Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (IJCNDS)

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International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (20 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessGateway Controller with Deep Sensing: Learning to be Autonomic in Intelligent Internet of Things
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Rahim Rahmani, Ramin Firouzi 
    Abstract: The Internet of Things(IoT) will revolutionize the Future Internet through ubiquitous sensing. One of the challenges of having hundreds of billions of devices that are estimated to be deployed would be a rise of an enormous amount of data, along with the devices' ability to manage. This paper presents an approach as a controller solution and designed specifically for autonomous management, connectivity, and data interoperability in an IoT gateway. The approach supports distributed IoT nodes with both management and data interoperability with other cloud-based solutions. The concept further allows gateways to easily collect and process interoperability of data from IoT devices. We demonstrated the feasibility of the approach and evaluate its advantages regarding deep sensing and autonomous enabled gateway as an edge computational intelligence.
    Keywords: Intelligent IoT; Open Distributed system; Autonomous Gateway; Context-aware pervasive systems; Deep Sensing; Advanced Machine Learning; Edge computing; Fog computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10031028
  • Spectrum occupancy based PUEA detection using SVM- PSO in Cognitive Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajagopala M. V, S.C. Lingareddy 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) is an evolutionary technology for next-generation wireless networks in order to solve the spectrum scarcity problem and efficiently utilise the limited spectrum resources. The potential security threat in cognitive radio networks is the primary user emulation (PUE) attack, which causes failure to dynamic access within the network. In our proposed method, we detect the attack by three phases. In the first phase, the occupancy and status of the spectrum are calculated. The spectrum occupancy is identified by using support vector machine (SVM) method. The optimal selection of kernel and bias values are done by particle swarm optimisation (PSO) in the second phase. By multiple thresholds based fast energy detector, the PUE attack is detected in the final phase. The proposed method is evaluated in the MATLAB platform and the results are analysed to prove the classification accuracy of the system.
    Keywords: Primary User Emulation (PUE) attack; Spectrum occupancy; kernel.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10027341
  • Privacy Preserving File Auditing Schemes for Cloud Storage using Verifiable Random Function   Order a copy of this article
    by Bharati Mishra, Debasish Jena, Srikanta Patnaik 
    Abstract: Users leverage the cloud storage to store data by uploading files to the cloud storage. They can use it to share files to work on collaborative projects. However, during administrative operations by Cloud Storage Service Provider (CSSP), there may be some inadvertent corruption of files during data migration and back up. Due to heavy demands, the cloud service provider may not update the desired files immediately when requested by the owner. As a result, a user of the file may receive an obsolete file. To ensure integrity and freshness of files, third party Auditing(TPA) services should be supported by CSSP while maintaining the confidentiality of user files and preserving privacy of users. In this paper, three privacy preserving auditing schemes for files stored in cloud has been proposed. Verifiable random function, Merkle hash tree and ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption has been used to achieve the desired goals.
    Keywords: Cloud Storage; Verifiable Random Function; Merkle Hash Tree.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10029661
  • Mobility Prediction Assisted Call Admission Control Model for Mobile Heterogeneous Cellular Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Satyasrikanth Palle, SHIVA SHANKAR 
    Abstract: The exponential rise in mobile wireless networks and allied demands has revitalized academia-industries to achieve more efficient and Quality of Service (QoS) centric communication systems. On the other hand, high pace up surge of mobile communication and internet services have alarmed industries to ensure seamless QoS provision to the mobile user’s (MUs) irrespective of geographical locations and movement pattern. The emergence of Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems too have broadened the horizon of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks (HCNs) that supports continuous service delivery to major device-to-device (D2D) communication purposes. In this paper a highly robust mobility prediction assisted handoff management model is developed for Call Admission Control in HCN Our method employs Levenberg-Marquardt Artificial Neural Network based mobility prediction, target cell prioritization and optimal selection for QoS centric CAC decision. The results have shown low handoff and reduced call blocking probability which makes it suitable for HCNs with constrained network conditions.
