Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (IJCNDS)

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International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (41 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Limits of the OFDM use in the radio mobile context   Order a copy of this article
    by Fatima Zohra Boumediene, Mohamed Tayebi, Merahi Bouziani 
    Abstract: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is very vulnerable to the Carrier Frequency Offset (CFO) generated mainly by the Doppler Effect. The Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) generated by this offset degrades the system performances. Before stabilizing its speed, a mobile must pass through a startup phase where the speed varies gradually in time. The same thing happens during a braking; the speed varies up to a zero value. In this paper, we investigate the effect induced by these speed variations on the OFDM system performances. The weight and the speed of the degradations are taken into account for further enhancement of the performances. The limits of the OFDM modulation are depicted in the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) path where a mobile is subject to different types of accelerations. Simulation results show clearly the sensitivity of OFDM when mobile is subject to higher values of acceleration.
    Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing; OFDM; Carrier Frequency Offset; CFO; Inter-Carrier Interference; ICI; Doppler Effect; Acceleration.

  • Modeling and performance analysis of energy detector based spectrum sensing with maximum ratio combining over Nakagami-m/log-normal fading channels   Order a copy of this article
    by Pappu Verma, Rahul Kumar 
    Abstract: Spectrum sensing (SS) is one of the crucial functions of cognitive radio networks (CRNs). It decides whether the band or sub-band of the spectrum is available or not for secondary users (SUs). Energy detection (ED) is one of the very fundamental approaches of SS to detect whether primary users (PUs) are present or absent. It is mathematically intractable to derive closed-form expressions of composite multipath/shadowing for average probability of detection and average area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In this paper, we have considered Nakagami-m/log-normal as composite fading with maximum ratio combing (MRC) diversity, and it is approximated by Gaussian-Hermite integration (G-HI). In addition, adaptive threshold or optimized threshold has been incorporated to overcome the problem of spectrum sensing at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To verify the correctness of exact results and obtained analytical expression is collaborated with Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Cognitive radio; probability density function; average probability of detection; complementary receiver operating characteristics.

  • Modelling and performance evaluation over Nakagami-m/log-normal fading environments   Order a copy of this article
    by Pappu Verma, Sanjay Soni, Priyanka Jain 
    Abstract: In this paper, we present the closed-form expressions of composite Nakagami-m/log-normal (NL) fading channel by Holtzman approximation. The obtained expressions are used to derive the important performance parameters of wireless communications systems. These performance matrices are amount of fading (AF), outage probability (PO), average channel capacity (CC) and average symbol error probability (ASEP) of coherent modulation comprising binary orthogonal, antipodal, M-ary phase shift keying (M-PSK) and M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM). Furthermore, energy detection (ED) is one of the ways to determine whether the signal is present or not. The performance of ED is studied in terms of complementary receiver operating characteristics (CROC) curve. To verify the correctness of our analysis, the derived closed-form expressions are corroborated via exact result and Monte Carlo simulations.
    Keywords: Nakagami-m distribution; Log-normal distribution; Probability density function; Energy detection.

  • Distributed Denial of Service attacks detection in Cloud Computing using Extreme Learning Machine   Order a copy of this article
    by Gopal Singh Kushwah, Syed Taqi Ali 
    Abstract: Cloud computing has become popular due to its on-demand, pay-as-you-use, and ubiquitous features. This technology suffers from various security risks. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is one of these security risks. It is used to disrupt the services provided by cloud computing. In DDoS attack, the cloud server is overwhelmed with fake requests by the attacker. This makes long response time for legitimate users or shut down of the service completely. In this work, a DDoS attack detection model based on Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been proposed. Experiments show that proposed model can be trained in a very short period of time and provides high detection accuracy.
    Keywords: Cloud Computing; DDoS attack; Extreme Learning Machines; Artificial Neural Networks.

  • Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring System: architecture, applications, and future directions   Order a copy of this article
    by Maroua Abdelhafidh, Mohamed Fourati, Lamia Chaari Fourati, Abdessalam Chouaya 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network Monitoring Systems (WSNMS) have emerged as one of the most promising research area due to reliable technology progress related to the deployed sensors. This solution is efficiently involved with advanced technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Physical Cyber System (CPS) that are designed as a bridge connecting the real world to the digital world. This survey gives a holistic view of WSNMS based on a recent state-of-the art. We address WSNMS applications and its challenges to facilitate its deployment in real world. We demonstrates the synergy between WSN and the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and its major specifications. Finally, we depict open research issues that need to be more studied in the future. We expect to help researchers to get basic knowledge on WSNMS and to open for them new opportunities in regards to understand new technologies considered as an evolution of WSN.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Monitoring Systems; Multimedia sensor network; Information and Communication Technologies; Internet of Things; Cyber Physical System.

  • Firefly Algorithm Inspired Energy Aware Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Anupkumar Bongale, Nirmala C R 
    Abstract: Most of the existing cluster based routing protocols focus either on cluster head election schemes or on refinement of routing process ignoring process of cluster formation. In this paper, Firefly algorithm inspired Energy Aware Clustering Protocol for WSN is presented. The idea of the proposed protocol is to elect the cluster head nodes by assigning them intensity value defined through firefly algorithm. Another contribution of this paper is energy efficient cluster formation where cluster members join to cluster heads based on intensity parameter associated with cluster head. The presented protocol ensures that the elected cluster heads are usually located in densely populated area of the network resulting in low distance intra-cluster data transmissions and ultimately leading to low energy consumption. The firefly based protocol is compared with popular routing protocols such as LEACH, LEACH-C and EOICHD and comparative results indicate that proposed protocol is highly energy efficient than other protocols.
