International Journal of Electronic Business (13 papers in press)
Smart resource scheduling by correlating discriminative quality factors to optimise resource utilisation in IAAS of cloud networks
by Bellam Ravindra Babu, Aliseri Govardhan
Abstract: The significant requirement in cloud computing is detecting the deterministic model for performing resource scheduling. Resource scheduling is crucial because of several anomalies presence and high dimensionality values shown during resource scheduling. The number of tasks envisioned in contention at resource broker of IAAS and higher dimensionality of proposed anomalies values for quality resource aspects was out of scope concerning the existing resource scheduling techniques. Therefore, the contemporary resource scheduling techniques were not prominent for optimal resource scheduling. For optimising resource scheduling in terms of earlier mentioned properties like the maximum amount of tasks and maximum dimensionality anomalies projection, an ensemble resource scheduling technique has been derived in this article under batch scheduling classification. Further, the simulation study envisioned that the projected model of this contribution is more significant and robust for delivering optimum resource scheduling when compared to other contemporary models in terms of dimensionality and volume of anomalies.
Keywords: resource scheduling; VM migration; virtual machines; VMs; QoS; cloud computing; resource management.
Consumer motives toward cross-border e-commerce: means-end chain analysis
by Md. Rakibul Hoque, Jian Mou, Ying Zhang
Abstract: Cross-border e-commerce transactions have been increasing significantly in the developing world. The benefits of entering into cross-border e-commerce are observed for various sizes of enterprises, from small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to large enterprises. This study has undertaken a qualitative exploratory research method because very little is known about consumers motives in a cross-border e-commerce context. The study follows a popular means-end chain (MEC) analysis methodology, which is widely used in the marketing sector. The result shows that six core values influence consumers motives in using cross-border e-commerce platforms. These are: 1) thriftiness; 2) self-fulfilment; 3) satisfaction; 4) happiness; 5) comfort; 6) security. Furthermore, these values, along with other identified elements, are classified into three motivational patterns which are: 1) value-seeking; 2) pleasure; 3) security. Among the three motivational patterns, value-seeking and security are two utilitarian motivational patterns and pleasure is a hedonic motivational pattern.
Keywords: consumer motives; cross-border; e-commerce; means-end chain; MEC.
Capturing the role of backers' psychological ownership for value-adding behaviours in reward-based crowdfunding
by Carina Hoffmann, Peter Kenning
Abstract: Backers' value-adding behaviours in crowdfunding are of great value for start-ups and significantly affect start-up success. However, despite this substantial impact, little is known about when and why backers engage in value-adding behaviours. Referring to the theory of psychological ownership, we investigate the role of backers' feelings of psychological ownership over the funded venture for their intentions to behave in an advantageous manner for that in the context of reward-based crowdfunding. Our results highlight that backers' psychological ownership has a significant and positive impact on backers' intention to engage in positive word-of-mouth and constructive feedback behaviour. According to our results, this relationship is fully mediated by backers affective commitment.
Keywords: psychological ownership; reward-based crowdfunding; post-funding behaviour; commitment research; structural equation modelling; word-of-mouth; WOM; constructive feedback.
Gaining competitive advantage through artificial intelligence adoption
by Álvaro Rosa, Teresa Bento, Leandro Pereira, Renato Lopes Da Costa, Álvaro Dias, Rui Gonçalves
Abstract: Companies are adopting artificial intelligence (AI) to be innovative, improve their strategies and differentiate themselves from competitors. This research's objective is to examine the extent of the introduction of artificial intelligence in companies located in Portugal, with focus on marketing activities. It explores the reasons and challenges companies face to introduce it, their perception of AI and whether they feel pressure to adopt this technology. This research uses a qualitative approach, the content analysis of 21 interviews with professionals familiar with the theme. This study concludes that the main challenges faced are the cost of the investment and the loss of 'the human' connection with the customer. In contrast, the principal benefit is the degree of personalisation artificial intelligence can achieve due to its ability to provide strategic information. Concerning the interviewees' perception of this technology, 95% considers it as a competitive advantage.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; adoption; strategic information; customer relationship; marketing; strategic management; Portugal.
