-ups shape up into innovative firms in the context of the VUCA world. We empirically validated our propositions using data from both primary and secondary sources utilising the inductive method for analysis. Results show that both foresightedness and readiness shape innovation in the VUCA world. These findings contribute to a better understanding of factors that shape innovation. This study should, therefore, be of value to practitioners wishing to help entrepreneurs to survive and grow in the context of the VUCA world.
    Keywords: start-ups; entrepreneurial firms; innovative firms; foresightedness; VUCA; redBus.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10045664
  • Internationalisation of SMEs: A comparative perspective between Africa and Latin America   Order a copy of this article
    by António Moreira, Cláudia Ribau, Marta Borges 
    Abstract: This paper explores the internationalisation of small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) in Africa and Latin America. A total of 97 papers covering the period between 1995 and 2017 were analysed, providing a unique comparative perspective of the internationalisation of SMEs. The analysis of the papers revealed the following six main topics: international networking; financing, export promotion; internationalisation strategies; resources and business environment/context; e-business, e-commerce; and barriers to internationalisation. The topic internationalisation strategies is the most researched topic both regarding the internationalisation of both African and Latin American SMEs. However, while the studies on Latin American SMEs focus on rapid internationalisation, international entrepreneurship orientation and export performance, the studies on African SMEs focus on supply performance, international behaviour, internationalisation process, knowledge and key-selection of foreign markets. This provides a clear perspective on how SMEs of those two emerging continents deal with the intricacies of internationalisation.
    Keywords: SME; Internationalization; SMEs; Small firms; Literature review; Africa; Latin America.

  • Business networks, social media and SMEs export propensity   Order a copy of this article
    by George Saridakis, Bochra Idris, Jared M. Hansen 
    Abstract: Business networks can result in important benefits for entrepreneurs. Yet, differentiating the benefits of traditional business networks, social media business networks, and their joint usage on the internationalisation of entrepreneurial ventures is less understood. We empirically examine the different effects using 11,717 telephone interviews of SME owners/entrepreneurs in England and Wales from the UK Small Business Survey. Our results show that while both traditional business networks and social media business networks are each associated with increased SMEs exporting likelihood over the group that does not participate in any business networks, the group of SMEs who use both types of networks simultaneously has an even great probability of exporting. Also, when differentiating between companies according to their size, the results in the micro and small companies sub-samples show that traditional business networks have weaker effect on the probability of exporting but engaging in both types of networks has a much stronger effect on it.
    Keywords: SMEs; traditional business network; social media business network; internationalisation; export propensity; micro business; resource based view (RBV).

  • Understanding Social Enterprise Performance A Business Model Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Giorgi Jamburia, Jean-Marie Courrent 
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide a better understanding of the performance of social enterprises within a sustainability approach. The conceptual model proposes that the major aspect of sustainability lies in the implementation of business models that create a balance between social and economic value creation. The hypotheses were tested on a sample of 115 Swedish work integration social enterprises (WISEs), and an analysis of the results suggests that social imprinting and partner network strength are positively related to social performance, whereas social bricolage has a positive effect on both social and economic performance. The social and economic performance of social enterprises are also positively associated with each other, suggesting the possibility that WISEs can be simultaneously successful in both dimensions.
    Keywords: social entrepreneurship; social enterprises; social enterprise performance; social performance; economic performance; business models; partner network; social imprinting; social bricolage; work integration social enterprises.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2023.10052210
  • A Model for Understanding Industry Cluster Development among New World Wineries   Order a copy of this article
    by Svan Lembke, Lee Cartier, Joanna Fountain, Nicholas Cradock-Henry, Leo-Paul Dana 
    Abstract: This paper proposes a cluster management model that is grounded in Porters diamond framework and cluster thinking. This exploratory research examines secondary sources to understand the presence and development of clusters in two New World wine regions over two time periods (20002008 and 20092014). Whilst different in development trajectories and focus, and impacted by very different legislative frameworks, both wine regions displayed high quality strategic alignment during their inception stage but this deteriorated over time. The authors suggest that if the emerging lack of strategic alignment had been identified early, addressing it may have limited or halted the deterioration. This research introduces a pragmatic tool for industry assessment of cluster strength and decision making that is easy to use for regional development practitioners. Such an applied tool is valuable in agricultural clusters where challenges posed by climate change, the globalisation of markets, or the massive disruption caused by a global pandemic requires increasingly rapid cluster adaptation.
    Keywords: wine industry; cluster development; competition and cooperation; industry strategy; rural communities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10046867
  • Does Innovation Lead to Firm Growth through Endogenous Marketing Expenditure for SMEs in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam)?   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngo Giang Thy, Linh Duong, Huynh Dang Khoa, Tu Van Binh 
    Abstract: This paper investigates how Vietnamese SMEs innovation relates to its performance through impacts of endogenous covariates, such as marketing expenditure. The paper employed extended regression models. Data used is based on the Vietnam General Statistics Office survey conducted in 2017, in which 645 SMEs at Ho Chi Minh City are extracted to estimate. Very interesting findings show that positive changes in the innovation of SMEs cause an increase in sales growth and labour cost growth, but it is contributed by marketing expenditure rate as endogeneity. The companies, which are old, limited liability and private enterprises, invest more in marketing expenditure toward increasing sales growth with good control of the labour cost growth. This is a message to SMEs in Vietnam to think of innovation programmes based on marketing activity contribution, doing that the SME could obtain competitive advantages toward achievements.
    Keywords: firm performance; innovation; marketing; SMEs.

  • Social capital in a digital age: A focus on bridging and bonding social capital of women entrepreneurs in South Africa   Order a copy of this article
    by Boris Urban 
    Abstract: Despite increasing interest in women entrepreneurship, not many investigations explain the impact of new digital technologies on networking in African countries, where women face obstacles in terms of entrepreneurial networks, as well restricted access to finance. Consequently this article examines bridging and bonding social capital from a perspective of women entrepreneurship in terms of accessing financial capital from crowdfunding. The study takes place in South Africa, where data is collected via a survey from a sample of women entrepreneurs using crowdfunding platforms. Study measures are subject to psychometric testing and the hypotheses are tested using multiple regression analyses. Crowdfunding platforms were found to be positively and significantly related to both bonding and bridging social capital, but these factors were not significantly related to financial capital. The article represents a novel empirical investigation into associations between digital entrepreneurship, women entrepreneurship and social capital in an African market context.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurship; crowdfunding; social capital; bonding and bridging social capital; networking; South Africa.

  • Rice production technical efficiency in a highly urbanised area in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand   Order a copy of this article
    by Naruebet Meelua, Suneeporn Suwanmaneepong 
    Abstract: This study investigates rice farmers technical efficiency in a highly urbanised area in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand. The study used a two-stage Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in measuring farmers level of Technical Efficiency (TE), while a Tobit regression was employed to assess the factors affecting TE. The results revealed that rice farmers TE levels ranged from 0.53-1.00, with an overall mean value of 0.84, indicating a considerable potential in enhancing TE to improve rice production. Moreover, the study found cultivated area, education level, and rice farming experience significantly affected production efficiency; whereas the significant association of the land area to the production efficiency suggests the need for government to be cautious about converting land areas for non-agricultural activities brought by urbanisation growth. Lastly, the study suggests improving TE levels through more substantial policy support and programmes targeting the strengthening of rice farmers technical knowledge
    Keywords: technical efficiency; rice production; data envelopment analysis; Tobit regression; urban.

  • Effectual behaviour and frugal innovations: Learning from women cocoa farmers in South West Cameroon   Order a copy of this article
    by Sophie Boutillier, Syndhia Mathé, Maria Geitzenauer 
    Abstract: Womens entrepreneurship is on the rise in Africa although the obstacles they face in setting up new businesses and in running these businesses are significantly higher than those faced by men. Women usually decide to become entrepreneurs out of an economic necessity, and at the same time, out of a lack of other options. But academic literature on women entrepreneurs also states that some specific qualities of women are very crucial for their success as entrepreneurs despite their significantly harsher circumstances. In order to understand women entrepreneurship strategies, this article presents the study of women entrepreneurs in a male-dominated cash crop industry, in cocoa production in Cameroon. The results demonstrate that women, despite all the additional obstacles they face, adopt effectual behaviour to develop solutions adapted to their respective situations, through frugal innovations. Our results demonstrate that womens innovative capacities reduce the risks of the negative effects of shocks and disasters on their households. The highlights of the study are as follows: 1) women are significantly disadvantaged regarding their access to resources; 2) innovations by women entrepreneurs are driven by effectual behaviour; 3) effectual behaviour drives the development of various frugal innovations.
    Keywords: women’s entrepreneurship; cocoa; Cameroon; frugal innovation; effectuation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10046869
  • Artisan Entrepreneurship through Social Media Campaigns: A Review   Order a copy of this article
    by Sriparna Guha, Anirban Mandal, Fedric Kujur, Sandeep Poddar 
    Abstract: This article focuses on the research conducted on the uses of social media marketing in promoting the handicraft products. An overview is given on the main themes of craft enterprise in terms of the selling of products through social media. This helps to develop a fresh and emerging market area for artisan entrepreneurship. A range of online databases were searched to provide a comprehensive listing of journal articles on social media marketing and its execution in promoting handicraft products. Therefore, the aim of this literature review is to gather a broader overview of the field of "social media marketing, handicraft items and artisan entrepreneurship," and to explore how these topics are related together after concentrating on each area. The results are important to the theory and have valuable and direct impacts on social media marketing. This paper offers recommendations for future research on artisanal entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Social Media Marketing; Handicraft products; Artisan; Entrepreneurship; Literature Review.

  • Women in Social Housing and the Pursuit of Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Sundas Hussain, Adah-Kole Emmanuel Onjewu, Charlotte Carey, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi 
    Abstract: Womens engagement in entrepreneurship from a social housing perspective has scarcely been explored in the literature. Thus, insights into how the social housing system may condition participation in entrepreneurship have been excluded from empirical understanding. In order to address this gap, we assess the entrepreneurial intention of women in a deprived area of one of the UKs largest cities. Through an inductive analysis, we develop a conceptual model in which attitude towards entrepreneurship, self-efficacy and subjective norms emerge as mediators of entrepreneurial intention. Our findings pose theoretical implications for future variance-based analyses, as well as practical implications for social housing providers and the role of public institutions in fostering entrepreneurial outcomes.
    Keywords: Women; Social Housing; Entrepreneurial Intention; Attitudes; Theory of Planned Behaviour.