    Keywords: Cluster Formation; Cluster Head Election; Firefly Algorithm; Wireless Sensor Network;.

  • Quality of Service Class Mapping and Scheduling Scheme for Converged LTE-WiFi in the Next Generation Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Amer T. Saeed, Amir Esmailpour 
    Abstract: Abstract--In this paper, a novel Quality of Service (QoS) class mapping and scheduling scheme for the LTE-WiFi converged network is proposed to ensure that end-to-end QoS support is provisioned seamlessly. A mapping among QoS classes of LTE and WiFi is performed first, then scheduling scheme is outlined. For scheduling scheme, traffic is separated into Real-Time (RT) and Non-Real-Time (NRT) components, then a two-stage complex queuing strategy is performed. In the first stage, Deficit Weighted Round Robin Queuing (DWRRQ) and Class-Based Weighted Fair Queuing (CBWFQ) are used for RT and NRT applications respectively to segregate and forward traffic according to resource requirements. Whereas in the second stage, Rate-Control Priority Queuing (RCPQ) is used for all types of traffic to give each class appropriate priority level. Performance evaluation of the converged network was done based on different metrics such as jitter, end-to-end delay, throughput, and packet loss ratio. Simulation results show significant improvements for RT with slight degradation on NRT applications after using the new scheduling scheme.
    Keywords: QoS; LTE; WiFi; Converged; Next Generation Networks; Scheduling Scheme.

  • Energy-efficient Real-time Deployment of Mobile Sensors in Disaster-prone Location   Order a copy of this article
    by Williams Nwadiugwu, Dong-Seong Kim, Jae-Min Lee 
    Abstract: Recent research works on real-time robot-assisted mobile sensor deployment have become rapid, as they tend to accomplish problem-solving tasks at both safe location and unsafe location. This paper proposes a technique to achieve a real-time energy-efficient deployment of mobile sensors in a disaster-prone location using a path-tracking algorithm. An enhanced path- tracking algorithm was introduced to be able to deploy mobile sensors in both presence and absence of obstacles. The simulation result investigates the real- time performances of the mobile sensor nodes deployment with respect to factors such as the minimal energy consumption of the nodes with neighborhood sharing scheme, the end-to-end system threshold and the time variance for the deployed sensor nodes to reach the target location and back to the base station.
    Keywords: Data center; disaster-prone location; IEEE 802.15.4(ZigBee); GPS-less mobile sensor deployment; path-tracking scheme.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10015202
  • A Hybrid Behavioural Based Cyber Intrusion Detection System   Order a copy of this article
    by Henock M. Melaku, Alemtsehay Adhanom 
    Abstract: The experience of deploying Intrusion Detection System (IDS) for securing computer system is being matured. There are Knowledge based (misuse) and anomaly IDS. In knowledge based IDS, prior knowledge of the attack is needed for detection, and during anomaly, behaviour of normal data is studied, when new data is arrived and there is a deviation, it is considered as an attack. In this thesis, we present a hybrid intrusion detection system called Behavioural Based Cyber Intrusion Detection System, based on two data mining algorithms, decision tree and association rule mining. The decision tree algorithm is used to detect misuse intrusions but it considers new attacks as normal. Association rule mining works by using the normal output of decision tree as input for further detection.Further, we implement the proposed model using java programming language. We have used a reduced and enhanced non-redundant NSL_KDD data set for training and testing. Evaluation results show that it provides improved detection rate and lower false alarm rates.
    Keywords: Intrusion Detection System,Knowledge Discovery Data Mining; Genetic Algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10020192
  • Distributive Justice in Network Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam Moktan, Jukka Manner 
    Abstract: Communication networks often have limited resources to serve all users and flows, and therefore different network resource assignment schemes have been deployed that satisfy fairness notions such as max-min fairness or proportional fairness. The justification of why one notion suits over other must be given due analysis in designing and administrating of communication networks. We explore the development of such fairness notions and resource assignment policies from philosophical and economics roots and how they translate into network communications and its layered protocol architecture. We find that resource assignment policies are not commutative, which impacts communications traffic and its bidirectional nature. We observe the effect of prioritization in assigned resource amounts under different notions of the α-fairness spectrum and when the proportion of prioritized participants is varied. After an exploratory discourse, we formulate steps for designing and administrating resource allocation schemes for network communications that takes distributive justice into consideration.
    Keywords: Networking; Fairness; Resource Allocation; Distributive Justice; Prioritization; Socio-Economics.

  • Mitigating the Interferences and Intruders in Cognitive Radio Networks Using an Authentication protocol over Reed - Solomon codes   Order a copy of this article
    by Pavan Kumar C, Selvakumar R 
    Abstract: Cognitive Radio Networks has emerged as a promising solution for spectrum scarcity problem. Secondary users (unlicensed users) accessing cognitive radio network suffer from continuous unintentional interference from Primary Users (licensed users). Also, the adversary present in the channel tries to thwart the secondary users' communication. To address these two problems, an inherent authentication protocol is defined over Reed - Solomon codes. Reed - Solomon codes with authentication protocol is used, with M-ary Frequency Shift Keying modulation technique, for transmissions over cognitive radio network. Similarly, the received message is demodulated and decoded to get the original information bits at the receiver. The performance of the proposed scheme is given in terms of Bit Error Rate. The experimental results show that the proposed system performs better in terms of BER reduction. Also, it is shown that the proposed scheme is resistant to replay attack, man-in-the-middle and impersonation kind of attacks.