CMAKM-FIoT: centralised mutual authentication and key management scheme for fog computing-enabled IoT network
by Upendra Verma, Diwakar Bhardwaj
Abstract: Nowadays, fog computing plays an indispensable role in delay-sensitive internet of things (IoT) applications. However, openness and lack of human intervention make fog computing-enabled IoT (F-IoT) network vulnerable to various cryptographic attacks. Therefore, reliable mutual authentication and a key agreement scheme are essential. Many authentication schemes have been proposed for the F-IoT network. However, they are not appropriate for resource-constrained networks due to high communication and computation overhead. In this paper, centralised mutual authentication and key management scheme called CMAKM-FIoT is designed and proposed. The security analysis of proposed scheme indicates that it is robust against various cryptographic attacks. The performance evaluation has evaluated and compared with existing related schemes in terms of computation and communication overhead. The proposed scheme achieves better security than previous related schemes, according to the performance evaluation and security analysis.
Keywords: fog computing; internet of things; IoT; mutual authentication; hash function; resource-constrained network; key agreement scheme.
The influence of online retail/service brand equity and effect of country of origin on e-marketplace patronage intention
by Kwanrudee Prachaseree, Norzieiriani Ahmad, Normalisa Md Isa
Abstract: E-marketplaces are estimated as the primary online shopping channel in Thailand; however, the local e-marketplaces cannot compete with foreign competitors. Besides, Thai online shoppers prefer to shop from cross-border websites. Brand equity can strengthen traditional retailers patronage intention. However, the brand equity concept, which is particular for online retailers, may be more suitable for strengthening the e-marketplaces of the country. Also, studies on the effect of country of origin (COO) on online retailers in terms of foreignness are limited. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the e-marketplace patronage intention of Thai online shoppers by utilising the extended theory of reasoned action (TRA), with online retail/ service (ORS) brand equity as an independent variable and the effect of COO as a moderator variable. The findings reveal that all of the independent variables are positively significant with e-marketplace patronage intention except the effect of COO. The relationship between attitude towards behaviour and the e-marketplace patronage intention is negatively moderated by the effect of COO.
Keywords: e-marketplace; electronic marketplace; patronage intention; theory of reasoned action; TRA; online retail/service; ORS; brand equity; country of origin; COO; attitude towards behaviour; subjective norm.
Prediction of software engineering careers from Instagram personality traits
by B. Madhuravani
Abstract: A social networking platform named Instagram is one of the most popular platforms that we spend time on. The data from user-generated Instagram posts may be helpful to gauge the personalities of people. Previously, experiments that utilised Instagram data for personality appraisal and visualisation for professional reasons were not accessible for public usage. This research helps to recognize personality styles that are common of the Instagram culture. A computational score is generated and a model is built by using these scores in job suggestions that complement the personality of the individual. In the creation of a test score, Instagrams personality score is benchmarked against a five-factor personality model (FFPM) test score to assess how reliable it is. The statistical grade scale on Instagram personality and the FFPM test is very strong and reported 92.4%. This research will help employers identify candidates that match their companys needs by gauging their personalities.
Keywords: Instagram; personality; five-factor personality model; FFPM; software engineering careers.
The online stickiness circumstances in electronic retailing: website quality, perceived risk, and perceived value
by Amir Reza Konjkav Monfared, Mohammadreza Barootkoob, Mehdi Sabokro, Mohammadreza Keshavarz, Milad Mohebali Malmiri
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to examine the impact of website quality, perceived risk, and perceived value on website stickiness. A questionnaire was used to collect data. The questionnaire was completed and collected by 299 Iranian consumers who use e-retailers for their purchases. The Reliability of the questionnaire was assessed and confirmed by Cronbachs alpha coefficient and CR. Structural equation modelling was used for data analysis. Research findings showed that perceived value and website quality, as well as all five dimensions of website quality (content quality, website design, privacy/security, customer service and reliability), had a positive and significant impact on stickiness. Perceived risk also has a significant and negative impact on stickiness. The findings showed that the website quality had a significant and negative impact on the perceived risk. The results showed that the quality of the website had a positive and significant impact on the perceived value.
Keywords: stickiness; website quality; perceived risk; perceived value; electronic retailing.
Special Issue on: Intelligent Security using Blockchain for Internet of Things
Security framework for IoT and deep belief network-based healthcare system using blockchain technology
by Senthil Murugan Nagarajan, Prathik Anandhan, V. Muthukumaran, K. Uma, U. Kumaran
Abstract: Nowadays, the computerisation and information systems need very fast, easier and secure data analysis models. So, blockchain technology and deep learning concepts play important roles for data security and analysis in field of healthcare applications. Blockchain technology has optimal reliability in various sectors like healthcare, security, information management, smart home, etc. In this paper, blockchain technology is used for the healthcare system to provide a secure and reliable data transmission. Furthermore, IoT-based wearable devices are used to collect the data from the patients. Moreover, deep belief network (DBN) is proposed to classify the obtained data in order to predict the type of disease or problems of the patients. The experimental results shows that the proposed framework and classification model abruptly outperforms when compared with other existing techniques. The efficiency of the proposed framework is analysed based on the performance metrics like throughput and latency. The obtained loss ratio for the proposed model seems very less of 0.0126 when compared with other existing techniques like MLP, SVM, ANN, and CNN. The accuracy obtained for the proposed DBN classifier is above 95% for the increase in the number of patients.