  • Internationalisation and Growth of Small Sustainable Fashion Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Diala Kabbara, Enliang Qin, Hajer Jarrar, Charbel Salloum 
    Abstract: Sustainability and globalisation are two major global phenomena that have shaped the world in the last few decades. This paper aims to explore the main drivers that trigger the international behaviour of small sustainable fashion enterprises (SSFEs), with a special focus on the characteristics of sustainable entrepreneurs, the characteristics of sustainable firms, the inter-firm global collaborations, and the institutional context. We draw on international and sustainable entrepreneurship research to explain what captures the drivers that affect SSFEs internationalisation. This paper analyses four different Dutch SSFEs through a cross-case study method. The findings show that the main drivers that affect the international growth of SSFEs in the Netherlands are the global partnerships with suppliers and local sales agents in foreign countries, the sustainable attitude and previous fashion experience of the entrepreneur and the product ethical features.
    Keywords: internationalisation; sustainability; SMEs; fashion industry.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2021.10045129
  • Entrepreneurship and poverty in developed countries: a systematic review, synthesis, and future research directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Clara Douaihy, Karim Messeghem, Walid Nakara, David Audretsch 
    Abstract: Despite the important role of entrepreneurship in alleviating poverty in developing countries, scholars have devoted less attention to exploring entrepreneurship and poverty in developed countries. Therefore, our understanding of entrepreneurship and poverty alleviation remains limited even though poverty in developed countries was increasing long before the COVID-19 pandemic. This systematic literature review aims to provide a foundational understanding of this phenomenon by evaluating research papers on entrepreneurship and poverty in developed countries. The authors identify 51 studies in developed countries from 1990 to 2020 that link poverty to entrepreneurship. These studies are classified based on four dimensions: entrepreneurial antecedents, activities, contexts, and outcomes. This paper develops new insights and highlights several promising future research opportunities. It also proposes theoretical approaches to advance the entrepreneurship and poverty literature by utilizing and extending theories such as opportunity theory and bricolage theory.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; poverty; poverty alleviation; poor entrepreneurs; developed countries; literature review.

  • Entrepreneurial Environment in Bhutan: A Study from the Perspective of Bhutanese Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Dawa Drakpa, Elangbam Haridev Singh, Karma Yangchen 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptual difference of entrepreneurs towards the entrepreneurial environment in Bhutan. Seven factors are identified on basis of the framework developed by Gnyawali and Fogel and 114 entrepreneurs perception of these factors is measured with the help of a primary survey conducted on entrepreneurs in Bhutan. Results revealed that the financial assistance and government policies and procedures were rated as poor entrepreneurial environments. In a comparative study, import policies were more favorable for agro and forest-based sectors. Females perceived less family and social support when choosing entrepreneurship as a career.
    Keywords: Entrepreneur; Entrepreneurship; Perception; Entrepreneurial environment; Bhutan.

  • Small and Medium Enterprise and Covid-19: A Bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Rafiki, Miftahuddin Miftahuddin, Atika Rizki 
    Abstract: This paper aimed to review existing literature on SMEs and COVID-19, retrieved from Scopus (a highly reputable database) for 2020 and 2021. Bibliometric analysis is used to analyse 90 journals articles of their citations, language, subject area, year of publication, countries, cited authors, institutions, co-authorship trends and keywords co-occurrence. This study finds that a growing since its inception in terms of many publications and citations. English is the dominant language, while business, management and accounting are the dominant subject area. The year 2021 is the dominant publication year, Indonesia is the dominant country, Sustainability is the dominant journal and Journal of Open Innovation Technology Market and Complexity is the dominant citation-based on the journal, ten authors have equally published two articles with Lu, L., Lu, Y. and Peng, J. are the most cited authors. Moreover, this study presents the map and density of the topic related to the COVID-19 on SMEs. This would be the first study using bibliometric analysis that covers a variety of journals/publications on COVID-19 and SMEs. Future research is suggested to refer to these results to better understand COVID-19 and SMEs by finding relevant and related variables/keywords.
    Keywords: COVID-19; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; bibliometric analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10055963
  • Artisan Entrepreneurship: A systematic literature review of this emerging field of research and new trends   Order a copy of this article
    by Alex Rodrigues, Carla Susana Da Encarnação Marquess, Gina Santos 
    Abstract: This study provides an overview of the past, present, and future of research in the Artisan Entrepreneurship field. We have carried out a systematic review of the literature by combining different bibliometric techniques applied to data from a search of the following keywords entrepreneur* (article titles) AND *craft* OR artisan* (topics), in the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that the extant literature on this topic falls into two clusters: (i) entrepreneurship ecosystem, culture, and the artisan and (ii) models, theories and conceptual visions. We present the most relevant contributions and a future research agenda for each cluster to address the gaps in the field. This study will enable future researchers to focus their efforts on the poorly addressed shortcomings in the literature.
    Keywords: Artisan; Craft; Artisan Entrepreneurship; Systematic Literature Review; Bibliometrics.

  • Motivation, self-selection and effects of the business advice programme in Slovakia   Order a copy of this article
    by Vladimir Baláž, Tomáš Jeck, Miroslav Balog 
    Abstract: This research analyses the effects of the Slovak business advisory scheme upon firm performance. We examined the effects of the scheme upon the business performance of some 900 firms in four different samples. Our research has some novel elements. Data on economic effects rely on the annual accounts of companies, rather than on surveys. We paid attention to self-selection of applicants and constructed counterfactual samples for both supported and unsupported applicants. Firms supported by the business advice performed significantly better than did those in the control samples. The effect, however, disappeared once self-selection of the scheme was taken into account. Evidence from the participant survey indicated significant non-monetary benefits of the scheme, e.g., the acquisition of analytical and managerial skills. Self-selection may help to identify a pool of highly motivated firms. The next phase of the scheme may target these firms with more tailored and higher-intensity support.
    Keywords: small and medium enterprises; business advice; motivation; self-selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10045293
  • Entrepreneurial responses to COVID-19 farmers market closures the experiences of rural micro vendors using social media.   Order a copy of this article
    by Katherine Attree, Clifford Lewis 
    Abstract: This research explored the barriers and enablers of social media usage by farmers market vendors in response to COVID-19 closures. Farmers markets present a low cost, low-risk retail outlet and economic safety net for rural micro-business vendors who may be too small to sell elsewhere. These markets also act as entrepreneurial incubators allowing vendors to trial new products, gain feedback directly from customers and to develop their marketing, pricing, and general business acumen. Micro-businesses such as farmers market vendors can contribute positively to rural and regional development via impact on job creation, growth, and regional well-being. Consequently, the farmers market closures during the COVID-19 pandemic presented a significant challenge to vendors who were unable to use this traditional distribution channel to generate income and develop their businesses. Using the UTAUT as a guiding framework, semi-structured interviews with 11 businesses that typically sold through farmers markets were conducted to examine the qualitative experience of these vendors in moving their businesses online. The findings suggest that performance expectations of social media, as a vehicle to engage with customers, receive feedback, reinforce brand, and realise sales, generally exceeded participants expectations. Social influence from family and friends was a strong factor in facilitating social media adoption and use among rural micro-business market vendors. However, the perceived effort and time required to learn how to use social media effectively and to take advantage of its broader functionality was a barrier to fuller engagement with the technology. Practical implications from the research suggest that facilitating conditions in the form of educational training and government financial support could help vendors adopt and use technology more strategically. Engagement with technology may enable rural micro-businesses such as farmers market vendors overcome some of the unique challenges faced by entrepreneurs in a rural location including smaller consumer market and limited access to supportive infrastructure.
    Keywords: Rural; regional; entrepreneurship; social-media; micro-business; UTAUT; COVID-19; digital technology.

  • Combination of causal and effectual logics of entrepreneurs in the Provence wine region   Order a copy of this article
    by Serge Amabile, Coralie HALLER 
    Abstract: Effectuation and causation are possible logics to explain entrepreneurs behaviours in uncertain environments in regards to four principles (experimentation, affordable losses, flexibility and pre-engagement). However, little is known about how entrepreneurs articulate these two logics on each principle of the theory of effectuation. Our research provides an analysis of how entrepreneurs combine causal and effectual logics for each principle of the theory of effectuation. We use a quali-quantified approach and have designed an evaluation grid and a scoring system to analyse eight interviews of entrepreneurs from wineries of the Provence region in France. The findings show that entrepreneurs cannot be considered as exclusively causal or effectual thinkers. All or a vast majority of the entrepreneurs interviewed combined causal and effectual logics for the experimentation and pre-commitment principles. The results also highlight that entrepreneurs are able to switch from one logic to the other in certain situations according to the information gathered for instance through business intelligence activities.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; effectuation logic; causation logic; combination; wine industry; contingencies of the environment; experimentation; affordable losses; pre-commitments; engagement of stakeholders.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10054490
  • How do SMEs strategies change under the impacts of a critical external shock? The case of Vietnamese SMEs under the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Long Hoang Le, An Hoang Kim Vo, Duong Tuan Nguyen, Giang Huong Duong 
    Abstract: The impacts of external shock caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic force small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to change their strategy to survive and/or even grow. This study aims to explore how SMEs change their strategies under the impact of the pandemic. We used semi-structured in-depth interviews with owners/managers of SMEs in Vietnam immediately after the outbreak of the pandemic and the implementation of the social distancing policy to collect the data. A thematic analysis was carried out under the theoretical lens of the dynamic capabilitys theory and strategic responses to the crisis model. The findings revealed the crucial role of dynamic capabilities with SMEs strategy changes during the acute social crisis. In particular, firms with innovative capability and agility capability employed innovative strategies to exploit opportunities from the uncertain market. Meanwhile, firms with less preparation for crisis management adopted a perseverance strategy, and the firms without those characteristics followed retrenchment strategies.
    Keywords: COVID-19; dynamic capabilities theory; pandemic; SMEs; Vietnam.