    Keywords: Cognitive Radio Network; Reed Solomon codes; Frequency Shift Keying (FSK); Secondary Users (SUs); {Reliability; Security;} Authentication Protocol.

  • Resilient Intrusion Detection System for Cloud Containers   Order a copy of this article
    by Amr Abed, Mohamed Azab, Charles Clancy 
    Abstract: The lightweight virtualization and isolated execution offered by Linux containers qualify it to be the dominant virtualization platform for cloud-based applications. The fact that Linux containers run on the same host while sharing the same kernel opens the door for new attacks. However, limited research has been conducted in the area of securing cloud containers. This paper presents a resilient intrusion detection and resolution system for cloud-based containers. The system relies on two main pillars, a real-time smart behavior monitoring mechanism to detect maliciously behaving containers, and a Moving-target defense approach that applies runtime container migration to quarantine such containers and to minimize attack dispersion. To avoid zero-day targeted attacks, the system also induces random live migrations between running containers to obfuscate its execution behavior. Such obfuscation makes it harder for attackers to execute their targeted attacks. The system was tested by a big-data application using a container-based Apache Hadoop cluster to demonstrate the system
    Keywords: Cloud-Security;Intrusion-Detection; Behavior-Modeling; Resilience ; Linux-container ; Moving-target defense.

  • A Review on propagation of secure data, prevention of attacks and Routing in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs)   Order a copy of this article
    by Gautam M Borkar, Mahajan A. R. 
    Abstract: Wireless communication is considered as a significant part in modern technology for transmitting the packets from source node to destination node in which MANET plays a major role. In this paper, developed a detailed survey about the algorithms and techniques used for solving the various issues like security, authentication and routing. The absence of any central contrivance and wireless medium makes MANETs more prone to cyber-attacks. So as to combat attacks, a secure ad hoc network is expected to meet the different security requirements such as authentication, confidentiality, integrity, anonymity, and availability to mobile users. In addition to that the authentication problem is also focused to provide more security in which authentication is a process carried out by two parties in order to identify one another. Without authentication, an unauthorized node could easily come in and use the available resources within the network. Moreover, consider the problem of incorporating security mechanisms into routing protocols, it also has to be resolved for attaining the best secure communication. To obtain accurate solutions to that issues a large number of protocols, routing technique and algorithms have been employed, but it is very challenging to find out the optimal and efficient method and that can be used globally. In this paper, presented various existing techniques and then critically analyzed the work done by the various researchers in the field of MANETs.
    Keywords: Wireless networks; MANET; communication.

  • An Adaptive Model for Spectrum Assignment in Elastic Optical Networks   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: For an Elastic Optical Network, considering cases of various lightpaths pairs requiring different actual guard bands, we propose an adaptive spectrum assignment (ASA) model which formulates the problem such that, it is possible to investigate as to how spectrum resources can be efficiently assigned in the considered cases. Initially, ASA is formulated as an integer linear program (ILP), followed by its simplification to an ordered-ASA problem which is solvable in polynomial time. To solve ASA in tractable time, we propose a dual stage heuristic algorithm in which, an initial solution is obtained in the first stage, followed by a second stage which resorts to the use of random optimization for improving the initial solution's quality. We conduct simulations considering various graph types and realistic network topology(s), and the obtained results show that, in comparison to ILP model, the proposed dual stage heuristic algorithm finds almost optimal solutions for the ASA.
    Keywords: EONs; adaptive spectrum assignment; ILP; heuristics; conflict graph.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013619
  • An Automated Fault-Tolerant Route Discovery with Congestion Control using TFRF model for 3D Network-on-Chips   Order a copy of this article
    by Sapna Tyagi, Amit Agarwal, Vinay Avasthi, P. Maheswari 
    Abstract: As one of the principle patterns of communication technology for 3D-Integrated Circuit (ICs), the 3D-Networks-on-Chips (3D-NoCs) have lot of attention from scientific research community. 3D-NoCs has been provided as a propitious solution merging the high parallelism of Network-on-Chip (NoCs) interconnect paradigm with the high-performance and lower interconnect-power of 3-dimensional integration circuits. For the permanent link faults, the fault-tolerant routing scheme has been regarded as an effective mechanism to ensure the performance of the 2D NoCs. In this paper, we propose a Triggered Fault-Free Route Forwarding model called TFRF for 3D Mesh NoCs without requiring any virtual channels (VCs).TFRF is a deadlock-free scheme by adopting a logic-based routing named TFRF guided by a turn activating rule model. The experimental results show that TFRF possesses better performance, improved reliability and lower overhead compared with the state-of-the-art reliable routing schemes.
    Keywords: 3D-Networks-on-Chips (3D-NoCs); Triggered Fault-Free Route Forwarding model; virtual channels (VCs); deadlock; turn activating rules.