Keywords: blockchain technology; healthcare system; internet of things; IoT; deep belief network; DBN; security.
RPL enhancement with mobility-aware two-stage objective function for improving network lifetime in IoT
by Robin Cyriac, M.A. Saleem Durai
Abstract: The routing protocol for low power and lossy network (RPL) has tremendous scope in IoT, due to the fact that it can be customised as per network's domain requirement by altering objective function (OF). Many studies have proven that the careful crafting of OF with different metrics improve the quality of route identified by RPL. As the complexity of OF increases due to different metric combinations, the performance of RPL will start to deteriorate. We divide OF into a two-stage process to solve this problem. In the first stage we keep a simple OF that considers ETX and path delay and rank parents as per RPL specification. A fixed number of best ranked parents from the first stage OF are considered for further processing in the second stage OF. Fuzzy-based second stage OF considers mobility history, queue availability and remaining energy of the parents to select the preferred route. Second stage OF is run only on limited number of parents which improves performance of RPL. Performance evaluation shows that our two-stage objective function (TS-OF) reduces packet loss by 28% and energy consumption by 34% compared to the state of the art RPL objective function.
Keywords: objective function; received signal strength indicator; RSSI; energy consumption; parent selection mechanism; RPL; IoT.
A Markov decision process-based secure consensus framework for leveraging blockchain technology in IoT applications
by Nonita Sharma, Monika Mangla, Sachi Nandan Mohanty
Abstract: In this manuscript, we propose a secure consensus framework that implements Markov decision process (MDP) for blockchain technology in IoT applications. The proposed framework presents projection for the sojourn time and stationary efficiency measures for any transaction or block. Implementing MDP provides a group of states and a collection of actions to choose from. MDP also offers instantaneous reward purpose and a probabilistic transition matrix. The proposed framework that suggests implementation of MDP in blockchain technology further escalates the security of the network. The paper demonstrates the architecture of the proposed framework.
Keywords: blockchain; Bitcoin; Byzantine faults; consensus; smart contract; distributed ledger; Markov decision process; MDP.
Blockchain-based consensus algorithm for solving security issues in distributed internet of things
by Bhabendu Kumar Mohanta, Kalpana Samal, Debasish Jena, Somula Ramasubbareddy, Marimuthu Karuppiah
Abstract: In the last decade, internet of things (IoT) emerged as one of the most promising fields of research. The services provided by the IoT have come as a big relief to human life due to the smartness and real-time monitoring without human intervention. IoT applications are widely used as it provides a high level of comfort, automation of the system, and efficiency. To make successful use of the ever-growing IoT applications requires addressing the security, privacy, and trust to protect IoT devices and user privacy from attackers. In this paper, initially different security and privacy challenges are identified in an IoT application. Secondly, analysis regarding blockchain technology is done which gives the idea to solve some of the IoT security challenges. Blockchain-based consensus algorithm PBFT is used to perform secure computation in a smart transportation system. Security analysis shows that the proposed protocol worked correctly in the presence of malicious or faulty nodes.
Keywords: internet of things; IoT; security; privacy; blockchain; consensus algorithms; distributed system; trust management.
Modified handshake protocol-based secure authentication using blockchain technology in WLAN
by Manoj Diwakar, Prabhishek Singh, Achyut Shankar
Abstract: In recent years, the development of the wireless local area network (WLAN) seems to have interesting facts about the security as this technology holds high speed, wide coverage, and high capacity. Several applications are using blockchain technology as a key framework to enhance the security features for the improvement of preventing various attacks when integrating with existing authentication protocols. This paper presents a brief description of the wireless networks, their advantages over wired networks and security issues requiring immediate attention. It is then followed with blockchain feature integrated with 802.11 architecture and various services offered by it as the motivation for conducting the research. Thereafter, a problem statement outlining the inherent flaws in the present IEEE 802.11i standard is presented. Hence a method is proposed to overcome the denial of service using modified three-way handshaking approach. Finally, results are discussed and concluded.
Keywords: handshake protocol; network security; denial of service.