  • Relationships and personality roots of entrepreneurs' value creation motivation   Order a copy of this article
    by Lívia Lukovszki, Norbert Sipos, András Rideg, Zsófia Vörös 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurs often pursue social goals and contribute excessively to social well-being. Still, the knowledge on the relationship between entrepreneurs individual and social entrepreneurial value creation motives and their personality roots is very limited. Therefore, based on Vrooms expectancy theory and a sample of 195 entrepreneurs, first, we examine the interactions between the elements of individual and social aspects of entrepreneurial motivational force. Second, the Big Five personality traits are linked to the two facets of entrepreneurial motivational force and their elements. The results show that strong individual and social aspects of entrepreneurial motivational force may not accompany each other, and this is partially because of their deep roots in different personality traits. It seems that the individual aspects of entrepreneurial personality profile trait constellation, i.e., a trait profile leading to higher individual aspects of entrepreneurial motivational force support, although to a lesser extent, the social aspects of entrepreneurial motivational force. On the other hand, the social aspects of entrepreneurial personality profile do not seem to bring individual aspects of entrepreneurial motivation.
    Keywords: expectancy theory; entrepreneurial motivation; social goal; Big Five; value creation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10054408
  • One for all or everyone for themselves: why is coopetition so difficult? The case of four small vineyards in central France   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: This article deals with the mechanism of coopetition formation from a network perspective, focusing in the wine industry. Through a comprehensive approach, we study the case of four vineyards in central France that are located in a low-profile wine-growing region and made up of very small firms fighting in a highly competitive market. While everything seems to encourage them to collaborate, these vineyards have so far remained unable to develop an effective coopetition strategy beyond a few specific initiatives. We seek to identify the reasons for these difficulties by analysing exogenous and endogenous coopetitive drivers. Our results provide theoretical contributions theory by showing that: the formation stage can lead to effective or ineffective coopetition; coopetition in an embedded network is specific; and coopetition intentionality plays a role in this formation stage.
    Keywords: Coopetition; Network; Coopetition formation; Small business; Wine.

  • Social Network Analysis: Unveiling the Joint Investment Patterns of Shark Tank Entrepreneurs   Order a copy of this article
    by Nasser Shahrasbi, Tai-Yin Chi, Paul Beckman 
    Abstract: This research illustrates an important application of Social Network Analysis in the entrepreneurship and venture capital domain. Using the secondary data from the Shark Tanks TV show and graph analysis, our research unveils interesting patterns in Sharks investment decisions that were not apparent using other methods like statistical analysis. Our network analysis over multiple seasons of the show reveals that the number of single investments increased almost perfectly linearly over time while double investments decreased mostly linearly, implying that most Sharks (investors) find more value in investing solely than in-joint with other investors. Our results also show that one particular Shark (Mr. Kevin OLeary) invested jointly (versus individually) at a much higher rate than the other Sharks. We hypothesize that this may have been attributed to his experience in financial investments and risk management, which resulted in taking more financial risks than other investors. We discuss how these results were not possible to obtain without Social Network Analysis and Graph Theory.
    Keywords: Social Network Analysis; Venture Capital; Entrepreneurship; Joint Investing; Graph Theory; Shark Tank.

  • Bibliometric analysis of social media research in SMEs: A review and way forward   Order a copy of this article
    by Norfarah Nordin, A.K. Siti-Nabiha, Seyedh Mahboobeh Jamali, Nader Ale Ebrahim 
    Abstract: This paper seeks to determine the trend of social media research in the context of small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and present the future research direction in this area. The documents were collected through a keywords title search from the Scopus database. The relevant documents are analysed using bibliometrics analysis, and qualitative systematic review to understand their structure in terms of theme, method, and theory used. This research found 141 documents from the Scopus database on SMEs' social media from 2011 to 2021. The systematic review of 20 top-cited per year (TCpY) papers are classified into three themes; SMEs social media adoption, social media for SMEs strategy, and innovation powered by social media in SMEs. The most popular theory used is the Diffusion of Innovation. Based on critical analysis, major gaps and future research are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: social media; SMEs; bibliometric; systematic review.

  • The impact of technostress on small business owners burnout: The mediating role of strain   Order a copy of this article
    by Alexandre Benzari, Anis Khedhaouria, Olivier Torrès, Alain Cucchi 
    Abstract: A revised stressstrain-outcome (SSO) model of burnout was empirically tested with a large sample of 239 small business owners. Our model differentiates the consequences of strain into short-term and long-term consequences to study the mechanisms through which technostress (technostressors) affects strain (short-term consequence) and job burnout as an outcome (long-term consequence). Our results revealed three technostressors (techno-induced work overload, techno-induced job insecurity, and techno-induced role ambiguity) to be positively and directly associated with small business owners strain. There was no direct effect of technostressors on burnout. Considering the short-term and long-term consequences, strain fully mediated the relationship between technostressors and burnout. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: Small business owners - Technostress - Technostressors - Strain - Burnout - Information and communication technologies.

  • Intrafamily Successors Motivation and its Impact on Success of Business: A Case of Construction Sector Family-Businesses in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Harish Kumar Singla, Pradeepta Kumar Samanta, Srividhya Raju Sridharan 
    Abstract: One of the unique features of the Indian family business is its relation-based practices. Therefore, a successor may join the family business not just because of his/her own choice but may join it as a part of the family tradition or compulsion. Hence, it becomes important to find the impact of intrafamily successors motivation on the success of their family business in India. In this study, authors developed a structural equation model-partial least square (SEM-PLS) based on the data gathered from the respondents. All the respondents belong to construction family business. The results of the SEM-PLS suggest that autonomous and external motivation, both led to opportunist behaviour of the successor and it also leads to the success of a business. The model is fit with an R2 of 36%. The study proposes a model which indicates that autonomous and external motivation lead to opportunist behaviour and success of business in the Indian context for the construction sector.
    Keywords: family business; intrafamily; second generation; successor; success; construction sector; India.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10053314
  • The influence of the farmer and his family on the adoption of short food supply chains   Order a copy of this article
    by Magali Aubert, Geoffroy Enjolras 
    Abstract: In a search of higher income and lower dependence on intermediaries in the food chain, family farms are increasingly adopting short food supply chains (SFSCs). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of farm entrepreneurs and their family in defining the implementation of SFSCs. We use the 2010 Exhaustive Agricultural Census of French farms and implement a logit model. The results underline the fact that young and educated farm entrepreneurs are more likely to promote SFSCs. The presence of the family on the farm as well as the involvement of family members play a key role in the choice of SFSCs. However, the marital status of a farm entrepreneur and the involvement of their spouse have no specific influence. This research sheds new light on the key role played by families in supporting productive and marketing strategies of farms.
    Keywords: family-run management; short food supply chains; farming.

  • Business model renewal and firms' performance: the role of preventive vs promotion mindsets   Order a copy of this article
    by Sukanlaya Sawang, Arun Sukumar, Poh Yen Ng, Vahid Jafari-Sadeghi 
    Abstract: This study explores the role of an entrepreneurial mindset in buffering the relationship between the recurrent business model renewal and firms performances over time. Using the Comprehensive Australian Study of Entrepreneurial Emergence (CAUSEE), a 3-year longitudinal study, this paper examines the role of preventive and promotion mindsets in business model renewals and firm performance. A sample of 599 young firms (in the first wave) was used in exploring the role of entrepreneurial mindsets in business model renewals and firm performance. Factor and Regression analysis were the main methods used to understand the relationship between promotion versus prevention mindsets in the business model renewals. The results showed that well-performing entrepreneurs tended to change their business models more frequently. Examining subjective performance, it was noted that it was slower among preventive mindset than promotion mindset entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: Business Model; Entrepreneurs; Mindsets; Regulatory Focus Theory; Latent growth.

  • Key Research Issues and Agendas in Start-up post-Covid-19   Order a copy of this article
    by Vibhuti Tripathi, Akshita Dwivedi 
    Abstract: The lockdowns mandated for controlling virus spread altered social behaviour, and negatively impacted businesses and operations. As a result of social distance and staying at home, internet usage increased. Rise in digitalisation and e-commerce clearly indicates a new era of innovative business models and a variety of research agendas. It would be pragmatic to study these recent and inevitable changes, new challenges, and business opportunities. The study followed a systematic literature review approach. This review study is an attempt to systematically review, analyse, and classify the primary contributions published in managerial literature on COVID-19and start-ups; using VOSviewer software for tracing clustering solutions. This orderly reviewed literature study offers a holistic view of studies on start-ups affiliated with the COVID-19 crisis. The scope of study covers several themes that initially emerged concerning the entrepreneurial field. Challenges, innovation, and opportunities are found to generate significant interest in literature. The analysis shows how the epidemic forces businesses to innovate and offer multiple opportunities through digitisation. The study has some policy and managerial implications as well.
    Keywords: COVID-19; start-ups; pandemic; opportunities; business challenges; managerial perspective; entrepreneurship; digital business; systematic literature review; bibliometrics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10051059
  • Financial Ambidexterity of the Immigrant Family Businesses: The Role of Boundary Work and Behavioral Complexity   Order a copy of this article
    by Bryan Malki 
    Abstract: The immigrant entrepreneurs limited financing choices, and the various barriers preventing their access to the necessary financing in host countries have been extensively covered by the immigrant entrepreneurship literature. However, little is known about how immigrant family businesses (IFBs), at their startup level, manage to overcome these barriers and survive in host countries. Thus, this paper introduces the concept of financial ambidexterity of IFBs as the behavioral ability that some IFB owners develop to flexibly explore and exploit financing opportunities in both coethnic and mainstream contexts in host countries. In doing so, the paper draws on the complementary role of boundary work and behavioral complexity in determining the IFBs financial ambidexterity. As such, the paper contributes to the literature on entrepreneurial finance, and to the intersection between family business and immigrant entrepreneurship literature by introducing a mechanism that enables IFBs to overcome financing barriers in host countries.
    Keywords: Immigrant Entrepreneurship; Immigrant Family Business; Financial Ambidexterity; Entrepreneurial Finance; Behavioral Complexity; Social Boundaries; Boundary Work.