  • Nonlinear system parameter estimation of drying process using modified state transition algorithm in cloud environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Karthik Chandran, Manikandan Ramasamy, Sathian Dananjayan, Ankur Dumka, Loganathan Jayakumar 
    Abstract: The parameter estimation optimisation with constraints for the nonlinear complex system requires a serious of computation. This paper introduced a novel constrained optimisation method named Lagrangian-based state transition algorithm (LSTA) to solve problems in distributed cloud computing environment. LSTA with the physical constraints involved in solving the problems which occurs while the conventional techniques are used. In LSTA, the updating of the result to an optimisation problem with constraints known as, a state transition. The Lagrangian multiplier is used as a constraint for state transition process to estimate the drying process system effectively. The experiments are conducted in the cloud computing environment and simulated results validated the proposed LSTA methodology for parameter estimation. This method is a promising way for system identification due to its searching competency, enduring performance considering physical limitations and quick convergence.
    Keywords: system identification; system analysis and design; computational modelling; computer simulation; clouds.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10016204
  • Cloud-Based Service Oriented Architecture for Social Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Communications   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Arif, Guojun Wang 
    Abstract: This article offers a social networking platform for vehicles, based on cloud computing and service oriented architecture called CSS-IoV for communication and collaboration of vehicle to vehicle (V2V), and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I). CSS-IoV contains five layers: application layer, application service layer, services layer, cloud infrastructure layer, and layer of vehicles. The application layer operation is associated with the functionality of on-board units (OBUs) and road-side units (RSUs). The service layer runs on a service-oriented architecture (SOA) and cloud application services to improve applications. To expand and combine web services on this layer, the application developer and builders can effectively develop the new functions and programs for communication. With the support of dynamic and automated service collaboration, people can easily help and communicate with each other by using OBUs. Our results shows that the proposed scheme provide the best results in terms of both type of communication in VANETs.
    Keywords: VANETs ; SOA ; Vehicles ; Cloud Computing ; Communication.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10016956
  • An Online Routing Algorithm for Space Division Multiplexing Based Elastic Optical Networks   Order a copy of this article
    Abstract: We focus on the optimisation of lightpath routing in an online space division multiplexing based elastic optical network (SDM-b-EON). We propose a new online routing algorithm, named as online routing algorithm (ORA), which accounts for the presence of the transceivers in the network, and also ensures the routing of the transparent lightpaths through the spectral super-channels over spatial multiple core fibres (MCFs) links. We conduct extensive simulations considering two realistic network topologies and two different MCF crosstalk values which result in different transmission reach values. The obtained results demonstrate that: 1) ORA significantly outperforms the various reference routing techniques in terms of the bandwidth blocking probability (BwBP); 2) in regard to the use of modulation formats, for low crosstalk values, the most used format is QPSK rather than BPSK which results in lesser traffic being accepted by the SDM-b-EON; 3) as the transceivers amount increases, more frequent demands blocking occurs owing to spectrum scarcity. Overall, our study shows that in a SDM-b-EON, larger amount of transceivers can be efficiently used in comparison to the less efficient spectrum usage, since the spectrum significantly experiences fragmentation owing to the spectrum-contiguity and spectrum-continuity constraints.
    Keywords: Elastic optical networks; space division multiplexing; online routing; resource allocation; network optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10016957
  • Performance analysis of non-exhaustive wireless sensor networks based on queueing theory   Order a copy of this article
    by Jian Cao, Zhanyou Ma, Shanshan Guo, Xiangran Yu 
    Abstract: An operation mechanism of wireless sensor networks with non-exhaustive service, multiple adaptive sleep and wake-up strategies is presented on the basis of the queueing theory. The operation mechanism is proposed to dominate the workload of the necessary topology maintenance and reduce the energy consumption. The wireless sensor networks are modelled as a complex discrete-time queueing system. We derive the probability generating functions of the number of the data packets, the access delay, and we obtain the expressions of the mean number of the data packets, the mean response time, the utilisation rate and the throughput, etc. The sensitivity analyses of the performance measures are presented by the numerical experiments. Furthermore, the mathematical analyses are made on the energy consumption. Nash equilibrium and the social optimisation strategies are analysed in detail on the utility by using game theory.
    Keywords: wireless sensor networks; queueing theory; non-exhaustive; regeneration cycle method; energy consumption; strategy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10017314
  • A Improved Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based the Population Feature and Iteration Information   Order a copy of this article
    by Binghui Fan, Chaochuan Jia, Ting Yang, Chuanjiang Wang, Fugui He 
    Abstract: Cuckoo search (CS) is widely used to solve many optimisation problem, which is a biologically inspired the brood parasitic behaviour of a type of cuckoos and the Lévy flights behaviour of some animals. However, it has been demonstrated to easily get trapped into local optimal solutions and slow convergence speed. Therefore, an improved adaptive cuckoo search (IACS) optimisation algorithm is proposed in this article. Two adaptive strategies based on the population feature and iteration information feedback which are integrated into the CS algorithm to adjust the parameters pa and α0. We compared the proposed algorithm to CS and five variants on the 30 benchmark functions proposed in CEC 2014. In addition, the proposed algorithm and CS are integrated into support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Experimental results certify that the modified algorithm is superior to the CS for most optimisation problems and has better performance than the other variants of CS algorithm.