  • Employee entrepreneurial behavior in SME service development: A qualitative study on effectuation   Order a copy of this article
    by Reija Häkkinen, Juha Kansikas 
    Abstract: It is important to increase our knowledge about service cocreation that occurs between employees and customers. Customer-employee interaction is crucial for organizations financial performance and profitability. Cocreation needs effectuation as an entrepreneurial logic that supports transactions. Increasing sales by effectual customer-employee interaction creates new business opportunities. Cocreation by employees and customers enhances new service development. This study focuses on understanding employees entrepreneurial behavior. The study examines cocreation by employees and customers through effectuation and service-dominant logic. First, we understand employee effectual cocreation in the service context; second, we contribute to service-dominant logic by more accurately explaining the opportunities employees have to enable customer service cocreation. The qualitative study is based on one organization that operates in the service industry. The focus group discussions with the management and the employees (a total of 22 individuals) are analyzed by using the Gioia method. The first-order codes and the second-order codes are created by using content analysis. A grounded theory model is presented on effectual cocreation by employees and customers in service development. The results contribute to the management of organizational renewal and suggest improvements related to service-related entrepreneurial behavior. By understanding the possibilities brought about through greater support for employees creative inputs in organizations, we also enable incremental renewal and service development. This method creates opportunities for new innovations, customer and employee satisfaction, and flourishing organizations.
    Keywords: effectuation; causation; entrepreneurial behavior; entrepreneurship; renewal; service development; service-dominant logic; tourism; value creation; cocreation.

  • Understanding Female Entrepreneurial Success: A Phenomenological Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Charles Ackah, Kwame Adom, Golda Anambane 
    Abstract: Debates about the objectivity and subjectivity of entrepreneurial success has lingered in literature. Yet, the subjective conceptions of female entrepreneurial success, especially in developing contexts, is less understood. More so, knowledge about how female entrepreneurs in developing contexts go about achieving entrepreneurial success is limited. This study fills the gaps in literature by exploring the meanings female entrepreneurs attach to entrepreneurial success and how they go about achieving it. We adopt a qualitative research methodology, concentrating on the phenomenological approach. We gathered primary data from 30 female entrepreneurs from three neighbourhoods: Nima, North Kaneshie, and Labone. Thematic Network Analysis technique was the data analysis method. The study finds that entrepreneurial success is about the mobility of business across different business structure platforms (upward mobility of business structure) and business activities (inter-sectoral mobility of business activities and diversification). Network relationships are also among themes emerged as a factor of entrepreneurial success.
    Keywords: Female Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial Success; Micro-Enterprise; Ghana.

  • MSMEs and Overland Trade Barriers: A Case Study of Indias Prominent Land Border Gateways   Order a copy of this article
    by Zahid-ul-Islam Dar, SANDEEP KAUR 
    Abstract: TIndias trade with South Asian nations remains a minuscule part of its global trade. India shares its land border with half of the South Asian nations. Its trade with these nations would be more economical through direct land routes compared to long circuitous routes. And the small business enterprises in the states sharing international land borders usually bear a strong inclination towards having trade relations with the bordering nations. Given this, the article attempts to highlight the impediments Indian MSMEs encounter in overland trade with Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal. The study draws on an exhaustive field study undertaken at integrated check posts (ICPs) Attari, Raxaul, and Petrapole connecting India, through land routes, to Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, respectively. This study uses the snowball sampling technique to bring to the fore the problems that MSMEs consider as trade impeding. The study finds that such enterprises involved in trade through the land borders perceive lack of financial resources, lack of government assistance, corruption, infrastructure inadequacy, customs regulations and procedures, and favouritism towards big businesses as strong impediments to their trade activities. During the field research, it was found that MSMEs are charged at par with big businesses for various services provided by the ICPs. The study suggests the calculation of charges for different trade-related services on an ad-valorem basis. Moreover, separate enquiry-cum-grievance redressal kiosks should be set up to address queries and complaints of MSME traders. Furthermore, concerning the severe lack of requisite information available with such MSMEs, the necessary information should be disseminated among these enterprises through regularly held trade fairs besides electronic and print media.
    Keywords: MSMEs; Integrated Check Posts; Land routes; Overland Trade; Attari; Raxaul; Petrapole. rn.

  • The Evolution of Business Incubation Practices over the Years: A Bibliometric Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Aidin Salamzadeh, Jumana Nalakam Paramba, Samsudheen Karuthedath 
    Abstract: Incubation centres and accelerators are designed to help startups succeed by providing some service packs. Then, studies on business incubation have become increasingly important. The current study maps and analyses the academic literature on business incubation methods using bibliometric analysis. Vosviewer software is used, and papers published in the Scopus database between 1988 and 2021 are scrutinised further to determine publication trends, most used keywords, most published journals, and countries and institutions in the field of business incubation studies. We discovered that the number of papers published has recently increased, with the most published in 2020. Similarly, the United States took first place in publications. Besides, the study contributes to academicians, startup founders and policyholders. It allows academics to identify publication trends. Similarly, it provides a thorough understanding of the services supplied by business incubators. Finally, it could help policyholders devise relevant policies
    Keywords: Business Incubation; Bibliometric analysis; Startups; Vosviewer.

  • Refugee Self-Employment: How Resettlement Journeys Shape Entrepreneurial Behavioural Attributes   Order a copy of this article
    by Nadeera Ranabahu, Huibert P. De Vries, Zhiyan Basharati 
    Abstract: Entrepreneurial behavioural attributes are ancillary to business start-ups and the development process. Refugees navigate complex economic, political, social, and cultural issues in their home, transition, and host countries. These multiple contexts that refugees are embedded in shape the development of their entrepreneurial attributes. Using qualitative data collected from 19 New Zealand refugee entrepreneurs, this study explores how refugee flight and settlement shape their entrepreneurial behavioural attribute development. The results indicate that hardships and asylum-seeking experiences, such as changing circumstances and living in multiple countries, create conditions or situations that enhance six key behavioural attributes required for self-employment. The refugees self-confidence, hard work ethic, resilience, adaptability, resourcefulness, and active learning attributes are sharpened due to their experiences in home, transition, and host countries. These key behavioural attributes facilitate entrepreneurial action and refugee integration through business start-ups and development in the host countries.
    Keywords: behavioural attributes; entrepreneur; integration; mixed-embeddedness; refugees; refugee entrepreneurship; settlement; transition.

    by Sanya Ojo 
    Abstract: Women who suffer domestic violence are trapped in abusive relationship for a number of reasons that relate to socio-cultural and economic rationalisation. Divorce is not always considered an option for many sufferers, hence, they suffer in silence. Against this background, this study explores ten cases of women in abusive relationships to determine the incidence of violence against women (VAW) in Nigeria. Through the application of the exit, voice, loyalty framework, the form, causes, effects, and management are appraised to determine the agency of victims.
    Keywords: Nigeria; Women; Domestic Violence; Culture; Entrepreneurship.

  • Intellectual Capital: A Linchpin for sustainable growth of Indian Small and Medium Enterprises   Order a copy of this article
    by Priti Sharma 
    Abstract: In this study an attempt has been made by the author to explore the level of intellectual capital present in the enterprises and also to check weather intellectual capital can be a linchpin for the sustainable development of small and medium enterprises. A structured questionnaire with 90 statements from strongly agree to strongly disagree has been used for the collection of data and collected data has been analysed using descriptive statistics. Findings depict that the level of intellectual capital as well as the performance is very low in the sampled enterprises which gives an insight that performance would increase if investment on intellectual capital will be increased by the enterprises. The results of this paper will help the society in getting awareness that besides other financial or non-financial capital, intellectual capital too plays a very significant role in enhancing the performance of the enterprises
    Keywords: Intellectual Capital; Organizational performance; Small and Medium enterprises,.

  • Determinants of Startup Performance: An Empirical Analysis of Startups from Kerala, India   Order a copy of this article
    by Aidin Salamzadeh, Jumana Nalakam Paramba, Samsudheen Karuthedath, Ratan J. S. Dheer 
    Abstract: Startup firms are newer businesses with several limits in their early phases. According to the Resource-Based View, it is necessary to implement numerous strategies. As a result, the current research highlights the numerous aspects that influence startup performance. The relationship between several elements (intellectual capital, business incubator characteristics, Entrepreneurial orientation and marketing strategies) that influence startup performance is investigated. These relationships are measured through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). As per the findings, startups must retain a significant amount of intangible assets in the form of human resources, their interrelationships, organisational structure and culture, and marketing strategies to function innovatively. Contrary to expectations, entrepreneurial orientation does not affect startup companies innovative performance. The study gives an insight into startup founders regarding the matters to be considered while starting a new venture. Likewise, it provides an opportunity for students to attract investment opportunities and connect with different parties in the startup ecosystem.
    Keywords: Intellectual Capital; Entrepreneurial Orientation; Business Incubation Services; Market information; startup performance.

  • Does territorial inclusiveness affect immigrant propensity to entrepreneurship? A study in the Italian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Francesca Faggioni 
    Abstract: The research aims to understand the relationship between the inclusiveness of a host country and the propensity of immigrant population in becoming entrepreneurs. Since there is not unique consensus in extant literature about how inclusiveness can affect immigrants propensity to become entrepreneurs, the paper analyses this relationship using indicators and synthetic indexes developed from scholarly literature and institutional data. Italy is the context of investigation, since it is one of the EU countries that have more immigrants on its soil. Findings show several interesting insights for academics and policy makers and managers, such as the immigrants higher propensity to entrepreneurship in contexts in which inclusiveness is lower. The research is one of the few that make an in-depth contribution on both theoretical and practical side, offering a fresh snapshot on immigrant entrepreneurship in Italy both at a national and at a sub-national level.
    Keywords: territories; inclusiveness; immigrant; entrepreneurship; smallbusiness; regional study; Italy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10051443
  • Influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention among final year students of business colleges in Bhutan.   Order a copy of this article
    by Dawa Drakpa, Kinga Penjor, Sonam Choden, Tandin Om, Dorji Zangmo, Chencho Wangmo 
    Abstract: The study aims to investigate the influence of self-efficacy on entrepreneurial intention among final year students of the three business colleges at the Royal University of Bhutan. Four factors are identified based on Banduras self-efficacy theory. The data were collected from 262 final year students of three business colleges in Bhutan through an online survey. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that all four factors have a significant influence on entrepreneurial intention. Of which emotional arousal had the highest influences on entrepreneurial intention of students, followed by mastery experiences. The findings have clear inferences to policymakers in framing policies to address the youth entrepreneurial intention.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial intention; self-efficacy; Bandura’s theory; students; Bhutan.