    Keywords: Cuckoo search; optimization algorithm; adaptive strategy; support vector machine; classification.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10018198
  • Distributed Chronicle for the fault diagnosis in Distributed Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Jose Aguilar, Juan Vizcarrondo 
    Abstract: The chronicle paradigm has been used to determine the faults in distributed systems, through the modelled of temporal relationships between observable events, which describe the patterns of the system behaviour. Normally, the diagnostic mechanisms based on chronicles are semi-centralised methods, based on the information from local diagnoses. These models have scalability problems when they are implemented in very large systems. This paper represents the system to be diagnosed as a distributed system composed of several components, and the behaviour of each component is described by its own subchronicles. A chronicle recognition module is assigned to each component, and each local diagnosis result (the recognition of a sub-chronicle) is sent (as an event) to the neighbouring components, so as it can be exploited during the recognition of other sub-chronicles. Additionally, this paper uses continuous query language (CQL), instead of the classic language to define chronicles, to give them more expressiveness.
    Keywords: Distributed pattern recognition; temporal pattern recognition; chronicles; distributed fault diagnosis; web service composition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10018751
  • Energy-Efficient and Spectral-Efficient Mixed Line Rate Optical WDM Networks: A Comparison   Order a copy of this article
    by SRIDHAR IYER, Rochak Bajpai, Shree Prakash Singh, Sujata Sengar 
    Abstract: The tremendous increase in volume and heterogeneity of traffic has resulted in significant innovations in telecommunication networks. In view of optical networks, by adopting a mixed line rate (MLR) strategy, wavelength division multiplexed networks can cost-effectively respond to diverse variety of traffic requirements which have heterogeneous service demands. From existing studies on MLR networks, it can be inferred that depending upon channel configuration, modulation format and link length, a spectral-efficient network can outperform a power-efficient network. In the current work, we compare the performance of a MLR network which is spectral-efficient and power-efficient. We conduct extensive simulations considering realistic parameters and physical layer impairments. To the network designers, our study advocates a MLR network which is spectrally efficient since; our results demonstrate that, in addition to achieving close packing of the channels, a spectrally-efficient MLR network is also able to achieve close performances to that shown by power-efficient MLR network.
    Keywords: Mixed line rate; single line rate; power-efficiency; spectral-efficiency; sub-band spacing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10019472
  • An efficient scheme for detecting and isolating gray-hole attacks in AODV based mobile ad hoc networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Salman Pathan, Jingsha He, Nafei Zhu, Zulfiqar Ali Zardari, Muhammad Qasim Memon, Aneeka Azmat 
    Abstract: Malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can launch attacks by providing false routing information to disrupt the normal operations of the networks. Such attacks can be launched by the so-called gray-hole nodes during both route discovery and data transmission. In this paper, we propose an efficient scheme called Mechanism to isolate gray-hole attack from MANET (MIGM) that can isolate gray-hole nodes in MANETs during route discovery based on a dynamic threshold value of the destination sequence number. If a gray-hole node can manage to get itself into the active route, our proposed scheme can detect it during data transmission through the mechanism of neighbor monitoring. Simulation experiment conducted has verified the performance of the proposed detection and isolation scheme. The experiment has also demonstrated that our proposed scheme can counter gray-hole attacks more effectively than some existing schemes under the same adversary attack model with various network parameters.
    Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks; Gray-hole Attacks; Black-hole Attacks; AODV; DOS; Destination Sequence Number; Adversary Attack Model; Dynamic Threshold Value; Route Reply; Route Request.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10019806
  • New Multi-secret Sharing Scheme based on Superincreasing Sequence for Level-Ordered Access Structure   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdul Basit, Patibandla Chanakya, China Venkaiah Vadlamudi, Salman Abdul 
    Abstract: Secret sharing is one of the essential tools employed in protecting highly sensitive and crucial information, such as encryption and decryption keys, missile launching codes, financial related information, etc. A new multi-secret sharing scheme that uses a superincreasing sequence and realizes Level-Ordered Access Structure (LOAS) is proposed. The novelty of the scheme is that not only a single share for all the secrets is sufficient but also the secrets can be changed without renewing the shares of the participants. The proposed scheme has low communication cost and less overhead to the participant.
    Keywords: Level-Ordered Access Structure; Multi-secret; Multi-stage; superincreasing sequence; Secret Sharing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10020864
  • Workflow scheduling with data transfer optimization and enhancement of reliability in cloud data centers   Order a copy of this article
    by Karima Oukfif, Fatima Oulebsir Boumghar, Samia Bouzefrane, Soumya Banerjee 
    Abstract: Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) clouds offer huge opportunities to solve large-scale scientific problems. Executing workflows in such environments can be expensive in time if not scheduled rightly. Although scheduling workflows in the cloud is widely studied, most approaches focus on two user's quality of service requirements namely makespan (i.e., completion time) and costs. Other important features of cloud computing such as the heterogeneity of resources and reliability must be considered. In this paper, we present a reliability-aware method based on discrete particle swarm optimisation (RDPSO) for workflow scheduling in multiple and heterogeneous cloud data centres. Our aim is to optimise data transfer time while minimising makespan and enhancing reliability. Based on simulation, our results show a significant improvement in terms of makespan, transferred data and reliability relative to reliability-aware HEFT method (heterogeneous earliest finish time), for the real-world workflows.
    Keywords: Cloud computing; Workflow scheduling; Data transfer; Reliability; Discrete particle swarm optimization.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10021223
  • A Study of Situation Awareness-based Resource Management Scheme in Cloud Environment   Order a copy of this article
    by Hongbin Zhang, Zheng Li, Junshe Wang, Yuzi Yi 
    Abstract: In view of the defects of the current cloud resource management, which results in low utilisation of resources. This paper proposes a new method for the cloud environment, which is based on situation awareness. Meanwhile it is particularly important to collect historical load data of resources in the process of situation awareness. In order to improve the quality of data acquisition and reduce the burden of the data collection system, a new adaptive data acquisition algorithm is also designed. The proposed scheme comprehensively evaluates the current situation of the use of resources using FAHP (fuzzy analytic hierarchy process). Meanwhile, the cycle of data acquisition is adjusted in real-time, according to the result of resource evaluation. Then, in order to improve the utilisation of resources and achieve its efficient use, the improved BP algorithm is used to forecast the resource requirement of the next time which can provide the basis for rational allocation.
    Keywords: cloud computing; resource requirement; situation awareness; adaptive data acquisition.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10021258
  • Survivable Virtual Topology Search with Impairment Awareness and Power Economy in Optical WDM Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Rahul Jashvantbhai Pandya  
    Abstract: Survivability against the link and light-path failures is essential in the optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network along with impairment awareness (IA) and power economy (PE). In this paper, topology search using: 1) Kruskal's minimal weighted topology search algorithm; 2) Hamiltonian cycle (H-cycle)-based survivable topology search algorithm; 3) k-survivable topologies search algorithms have been carried out to find virtual survivable topologies for India's RailTel network. The integer linear programming (ILP) optimisation followed by the heuristics implementation have been carried out for IA and PE with a channel capacity constraint to achieve the survivability considering the case of a single link and light-path failures. We compare the survivable topologies thus obtained in the event of failures, with respect to terminal-to-terminal (terminal) reliability and choose the survivable topologies having the better terminal reliability. Among all, Hcycle- based survivable topology search algorithm shows lowest connection loss probability (CLP) and highest terminal reliability.
    Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle; Impairment awareness; Kruskal’s topology; k-survivable topologies; Power economy; Survivability; Terminal reliability.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10021259
  • A Topic-based Synchronization (TBS) Protocol in Peer-to-Peer Publish/Subscribe Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Shigenari Nakamura, Tomoya Enokido, Makoto Takizawa 
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss a peer-to-peer type of publish/subscribe (P2PPS) model which is composed of peer processes (peers). Here, each peer publishes event messages while receiving event messages. In the topic-based access control (TBAC) model proposed in our previous studies, only a peer granted publication and subscription rights on topics is allowed to publish and subscribe event messages on the topics, respectively. In our previous studies, the subscription-based synchronisation (SBS) protocol is proposed where illegal event messages are banned. It is checked whether or not each event message received is illegal in terms of subscription and publication rights granted to each peer. However, even some legal event messages are unnecessarily banned. In this paper, we newly propose a topic-based synchronisation (TBS) protocol where only and every illegal event message is banned. In the evaluation, we show only and every illegal event message is banned in the TBS protocol.
    Keywords: information flow control; peer-to-peer (P2P) model; publish/subscribe (PS) systems; topic-based access control (TBAC) model; topic-based synchronization (TBS) protocol.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10021260
  • Cryptosystem by a Community of devices with limited resources   Order a copy of this article
    by Rebiha Hadaoui, Karim KARIM, DAOUI Mehammed, Mustapha LALAM 
    Abstract: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) is an encryption algorithm with public-key and is the most widely used for secure data transmission. It provides high safety and consists of modular exponential operation on large numbers. We propose an original approach which makes a distributed calculation of RSA encryption by a community of users endowed with low resources equipment. When a user u of the community wants to encrypte a data X, he exploits the resources of his community. For that, we replace the modular exponentiation operation by a set of calculations dependent of each other and which use fewer resources. These calculations are spread over the members of the user's community to help him perform the operation.
    Keywords: Encryption; RSA; Distributed Computing; Limited resources system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10021742
  • Optimal Picocell Base Station Density for Energy-efficient Heterogeneous Cellular Network Under Received Power Constraint   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Yang, Han Hu, Ziyu Pan 
    Abstract: Heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) have emerged as the primary solution for overwhelming traffic demands. However, the dense deployment of small cell base stations (BSs) inevitably triggers a tremendous escalation of energy consumption. In this paper, we apply tools from stochastic geometry to investigate and optimise the energy efficiency (EE) for a two-tier HCN. The average successful transmission rate per unit area of a two-tier HCN is derived, and then the total power consumption of all the BSs in per unit area of a two-tier HCN is derived. Based on that, the EE expression of the whole HCN is formulated. We analysis the received signal power constraint for a typical user and convert the power constraint to density constraint. Finally, we use a one-dimensional optimisation algorithm to maximise the EE by optimising picocell BS density. Simulation results validate the accuracy of the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the proposed optimal picocell BS density can obviously improve EE.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency; Density; Power; Rate; Signal-to-Interference Ratio.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10021764
  • Performance evaluation of various link quality metrics using cross layer routing for wireless multimedia sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shailendra Aswale, Vijay R. Ghorpade 
    Abstract: For the past few years, link quality estimation has been an active area of research in wireless networks. Low-power wireless links are error-prone, asymmetric and unreliable in nature. Therefore, understanding the behaviour and characteristics of low-power radio links is essential to design effective and efficient routing protocol in wireless networks. The objective of this paper is to estimate and evaluate the quality of a link with single link quality metric and amalgamated link quality metric. In addition, these estimated link quality metrics are respectively used in a generic routing cost function of the proposed link quality-based cross layer routing (LQCLR) protocol. Extensive simulation results are presented, which give insights on how estimated link quality with single and amalgamated link quality metrics affects the performance of routing protocol in wireless multimedia sensor network (WMSN).