  • The Influence of Entrepreneurial Traits on the Success of Startup Performance in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Anjali Dubey, Archana Shrivastava 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the significant influence of entrepreneurial traits (personality traits, networking, human capital/skills, experience and strategy) on the success of startup performance in India. This purpose has been achieved by gathering data from 100 selected startups from different sectors following the National Capital Region statistics. We employed both descriptive statistics and a confirmatory factor analysis to put forward the findings. The findings showed a significant influence of entrepreneurial traits on startup performance in India. Various factors like innovativeness, risk attitude, informal alliance, external networks, technological collaborations, business association and customer contact had a positive impact on the startup's success. The implication is that personal and non-personal factors influence the startup performance and formation processes. The findings of this study may be of significant help for the corporate sector, micro-small businesses, and the government to decide how young people can be trained to ensure startup success. The paper, therefore, recommended using this newly developed tool by policy-makers to improve and help the Indian government to understand what could be the possible new policies to implement and hence develop a new startup cultural environment.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurial Traits; Startup Performance; Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

  • Promoting Womens Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: The Case of the Worlds Largest Women-Owned Community-Based Enterprise   Order a copy of this article
    by Ali Ahmad, Dwitya Amry, Punita Bhatt, Yubei Hu 
    Abstract: Policy makers view Community Based Enterprises (CBEs) as vehicles for promoting womens entrepreneurship (WE) in developing countries (DC). This paper is motivated by previous research that seeks to find conditions that generate durability and longevity in CBEs. Using the qualitative case study methodology, we undertook an in-depth investigation at Lijjat, arguably the world's largest and most durable women-owned CBE in India. Our aim was to unpack the antecedent conditions that made the case organisation robust, enabling territorial expansion and survival against more technologically sophisticated competitors. Results illustrate how religio-cultural factors and social capital were integral to the growth and robustness of Lijjat. We found the presence of a democratic governance structure, organisational routines that promoted social cohesion, and a business model which promoted strong collective entrepreneurship behaviours amongst its women members. We suggest that understanding CBE robustness from a gendered perspective holds considerable promise for promoting socio-economic development in DCs.
    Keywords: community-based enterprise; developing countries; women’s entrepreneurship; case study; India.

  • Entrepreneurial Innovations in Business Communication: A Systematic Review of 6G and Future Research Agenda   Order a copy of this article
    by Pushpa Singh, Narendra Singh 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to sytnhesise the previous research on various entrepreneurial innovations so as to present future research agenda to various management scholars, practioners and yiung buddy entrepreneurs. This purpose is achieved by systematically reviewing the papers to identify the role and prospects of Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, and Blockchain in the sixth generation network. This paper reviews emerging technologies' primary contribution to clarify their role in business communication such as 6G. The finding reveal that entrepreneurial innovations and business communication are contemporary to each other. Emerging technologies are helping in the evolution of business communication by offering intelligent, transparent spectrum management, mobility management, interference management and resource management. However, current innovations assists real-time applications based on emerging technologies by providing higher data rate, low latency, network security and reliability. Further, the impact of this study offers a new dimension to practioners to sustain themselves in the global market.
    Keywords: AI; IoT; Blockchain; 6G; Business.

    by Juan David Peláez-León, Laura Salas-Arbeláez, Mónica García-Solarte 
    Abstract: The most innovative firms worldwide are family businesses. However, some studies suggest that these firms do not invest much in innovation. Motivated by this contradiction and the limited knowledge regarding this topic in the Latin American context, this article aims to provide a greater understanding of the determinants that influence the level of innovation in family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Focused on the effect of gender diversity on the level of innovation in family SMEs, this study shows through a multiple regression analysis from a sample of 274 family SMEs in Colombia that gender diversity positively affects the innovation levels of family SMEs, especially in process innovation.
    Keywords: innovation; family firms; SMEs; gender diversity; Columbia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10051061
  • Lean Startup as A Model for Smart City Projects: The Case of Tel Aviv Yafo   Order a copy of this article
    by Arie Herscovici, Osnat Akirav, Gil Cohen, Limor Yehuda, Sagit Barel-Shaked, Labib Shami 
    Abstract: The global competition between cities over residents and businesses, as well as environmental considerations, force cities to employ ICT (Information and Communication Technology), to become more effective and efficient. This development is often labeled Smart City. We suggest that incorporating ICT often entails adopting managerial methods that are taken from the ICT industry, such as Lean Startup. This article illustrates it by a case study of Tel Aviv-Yafos Smart City project. The Lean Startup development process starts with a value and growth hypotheses, and a Minimum Viable Product (MVP) to test them. The test determines whether to continue the development (persevere), to make substantial changes (pivot), or abandon it altogether (perish). Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipalitys modus operandi, regarding its Smart City project, reveals many similarities with the Lean Startup model. Its acknowledged success suggests that it might be a suitable model for other smart city projects.
    Keywords: Smart city; lean startup; lean thinking; sandbox; Tel Aviv-Yafo.

  • Factors Affecting Motivation and Performance of Tourism Entrepreneurs in Ethiopia   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijay Kumar Pandey, Shewangizaw Getachew Terefe, Pradeep Joshi 
    Abstract: Ethiopia is one of the oldest civilisations and has huge tourism potential, but this industry has not developed as expected. Here tourism is not only a profit-earning source but also can be helpful in the poverty reduction strategy. This study has focused on the souvenir industry. Data for the study was acquired from 144 souvenir entrepreneurs. The study provides empirical evidence for the four pull motivational factors: initiation, independence, confidence, and alertness and the four push factors such as risk, dissatisfaction, effectiveness, and unemployment. The result indicated that pull factors like initiation and confidence and push factors like risk-taking positively affect sales, profit and asset performance. This study has generated new knowledge in the souvenir industry by investigating how the souvenir industry entrepreneur faces challenges in managing the business. This paper identifies the motivational factors of souvenir entrepreneurs that need to be considered by policymakers in Ethiopia to promote the souvenir industry.
    Keywords: motivation; pull and push factors; tourism; entrepreneur; performance; Ethiopia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10055896
    by ALFONSO JESUS TORRES-MARIN, Karla Soria-Barreto, Marcelo Leporati 
    Abstract: The aim of this research is to identify the internal factors that lead seniors to start a new entrepreneurial venture in Chile, according to their different motivations (necessity or opportunity) and to understand the differences between high-and low-income regions. The analysis is based on individual data from the Adult Population Survey of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. The sample uses information on people aged over 55 years in Chile between 2016 and 2018. A logistic regression analysis to test the influence of several internal factors on the propensity to engage in total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA) was performed. The research quantifies the different impacts that income, education, gender, social values, attitudes and perceptions have on the probability of senior entrepreneurial activity across different regions in Chile, according to entrepreneurs motivation. This paper will help governments to configure policies to support entrepreneurial activity in the senior demographic segment, considering regional and motivational differences.
    Keywords: senior entrepreneurship; silver economy GEM; regional entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship in Chile; opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2023.10052820
  • Women Entrepreneurs Vs. Women Employees A Comparative Study of Personality Traits and Success Factors of Women in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Jain Mathew, Tripti Arvind, Sridevi Nair 
    Abstract: In the current study, the researchers evaluate the relationship between personality traits, as defined by the big five personality traits, and success factors of women; as entrepreneurs and employees. The findings suggest that there are significant differences among women entrepreneurs and women employees on some parameters of Personality. In addition, Women Entrepreneurs were found to rate themselves significantly higher on the dimensions of Self Confidence; thereby indicating a stronger sense of belief in their abilities. The evaluation of the relationship between the Personality Traits and Success Factors revealed that in the case of Entrepreneurs, Personality traits were significant in predicting Success. As nations work to improve gender ratios in the labour force and as the number of women entrepreneurs grows, a better understanding of what constitutes success and the factors that could influence success are critical in supporting female participation in the economy; as entrepreneurs and employees.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurs; Employees; Big five; Personality traits; Success; Women; India.

  • Gender identity and entrepreneurial self-efficacy   Order a copy of this article
    by Jean-Paul Tchankam, Emmanuel Tchagang, Jean-Michel SAHUT, Maria Bruna 
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to explain the difference in the level of entrepreneurial self-efficacy between males and females, not by biological sex but by gender identity. The results of the overall effect of MANOVA reveal a significant difference between the level of students entrepreneurial self-efficacy based on their gender identity in Cameroon. Contrary to expectations, the self-efficacy of androgynous individuals is higher than that of masculine-typed, feminine-typed, and undifferentiated individuals, suggesting that todays students have a more balanced perception (masculine and feminine) of the nature of entrepreneurship. This study is one of the first to establish the link between gender identity and entrepreneurial self-efficacy, contributing to reinforcing the feminist approach according to which entrepreneurship is gendered by nature.
    Keywords: Sex; Stereotype; Gender identity; Entrepreneurial self-efficacy.