    Keywords: wireless multimedia sensor networks; WMSNs; quality of service; QoS; link quality indicator; LQI; signal-to-noise ratio; SNR; packet reception ratio; PRR; triangle metric; cross layer.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021070
  • Assessing link availability in communications networks under regional failures   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Mostafa A. Azim 
    Abstract: The evolving spreading of data-centres' implementations with hundreds of thousands of servers in-site, has imposed new benchmarks on network survivability. Therefore, assessing the network availability under a set of geographically correlated failures known as regional failures has become imperative. In this paper, we assess the network robustness against regional failures. In particular, we develop a probabilistic model to estimate the availability of a network's link in the event of a failure scenario. Then, using the estimated probabilities of all links to provide a general overview of the network-wide availability. This paper is distinguished by providing a failure model that is continuous over the failure region. This model provides a quantitative tool to estimate the amount of resources required for repairing the faulty parts of the network. Finally, extensive numerical results on the US backbone network for different failure scenarios indicate the applicability and accuracy of the proposed model.
    Keywords: availability analysis; regional failure; large-scale geographical failure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021071
  • A novel approach to improve handover performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyoti Verma, Sunanda Gupta, Pratima Manhas, Vasudha Arora 
    Abstract: Nowadays, mobile communications have heterogeneous wireless networks offering variable coverage and quality of service (QoS). The availability of alternatives generates a problem of occurrence of unnecessary handoff that results in wastage of network resources. In order to maintain seamless mobility, service continuity and optimise usage of network resources, it is desirable to minimise handover failures and unnecessary handovers. In this paper, a handover necessity estimation algorithm is introduced. This algorithm is made up of two modules. The first module estimates handoff necessity. It involves received signal strength (RSS) prediction, travelling distance estimation and velocity estimation. In a second module, candidate networks are discovered from the available networks. Based upon the predicted future values of RSS and travelling distance inside the wireless local area network (WLAN), the proposed algorithm improves the probability of unnecessary handoff and handover failures.
    Keywords: quality of service; QoS; received signal strength; RSS; predicted received signal strength; PRSS; next generation wireless networks; NGWN; wireless local area network; WLAN; universal mobile telecommunication; UMTS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021072
  • A multi-agent system approach for service deployment in the cloud   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdelhak Merizig, Okba Kazar, Maite Lopez Sanchez 
    Abstract: Nowadays, cloud computing is regarded as a new paradigm in the field of information technology. Since the emergence of this paradigm, most of corporations have started using it through the deployment or the use of its services. Furthermore, service deployment in the cloud forms its kernel function. To ensure a good function of service deployment we need to combine a set of services. In fact, to find a limited number candidate services constitutes a problem due to the absence of a unified service description. In this paper, we propose a solution to solve the deployment problem by considering it as a service composition taking into account the quality of service. Since we have many atomic services, this paper transforms this composition problem into an optimisation problem. Moreover, to reduce the number of service candidates we propose a new service description language to assist the discovery process. The implementation of this model has been provided in order to evaluate our system. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed system.
    Keywords: cloud computing; service deployment; service composition; multi-agent system; agent; dominance relationship; multi-objective problem; quality of service; QoS; distributed architecture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021073
  • Geographic opportunistic routing protocol based on two-hop information for wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Venkatesh, L. Akshay Achar, P. Kushal, K.R. Venugopal 
    Abstract: To improve energy efficiency and packet delivery ratio in WSNs. We propose a two-hop geographic opportunistic routing (THGOR) protocol that selects a subset of 2-hop neighbours of node which have higher packet reception ratio and residual energy as the next forwarder node, it also selects 1-hop neighbours that have excellent coverage of 2-hop neighbours as relay nodes. The proposed protocol is compared with geographic opportunistic routing (GOR) and efficient QoS-aware geographic opportunistic (EQGOR). GOR and EQGOR select a forwarding sensor node on the basis of distance. However, GOR and EQGOR results in lower packet delivery rate, and quick depletion of energy. The THGOR is comprehensively evaluated through NS-2 and compared results with EQGOR and GOR. Simulation results show that THGOR significant improvement in packet advancement, reliable transmission, energy efficiency and optimises packet transmission delay.
    Keywords: two-hop packet progress; geographic opportunistic routing; GOR; media delay; packet reception ratio; inclination angle; forwarding node; residual energy; reliable transmission; delay.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021074
  • Graph-based analysis of cloud connectivity at the internet protocol level   Order a copy of this article
    by Sebastian Dombrowski, Tatiana Ermakova, Benjamin Fabian 
    Abstract: Internet connectivity of cloud services is of exceptional importance for both their providers and consumers. This article demonstrates the outlines of a method for measuring cloud-service connectivity at the internet protocol level from a client's perspective. For this, we actively collect connectivity data via traceroute measurements from PlanetLab to several major cloud services. Furthermore, we construct graph models from the collected data, and analyse the connectivity of the services based on important graph-based measures. Then, random and targeted node removal attacks are simulated, and the corresponding vulnerability of cloud services is evaluated. Our results indicate that cloud service hosts are, on average, much better connected than average hosts. However, when interconnecting nodes are removed in a targeted manner, cloud connectivity is dramatically reduced.
    Keywords: cloud computing; connectivity; availability; reliability; internet topology; graph analysis; complex networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021075
  • Interference aware frequency assignment and association control for uplink and downlink traffic in WLAN   Order a copy of this article
    by Babul P. Tewari, Sasthi C. Ghosh 
    Abstract: In IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network, interference management and association control play a significant role to determine the network performance. The problem of interference management becomes more challenging in simultaneous presence of uplink and downlink communication traffic. This paper addresses the issue of interference not only from the perspective of access points but also from the perspective of clients considering a mixed traffic. We first define several types of transmission conflicts influenced by different communication traffic and based on that we model effective interference. Importance of such effective interference has been described through a motivational example. We then propose an efficient greedy algorithm that jointly considers association control and frequency assignment to avoid the effective interference for maximising the aggregate throughput. The novelty of the proposed approach is evaluated through extensive simulations. We also have shown that the proposed algorithm gives comparable results with other existing approaches.
    Keywords: IEEE 802.11 WLAN; frequency assignment; association control; interference management; network performance; channel interference.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021599
  • A review on spectrum allocation in cognitive radio network   Order a copy of this article
    by Wangjam Niranjan Singh, Ningrinla Marchang 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio is a recent technology that enhances the usage of spectrum resources. Efficient assignment of unused spectrum to unlicensed users is an important problem. Spectrum allocation is an important mechanism that limits and avoids the interference between cognitive radio devices and licensed primary users, thus enabling a better efficient usage of the wireless radio spectrum. In this paper, we present a study of different approaches and techniques w.r.t. spectrum allocation in cognitive radio network. We not only compare them in terms of the assignment scheme, execution model, etc. but also highlight their contributions and shortcomings. Additionally, we also highlight the security attacks on spectrum allocation. The challenges that a CR spectrum allocation technique should take into consideration are also discussed in the end with the hope of aiding future research.
    Keywords: channel assignment; spectrum assignment; spectrum allocation; cognitive radio; cognitive radio network; CRN.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10014474
  • Service composition approaches for internet of things: a review   Order a copy of this article
    by Idir Aoudia, Saber Benharzallah, Laid Kahloul, Okba Kazar 
    Abstract: The internet of things (IoT) is the integration of information space and physical space, becoming more and more popular in several places. In order to answer the complicated user request, most IoT devices do not work alone, a multiple service composition must be made, and it is defined as the services composition. A number of approaches to IoT's service composition have been proposed in the literature. We have noticed a lack of studies that review the different works of the service composition in IoT. Thereby, in this paper, we present a review of existing approaches for service composition in IoT. It describes and compares them among each other with respect to some criteria, which we have defined based on the different challenges of service composition in IoT. Finally, we conclude by discussing open research issues and avenues for further work.
    Keywords: internet of things; IoT; IoT service composition; adaptability; context; smart object; resource constraints; IoT service composition challenges.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10017271
  • Intelligence in wireless network routing through reinforcement learning   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Simi, Maneesha Vinodini Ramesh 
    Abstract: One of the critical challenges in mobile wireless network is resource optimised routing of messages without compromising the performance criteria of the network. Routing in wireless networks has been extensively studied and a variety of routing protocols have been proposed. But these protocols experiences problems due to the dynamism in network topology. To address these problems, reinforcement learning approaches are integrated in routing solutions. This review focuses on the impact of reinforcement learning algorithms to achieve intelligence in wireless network routing. We provide contexts and benefits of applying reinforcement learning paradigm and discuss the major techniques applied to optimise routing solutions. A survey of state of the art reinforcement learning-based routing protocols is presented and categorised these protocols according to the learning strategies. We also provide open issues and suggestions for future research in improving routing solutions.
    Keywords: wireless network; routing; reinforcement learning; performance improvement; adaptive algorithms; dynamic system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10021600
  • Task allocation-based modified bacterial foraging algorithm for maximising reliability of a heterogeneous distributed system   Order a copy of this article
    by Farid Abbache, Hamoudi Kalla 
    Abstract: modified bacterial foraging algorithm for allocation and scheduling tasks on processors and links with high reliability is proposed (MBFA). MBFA ensure high reliability without redundancy of processors or links by using an efficient and simple structure. MBFA is improved by adding an efficient model to deal with the weak solution (i.e., allocation with low reliability). Also a simulated annealing technique is integrated into MBFA in order to strengthen the search of best solution. The efficiency and effectiveness of MBFA are tested using random generated problems. MBFA is tested over the published approaches HPSO and GAA using density parameter (DS), number of nodes (N) and the communication to computation ratio parameter (CCR). The results show the superiority of MBFA over the published approaches in all test cases.
    Keywords: task allocation; heterogeneous distributed system; reliability; bacterial foraging algorithm; simulated annealing algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2019.10013812