  • SMEs' strategies for dealing with the Covid-19 emergency: a case study in the Italian food industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Serena Strazzullo, Sara Pioggerella, Mark Anthony Camilleri, Ciro Troise, Aidin Salamzadeh 
    Abstract: The spread of COVID-19 has represented worldwide the biggest health emergency in recent years and has also caused extensive economic damage. It has pushed companies to reinvent themselves and adapt to new circumstances. This paper proposes an exploratory study to investigate the main resilience strategies and entrepreneurship ventures adopted by SMEs in the food industry to cope with the pandemic emergency. A survey was conducted through semi-structured interviews to collect data from 40 SMEs in Campania, an Italian region. A thematic analysis was then employed to analyse the data. Five major themes were identified, and each was addressed in turn, describing how often they come up, what they mean, and including examples from the data as evidence. The results show that most companies have undertaken innovative and digitisation strategies. On the other hand, the study revealed that few firms had adopted solely conservative strategies.
    Keywords: COVID-19; food industry; pandemic; resilience; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; strategies.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10052220
  • The Effect of Institutional Asymmetry on Informal Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Gianluca Zanella, Cory Hallam, Teja Guda 
    Abstract: Scientific literature represents the informal economy in two opposite ways, either as a sector characterized by low wages and productivity, and as a provider of livelihood for billions of people around the world. Macroeconomic theories and studies provide contrasting explanations of this complex phenomenon. Using institutional theory, we develop a microeconomic approach from an individual perspective to understand the social dynamics that can explain the choice of informal entrepreneurship. Drawing from a rich tradition of cognitive models and institutional theories, this study provides evidence of the differential effect of institutional asymmetry on nascent entrepreneurs through attitudes and subjective norms. Social pressure exerts a critical role in differentiating the entrepreneurial process between formal and informal nascent entrepreneurs. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Informal entrepreneurship; Bolivia; institutional asymmetry; social pressure; emerging economies; pervasive informal economy.

    by Sandeep Singh, Priyanka Sharma, Sandeep Singh, Amarjit Kaur, Pooja Mehta, Rajni Bala 
    Abstract: This study ponders upon factors influencing entrepreneurial intentions by examining serial mediation effect of perceived value of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. The current study contributes to the body of knowledge by looking into an unobserved relationship that suggests a metaphor connecting entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE), perceived value (PV), entrepreneurial motivation (EM), and entrepreneurial intentions (EI), which is itself an exclusive model to hypothesise and test. To achieve the objectives of the research, simple random sampling technique was used, and data were collected from 260 MBA professional students. After applying Royston multivariate normality test, non-parametric technique of structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) was used for further analysis. A significant serial mediation effect of perceived value of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial motivation on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention was established. The findings proved that perceived value of entrepreneurship plays a role as the mediator between entrepreneurial self- efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions, while entrepreneurial motivation performs as a mediator between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intentions. Serial Mediation Effect of EPV and EM on ESE and EI is acknowledged in this study as a contribution to the body of literature. Results of this study have implications for entrepreneurship practice, organizations, and governments to examine the demands for entrepreneurial training and to adopt plans for growth of the economy.
    Keywords: perceived value; entrepreneurial motivation; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; entrepreneurial intention; serial mediation.

  • The effect of founding team characteristics on start-ups performance. The case of Campania   Order a copy of this article
    by Adele Parmentola, Michele Costagliola Di Fiore 
    Abstract: There is a growing interest in the entrepreneurship literature on studying start-ups and how they can achieve high performance. Authors usually classify start-ups growth factors into three main categories: the entrepreneur, the firm, and the socio-economic environment characteristics. rnHowever, more recent studies have shown that many start-ups are founded by a team and not by a single entrepreneur. Consequently, the success of new ventures also depends on the founding team characteristics, especially focusing on team heterogeneity. rnThis paper aims to investigate how entrepreneurial team heterogeneity affects start-up performance, and based on our hypothesis, we empirically testing this relationship in the context of Campania\'s innovative start-up ecosystem.rn
    Keywords: founding team characteristics; entrepreneurial team heterogeneity; demographic heterogeneity; informational heterogeneity; personality heterogeneity; tenure heterogeneity; innovative start-up’s; start-ups’ performance; new venture performance; entrepreneurship; small business; Campania Region.rnrn.

  • Socially Sustainable Entrepreneurship of Chinese Community in Southern Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Tien Nguyen Hoang, Duc Le Doan Minh, Hieu Vu Minh 
    Abstract: This paper investigates issues associated with the special idea of socially sustainable entrepreneurship (SSE) and its contribution to local community development. The nature, determinants, motivation and purpose of SSE are different from or even contrasting with that of conventional entrepreneurship. Research results show that SSE is the most critical factor to reduce the gap between Chinese minority and Vietnamese society. Moreover, it could lead to the sustainable development of ethnically diverse Ho Chi Minh City located in Southern Vietnam. Using conceptual analysis together with original research on entrepreneurship of Chinese community in Vietnam, the paper points out the rising role of minority groups and the necessity to promote (community based) SSE towards local sustainable development. Finally, solutions are proposed to enhance SSE within minority communities in parallel with mainstream entrepreneurship for the sake of sustainable development in Vietnam.
    Keywords: socially sustainable entrepreneurship; SSE; Chinese minority; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10056381
    by Fernando Henrique Taques, Leonardo Fernando Cruz Basso, Nelson Areal 
    Abstract: This research aims to understand whether organisational innovation can explain the market value of companies based on indicators of patents published, patents cited, and R&D expenditure. This empirical study performed a sample of 1,342 companies from 1985 to 2016 with fixed-effects and random-effects panel data models and quantile regression for panel data. There was partial support for the evidence that innovation positively affects companies market value. This result could differ from the indicator applied in the estimates and methodology used and the companys size. Regardless of the empirical method, the total variables assets and gross revenue were able to explain the variations in the market value of organisations in most models. However, the coefficients found are different between the sample quantiles suggesting that the companys size may be relevant.
    Keywords: innovation; patent; R&D; market value; size.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10055964
  • Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Financing in the Manufacturing Industry: demand-side determinants of bank credit access in Mozambique   Order a copy of this article
    by Benedito Junior, Pedro Falcão, José Esperança 
    Abstract: This paper examines the demand-side factors that influence small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) access to bank financing in the manufacturing industry in Mozambique. A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was applied, starting with quantitative research on a sample of 347 SMEs followed by qualitative research on 30 SMEs. Managers experience, firm size, gross profit, and equity were found to be the only statistically significant determinants of SMEs access to bank credit. The most important themes identified by the qualitative research were risk tolerance, financial literacy, financial management skills, loan terms offered, service quality, lessons learned, cultural aspects, managers beliefs, and internal aspects. This study fills a research gap by examining the demand-side factors that influence SMEs access to bank financing in the manufacturing industry in developing economies. The results provide a deeper understanding of which determinants are crucial in order to ensure effective strategies and tools in developing countries. An important implication is that policymakers need to implement holistic approaches that prioritise demand-side factors.
    Keywords: bank financing access; SMEs; small and medium-sized enterprises; manufacturing sector; demand-side factors; manager experience; Mozambique; developing economies; sequential explanatory design; logistic regression; thematic analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10056674
  • Inputs of the social life theory of Ingold to entrepreneurial network: a tetratype model of relationships.   Order a copy of this article
    by Caroline Merdinger-Rumpler, Odile Paulus, Olga Bourachnikova 
    Abstract: This empirical research studies the nature of relations entrepreneurs have with their network stakeholders. Inspired by Ingolds social life theory (2017a), a comprehensive methodology was adopted to study a specific context of student-entrepreneurs engaged in a three-year entrepreneurial team-action learning programme. We propose a typology that sheds light on the nature of social network relations through characteristics like the various intensities ranging from weak to strong, then the type of perception student-entrepreneurs have of the stakeholder (from resource, person to support or key player), their openness, and finally, the transformative potential of their inner self or the entrepreneurial project levels. Ultimately, we present a tetratype model of relations that opens a new view on the entrepreneurial network.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Entrepreneurial network; Ingold; Social life theory; Relationship model; Business model; Entrepreneurial education; Entrepreneur's stakeholders; Experiential learning; Human support for entrepreneurs.

  • Succession in family businesses: an opportunity to change the business model   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Ouiakoub, Thierry Poulain-Rehm 
    Abstract: Succession is a critical moment in the life of family firms. It often takes several years, during which time the predecessor gradually gives way to their successor. Although it can be an opportunity to change the business model (BM), the predecessor can often find it difficult to accept. Here, we report on a study of the characteristics of the BM in a sample of Moroccan family businesses, and explore the role of succession in its evolution. Our results show that inter-generational renewal is a key determinant. In particular, we find that a period of joint management, when the successor and their predecessor share responsibilities, allows the successor to propose changes. This approach also ensures that any conflicts that may arise between the predecessor, who seeks a certain level of stability, and the successor, who is hungry for change, can be managed by a dialogue that unfolds within the family.
    Keywords: business model change; succession; family business; conflicts.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10053650
  • Entrepreneurship and resilience: evidence from Lebanese SMEs   Order a copy of this article
    by Diala Kabbara, Latifa Attieh, Bahi Fatha 
    Abstract: Increased market uncertainty and natural disasters over the past years have posed serious obstacles to the survival of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and forced many firms to seek resilience. This study aims to explore the resilience of SMEs in Lebanon in times of crisis. The study drew on resilience entrepreneurship literature and focused on the importance of the entrepreneur to absorb the external shock and survive during the crisis. A quantitative approach was adopted, and primary data was collected through a survey of Lebanese SMEs. The findings reveal that the main factors that affect the resilience of SMEs are entrepreneur self-efficacy and adaptability. The study concludes by discussing possible policy and managerial implications as well as suggested areas for future research.
    Keywords: resilience; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; adaptability; resourcefulness; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; Lebanon.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10054285
  • Impacts of Information System Maturity on SME Performance and the Contribution of Dynamic Capabilities   Order a copy of this article
    by Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug 
    Abstract: An examination of the digitalisation accomplishment and digital capabilities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), called information system (IS) maturity, has become a significant concern for the managers of SMEs. By drawing support from dynamics capabilities theory, this study explores the determinants of IS maturity and how IS maturity influences the business performance of Cameroonian SMEs. To investigate the gaps in the literature, we propose a structural research model. This model is analysed using partial least squares approach on 212 Cameroonian SMEs with functional IS. We highlight that dynamic capabilities are effective explainers of variance in IS maturity, underlining these assets importance to a firms business performance. The outcomes of this study serve as components for SME managers two consecutive goals. First, the availability of effective dynamic capabilities to SMEs helps in the improvement of IS maturity. Second, a high IS maturity level allows SMEs to improve their business performance.
    Keywords: Cameroon; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; dynamic capabilities contribution; information system maturity; SME performance; dynamic capabilities.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10053880
  • Developing industry-wide information management capabilities in British Columbias tree fruit industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Svan Lembke, Youry Khmelevsky, Lee Cartier 
    Abstract: This study provides a critical evaluation of the BC tree fruit industrys information management capabilities. It introduces a method to identify weaknesses across the value chain and make recommendations for improvements. Information from in-depth interviews and documentation provided by major industry stakeholders is used to identify and describe the type of data collected and used by the industry. This is analysed using the CMMI maturity model for technology development. A map of the industrys information architecture is created and shows six main information management weaknesses, including raw data gaps in fruit production, sales and marketing, and water use and irrigation management. As an industry composed primarily of small and mid-size businesses, these weaknesses make it increasingly difficult for BCs tree fruit growers to collaborate within the industry cluster and adopt the technology innovations necessary to compete with large, often vertically integrated producers from other regions.
    Keywords: tree fruit industry; agriculture; industry information management; collective entrepreneurship; cluster; innovation; British Columbia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2022.10053317
  • Optimism, economic concern, trust in the government, and entrepreneurial intention during the COVID-19 pandemic   Order a copy of this article
    by Sharon Garyn-Tal, Shosh Shahrabani, Sara Lev, Helen Roberts 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent worldwide economic crisis had a profound impact on the economic situation and decision-making abilities of many individuals, and particularly potential entrepreneurs. The current study investigates the factors affecting entrepreneurial intentions in the context of COVID-19. An online questionnaire was used to collect data among 682 adults in Israel during 2020. The results reveal that optimism orientation, trust in the government, and economic concern exerted a collaborative and interactive influence on the entrepreneurial intentions of Israelis. The research makes both theoretical and practical contributions by exploring new relationships among various factors in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings suggest that economic policy should provide temporary economic support during crisis periods to reduce the economic concerns of potential entrepreneurs and boost their optimism level, in turn encouraging new entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Optimism; Covid-19; Trust in the government; Israel; Economic concern.

  • International Social Entrepreneurs: Exploratory Research From 4 Case Studies   Order a copy of this article
    by Caio Sousa, Edson Sadao Iizuka 
    Abstract: The social enterprise emerges as one of the innovative alternatives in the field of social entrepreneurship. This study explores cases of international social enterprises, something that is valued by researchers in the field, but which is a rare event even in global cases. Using a qualitative methodology, based on four case studies with in-depth interviews, the results contribute to the social enterprise literature by proposing a conceptual structure, the definition of international social entrepreneurs and the mapping of cases around the world. The article occupies a theoretical and practical gap in the field of social entrepreneurship and allows researchers to carry out their studies based on a clear theoretical definition. In addition, managers and entrepreneurs can have a systemic view of social entrepreneurial activities at a global level. Future research could expand the sample of international social entrepreneurs and develop scales for quantitative research.
    Keywords: international social entrepreneur; social entrepreneurship; social enterprise; international entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10054637
    by Mahmoud Khalik, Luis Javier Sanchez-Barrios, Natalia Hernandez-Vargas, Jennifer Mora Mora 
    Abstract: Through an integrative perspective, we extend the literature on capital structure of informal microbusinesses. Our approach considers the financing decision and the various financial decisions and their impact on cash generation for personal purposes. A dataset of 892 Colombian informal microbusinesses were explored to identify various business configurations using Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering Method. Through a logistic regression, we regressed the probability of early cash generation for personal purposes on business configurations and initial financing. Four microbusiness configurations emerged: Typical informal, owner-oriented, over-indebted, and informal lenders. Results show that informal microbusinesses are distinctive in terms of their financial decisions. Initial financing provided by formal lenders and payday lenders delay early cash generation. The contrary occurs when initial financing is provided by private informal lenders and to typical informal microbusinesses. Results indicate that different configurations require customized initiatives rather than a one-size fits all approach for informal microbusinesses.
    Keywords: Informal microbusinesses; Capital Structure; Financial decisions; Cash management.

  • The Role of Social Business in Poverty Alleviation: From the Social Exchange Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by M.F.M. Amir Khashru, Chieh-Yu Lin, Yi-Hui Ho 
    Abstract: The objectives of the study are to analyses the role of social business in poverty alleviation by considering the new entrepreneurs (NEs) program adoption as a mediator. This study used the social exchange theory (SET) to examine the perception of the new entrepreneurs and local people on how social business reduces poverty through the NEs program. The study engages a four-year-long ethnographic approach and conducts in-depth interviews with 31 NEs businesses in Bangladesh. These findings illustrate that social businesses are recognised for poverty alleviation through NEs program, considering two goals, i.e., business training with financial support and, at the same time, NEs grow into self-sustaining businesses, and creating many jobs to lift local poor people out of poverty. The result is genuinely to gain a deeper understanding of the holistic social business in poverty alleviation. This study offers novel theoretical and empirical insights and implications for practitioners.
    Keywords: social business; poverty alleviation; new entrepreneur; NE program; Bangladesh.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10053881
  • The Resilience of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in Indonesia: Covid-19 Perspective   Order a copy of this article
    by Fitri Ismiyanti, Putu Anom Mahadwartha, Zunairoh Zunairoh, Bobby Ardiansyahmiraja 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the effect of risk-taking on innovativeness, also the impact of entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness, and adaptive strategy on the resilience of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSME). This study was conducted on MSME actors throughout Indonesia and the analysis used was Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results show that risk-taking positively affects innovativeness, while entrepreneurial orientations, innovativeness, and adaptive strategy have a significant positive effect on resilience. This research implies that MSME actors who can survive the Covid-19 pandemic must consider taking risks, continuously innovate, have an entrepreneurial spirit, and are always adaptive to change. The innovations that MSME continues to make increase the company's competitiveness under any circumstances, including during the Covid-19 pandemic. MSMEs that have high innovation will have high resilience under any circumstances.
    Keywords: MSME; risk-taking; entrepreneurial orientation; innovativeness; adaptive strategy; resilience; Covid-19.

  • The impact of the passion for teaching entrepreneurship: A conceptual model   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohsen TAVAKOLI, Miruna Radu-Lefebvre, Alain Fayolle 
    Abstract: Growing evidence suggests that the passion for teaching entrepreneurship substantially contributes to the effectiveness of education programmes. This paper conceptually explores the role of teachers in entrepreneurship education (EE), with a focus on student outcomes. Specifically, the paper focuses on the impact of harmonious and obsessive passions for teaching and entrepreneurship on student-level outcomes such as programme satisfaction, learning and venture creation. Our conceptual model contributes to the EE literature by revealing the underestimated role of passion for teaching entrepreneurship in EE.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education; effectiveness; outcomes; entrepreneurship education effects; impacts on students; teacher’s role; coach; mentor; passion for entrepreneurship; passion for teaching; harmonious passion; obsessive passion.

  • Institutional Entrepreneurship: Insights For Researchers   Order a copy of this article
    by Tamaki Onishi, Evelyn Micelotta, William Wales 
    Abstract: Recognising that entrepreneurs' actions are shaped by institutional environments, recent years have witnessed a growing stream of research on institutional entrepreneurship. Institutional entrepreneurs are actors with sufficient resources, who create new institutions or transform existing institutions. Despite this centrality of resources, prior literature has not thoroughly explored the strategic implications of such resources. To address this gap, we conducted a systematic review of the institutional entrepreneurship literature using a resource-based lens and identified a sample of 155 papers published from 1980 to 2019. Our coding analysis identified tangible and intangible resources and resource mobilisation strategies in the institutional entrepreneurship literature. We propose a resource-based process model with three phases: emergence, elaboration, and expansion and apply this model to offer insights into resource mobilisation strategies during business and social entrepreneurship processes.
    Keywords: resources; resource mobilisation; institutional entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship; social entrepreneurship.

  • Knowledge capital acquisition of SMEs: comparative analysis of ICT branches   Order a copy of this article
    by Tomasz Sierotowicz 
    Abstract: Research studies on knowledge capital (KC) focus on its utilisation and transfer of knowledge mainly by large enterprises. KC is subject to single-stream analyses as an internal enterprise resource. This paper presents the results of research conducted in a relatively new field of KC acquisition as well as allocated expenditure to KC. This research focused on innovative small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) belonging to the two branches of software and hardware development in Poland (20072019). Empirical data allowed to use the dynamic rate of change. The main conclusion of a comparative analysis revealed that KC acquisition in the SMEs should be described as a simultaneous dual-stream (internal and external) process, and KC acquisition and allocated to it expenditure differs significantly between compared branches. Future research can focus on comparative analyses of different branches, thereby extending our knowledge of the importance of KC in business.
    Keywords: knowledge management; knowledge capital; empirical comparative analysis; knowledge acquisition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10054499
  • Modelling the Drivers and Barriers of the Dry Fish Supply Chain Traceability for Micro and Small Enterprises in India : An ISM and MICMAC Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by ARUN JOSE, Shanmugam Prasanna Venkatesan 
    Abstract: The adoption food traceability system in dry fish supply chain deserve attention. For implementing a food traceability system, it is essential to identify the variables and analyse their inter-relationships that impact its adoption. This research aims to model the major drivers and barriers and their interrelationships in the dry fish supply chain in India's Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) using interpretive structural modelling (ISM) and Matrices dImpacts Croises Multiplication Appliqu
    Keywords: Supply chain traceability; Dry fish; Micro and Small Enterprises; Interpretive structural modelling; MICMAC.

  • An Empirical Ecosystem-based Study of Making the Leap from Employment to Entrepreneurship   Order a copy of this article
    by Vianey De Oliveira Costa, João J. Ferreira, Patrick J. Murphy 
    Abstract: Making the leap from traditional employment to a fulltime entrepreneurial career is one of the most difficult but important decisions that entrepreneurs face. In this paper, we clarify the challenges of making the leap and delineate strategies for engaging and surmounting them. Practicing entrepreneurs tend to rely on generalised social support or expert guidance from social network or the popular press. However, the helpfulness of those resources is of limited value to many entrepreneurs because almost no entrepreneurship research has examined this topic. To address the gap, we conducted in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs in Brazils burgeoning start-up ecosystem. Each participant entrepreneur made the leap to become a founder or co-founder of a new business venture with varying levels of success. Based on QSR NVivo content analysis and axial coding, our findings revealed that success to be associated with certain factors: delineating experiential wisdom and conceptual knowledge and harmonising these two types of intellectual capital, integrating technical and managerial competence as much as possible, and engaging markets and communities wholly separately. We detail the implications for practicing entrepreneurs, the organisations employing them, and for entrepreneurship research and theory.
    Keywords: career development; career transition: entrepreneurship; small business; entrepreneurial decision; entrepreneurial challenges; boundary conditions; skills and capabilities; qualitative research; NVivo.

  • Production efficiency of aquaculture farm Vannamei white shrimp in Chachoengsao province, Thailand: A stochastic frontier analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kanokwan Tammaroopa, Panya Mankeb, Suneeporn Suwanmaneepong, Harry Jay Cavite 
    Abstract: Although shrimp farmers have expanded their operation and market through government support, their technical efficiency remains in question as they compete with other shrimp farmers in the area. This study investigates the technical efficiency of Vannamei white shrimp farmers and explores the factors affecting their inefficiency using the stochastic production frontier approach. Data were collected from 450 shrimp farmers in Chachoengsao, Thailand. Data were analysed using the stochastic frontier production function. Results showed that technical efficiency level was approximately 87%, implying a potential 13% growth in output if inefficiencies are addressed. Furthermore, farmers who receive training on shrimp farming are more efficient than farmers who do not. Farmers with higher educational attainment are more likely to be efficient implying the importance of providing information access and developing farmers technical knowledge on shrimp production. Thus, increased technical knowledge could enable farmers make better decisions and attain higher levels of technical efficiency.
    Keywords: technical efficiency; vannamei white shrimp; stochastic frontier.

  • The entrepreneurial pathway of Vietnamese supper-rich The sources of their successful business performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Tran Thi Ngoc Lan, Le Doan Minh Duc, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Do Huu Hai, Dinh Hoang Anh Tuan, Vo Khac Truong Thanh 
    Abstract: This paper examines the sources and the development patterns of the most successful Vietnamese entrepreneurs, many of them are in the Forbes list. In order to test three competing hypotheses, we analyse the biographies of the founders of Vietnams biggest companies whose private assets surpassed USD100 million as of June 2022 when COVID-19 was officially declared over. In contrast to the prevailing assumption that the most successful entrepreneurs are returnees from the West, we have found that they are predominantly graduates from universities in Eastern Europe. Rather than Western or national entrepreneurial experience, our findings pointed to the very specific entrepreneurial experience gained during the period of study and start-up business in transforming Eastern Europe as the most likely drive of their business performance later on in Vietnam.
    Keywords: business performance; start-up; Vietnamese overseas; Eastern Europe; social mobility; entrepreneurship.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10055263
  • New Media Technologies and Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from the Covid-19 Period   Order a copy of this article
    by Bharti Pandya, Shreesha Mairaru, Asma Buhannad, Leena Daroo 
    Abstract: COVID-19 has disrupted the status quo affecting the sustainability and survivability of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are the backbone of UAEs economy representing 94% of companies and employing around 86% of the workforce. During COVID-19 SMEs have reinvented their strategies to recover from their unexpected and unimaginable losses and have embraced new media technologies. The heterogeneity of strategies and tactics adopted by SMEs (of UAE) needs a systematic investigation to understand how they leveraged new media to re-invent themselves to recover from the pandemic. The research aims to understand the key challenges faced by Emirati-owned SMEs to engage various stakeholders during COVID-19 and to examine the role played by new media technologies to sustain the business. This phenomenological study presents the strategies adopted by SMEs using new media technologies during COVID. The results of this research will benefit SME entrepreneurs, policymakers, business strategists, scholars, and new media providers.
    Keywords: new media technologies; sustainability; strategies; challenges; COVID-19; small and medium enterprises; SMEs; new media; NMTs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10055264
  • How does a simplified Performance Measurement System affect decision making within SMEs?   Order a copy of this article
    by Abram Kok 
    Abstract: Although performance measurement models are frequently used by larger companies, little is known of the impact and possibilities for SMEs and how they could support decision-making within these smaller companies. Larger companies have more possibilities to structure and design processes and procedures that make decision making based on performance indicators part of the overall company policy. Theoretical findings are indicating that implementing a PMS could support the decision- making processes in SMEs and help them improve their management processes and strategic control. PMSs should support SMEs to manage uncertainty, to innovate their products and services, and to sustain evaluation and change processes (Garengo, Biazzo, & Bititci, 2005). The aim of this research is to find out whether it is possible to design and test a simplified model to measure performance for SMEs in order to facilitate better decision-making. As SMEs face challenges in keeping up with bigger companies, testing a tailor-made model that is designed to facilitate measuring performance amongst SMEs could be a giant step forward. The model will be analysed through a SMART-PLS structural equation measuring tool. This article will focus on a more specific set of contingency factors and hypotheses that will be tested on the basis of a conceptual model. In a later stage it will be tested empirically and produce specific measurable outcomes.
    Keywords: Performance measurement system; Decision support system; SMEs; Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM); Contingency factors; Organisational success.

  • Street Vending and Poverty: An Empirical Analysis   Order a copy of this article
    by Kamil Khan, Anwar Shah 
    Abstract: This paper examines the comparative earning opportunities of moveable street vending and daily wage work as source of livelihood for the poor in Quetta, Balochistan. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, data is collected from 120 participants, with 60 each from the street vending and daily wage work sectors. Descriptive and Inferential statistical techniques, including logistic regression, are used to analyse the data. Our descriptive analysis indicates that street vending offers more significant earning opportunities for the poor than daily wage work. However, the logistic regression model does not provide strong support for street vending as a better source of livelihood in terms of poverty alleviation. Furthermore, the study reveals that eviction by local authorities is a major issue faced by street vendors, limits their income and perpetuates poverty.
    Keywords: Street vending; Daily wage work; Poverty.

  • The nexus between TQM and global strategic performance of Small Businesses in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Bach Ngoc Hoang Anh, Phuoc Minh Hiep, Le Doan Minh Duc, Nguyen Van Tien, Dinh Ba Hung Anh, Nguyen Hoang Tien 
    Abstract: In this paper, we have tried to investigate the nexus between TQM related impacting factors and performance of SMEs regarding their increasing global scale and strategic dimension. Based on the achievements of TQM as a background theory, the paper conducted both qualitative and quantitative research for selected SMEs operating in the largest, dynamic cities of Vietnam and belonging to different industries. As a result, the paper provides findings in a bid to formulate varied proposals for exploring and putting in use policy recommendations, managerial implications and several long-term, overarching solutions to boost the strategic performance and sustainability of globalising SMEs that operate in a more and more borderless world business environment. The conclusions indicate that SMEs financial performance must be paid less attention in a favour of their strategic performance, one they are to advance in terms of scale and impact as parts of global support industries and value chain.
    Keywords: global impact; business performance; strategic performance; financial performance; global orientation; local orientation; total quality management; TQM; SMEs; sustainability; business solutions; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10055972
  • The Impact of CSR on consumer behaviour: Evidence from SMEs in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Le Ngoc Thong, Nguyen Hoang Khoi, Tran Manh Dung, Tran Thi Thu Hoai, Nguyen Thi Le Thu, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Do Huu Hai 
    Abstract: The article combines qualitative and quantitative research to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the impact of CSR on consumer behaviour in the SMEs sector of the F&B industry in Vietnam. The study has proven the specificity of the SMEs sector of the F&B industry that CSR has a direct and indirect impact on consumer behaviour via three mediating variables such as corporate reputation, corporate brand trust and electronic word of mouth. The research results have concluded with an important statement that consumers in Vietnam are increasingly interested in CSR activities of the SMEs as they are the main contributors to the F&B market development. Finally, the article has suggested several critical governance implications helping managers plan, develop and implement own specific CSR strategies to enhance their positive impact on consumer behaviour and purchasing decision in the SMEs sector of the F&B industry in Vietnam.
    Keywords: corporate social responsibility; CSR; consumer behaviour; corporate reputation; brand trust; eWOM; SMEs; F&B industry; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2024.10056246
  • Global climate change and sustainable social entrepreneurship of SMEs in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Le Ngoc Thong, Tran Manh Dung, Tran Thi Thu Hoai, Nguyen Thi Le Thu, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Do Huu Hai, NguyenThi Dao, Vu Quynh Nam 
    Abstract: Vietnam is a nation being at the highest risk of natural catastrophe caused by global climate change (GCC). The consequences of GCC are notably serious for the Mekong Delta agricultural region in the Southwest Vietnam. So far, few studies have investigated the impact of GCC on the sustainability of entrepreneurial and livelihood activities of local business and ordinary people. Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to fill this research gap to set a background for further similar research. For that specific purpose, we have gathered secondary data from trustworthy sources, both traditional and websites of government and public institutions. The findings of research serve as a basis to put forward solutions for sustainable agricultural entrepreneurship development and for its performance enhancement, weathering at the same time all GCC negative consequences.
    Keywords: global climate change; Mekong Delta; Southwest Vietnam; sustainability; entrepreneurship development; entrepreneurial performance.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10056396
  • Enhancing Vietnam’s SMEs entrepreneurial performance in post-pandemic tourism industry   Order a copy of this article
    by Nguyen Thi Nguyen Hong, Nguyen Hoang Tien, Vo Xuan Duc, Nguyen Van Toai 
    Abstract: This paper studies the post COVID-19 panorama of the tourism industry in Vietnam, along with the entrepreneurship capacity and entrepreneurial performance of SMEs within. In recent years, the entrepreneurial developments in tourism, hospitality and related industries has tended to follow the direction of socialisation, that is, towards comprehensive cooperation instead of direct competition. To understand this, it is necessary to clarify and fully present the basic theoretical framework along with the empirical research on social entrepreneurship capacity and social entrepreneurial performance specific to the tourism industry and its ongoing context. This is the topic that this paper wishes to delve into profoundly to analyse and to propose solutions boosting this capacity and performance to improve the quality of tourism services in Vietnam to reach new heights.
    Keywords: social entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship capacity; entrepreneurial performance; COVID-19; tourism industry; Vietnam.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2025.10056397