    Keywords: Call Admission Control; Mobility Prediction assisted Handoff Management; Heterogeneous Cellular Networks; QoS Sensitive Optimal Cell Selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10030009
  • Finding Location of Fake and Phantom Source for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Pradeep Kumar Roy, Rimjhim ., J.P. Singh 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has various advantages over wired networks and hence have become favourite area for researchers. Several issues of WSN such as energy, delay, routing, security have been addressed in the past and still work is going on. The issues of 'Privacy' have not been addressed much till now. Earlier, to provide the Source Location Privacy fake and phantom sources have been used however none of them address the issues of selecting the location of fake and phantom nodes. To fill this gap,we proposed an algorithm which help to identify the location of fake and phantom sources in the network in order to provide the better privacy to source node. The experimental results confirmed that the proposed model has given an outstanding trade-off between privacy and other constraints such as energy and traffic.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Source Location Privacy; Phantom; textit{Fake Source}; Anonymity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10030838
  • Research on Intelligent Home Design of Internet of Things Based on ZIGBEE   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Yuan, Yi He 
    Abstract: With the rapid development of information technology, improving the intelligent level of family life and modern life style is the trend of future development. Based on the analysis of the development of smart home at home and abroad, a smart home system is designed by combining ZigBee wireless sensor network, gateway technology and mobile terminal remote control APP. Firstly, the development and relating technologies of ZigBee are discussed. Secondly, the system overall architecture and data outlier analysis are carried out. Thirdly, the routing algorithm of ZigBee is improved based on neighbor table, and corresponding mathematical model is designed. Fourthly, the location algorithm of ZigBee is improved based on RSSI location algorithm and DV-Hop algorithm. Finally, the system performance is tested based on simulation analysis, results show that the proposed intelligent home system has better performance.
    Keywords: ZigBee; Internet of Things; Intelligent home system; Location algorithm; Routing algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10030881
  • Priority-based Approach to Mitigate Selfish Misbehaviour in Delay Tolerant Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Ashish Patel, Dhwani Bhadra 
    Abstract: Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) is a solution to challenged networks which suffer from intermittent connectivity or high delay, thereby offering delay-tolerant support DTN focuses on minimizing delay and maximizing forwarding and delivery ratio DTN follows the store-carry-forward mechanism where a message is sent to the closest node using a store-carry-forward mechanism for routing for which there is the use of energy, battery power, memory Due to limited connectivity and no centralized control, DTN is vulnerable to various malicious nodes attacks and selfish nodes attacks, which leads to misbehaviour in the network and degrades the performance of the system In this paper, we present a consideration of performance and security to identify sixteen critical parameters allied to DTNs. To mitigate selfish misbehaviour in DTN, we propose a priority-based strategy where the packet is prioritized using trust value.
    Keywords: Opportunistic networks; Security; Delay tolerant networks; Trust management; Wireless Sensor Network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10031662
    by Giovanni Musto, Maurizio D`Arienzo 
    Abstract: Although the widespread of broadband network has boosted the deployment of Voice over IP (VoIP) systems, most part of the telephone service is still provided on the traditional PSTN lines. It can be expected that the transition from traditional telephone to VoIP systems proceed, and that the network traffic due to the phone calls will become significant. Hence, it is still important to select the best protocols, both for traffic forwarding and for encoding to ensure the required quality. In this paper we present the results of a series of experiments to evaluate the protocols involved in VoIP service. On a laboratory testbed we reproduce a common situation of two interconnected branches and compare the performance achievable by selecting different network protocols like SIP and IAX combined with current voice codecs like G.711 and G.729.
    Keywords: VoIP Protocols; performance comparison; SIP; IAX; voice codecs.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10031986
  • Service-based Network Selection in C-ITS Vehicular Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Lincoln Teixeira, Árpád Huszák 
    Abstract: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) are made up of vehicular applications and provide a framework for road users and traffic managers to share information between stakeholders. Different access technologies exist that can support V2X communication, however, each one has its own advantage and drawback and cannot be used effectively for all types of services. The alternative to avoid this issue is to employ multiple networks and select the best one available, by using an intelligent network selection algorithms. It is also possible to use extra information, like position and navigation route information, to preempt the distances between the hosts to improve the user experience. This work presents the SISS algorithm and compares its performance with the widely used TOPSIS algorithm to decide which network option is the best for each application, taking the service requirements into account.
    Keywords: C-ITS; Interface Selection; Navigation Route Position; Network Communication; SISS; TOPSIS.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10032088
  • Improving Performance of a Distributed File System using Hierarchical Collaborative Global Caching Algorithm with Rank-Based Replacement Technique   Order a copy of this article
    by Gopisetty Rathnamma, Thirumalaisamy Ragunathan, Chigarapalle Shoba Bindu 
    Abstract: In the emerging Big data scenario, distributed file systems play a vital role for storage and access of large data generated in the web-based information systems. Improving performance of a distributed file system is a very important research issue in the current context. Client side caching and prefetching techniques enhance performance of the distributed file system. Efficient replacement policy is required to improve performance of the caching process. In this paper, we have proposed a novel client side caching algorithm namely hierarchical collaborative global caching algorithm and a cache replacement algorithm namely rank-based cache replacement algorithm. We have used support value computed for file blocks for prefetching, caching and replacement purpose. We have proved through simulation experiments that the proposed algorithm performs better than the existing algorithms discussed in the literature.
    Keywords: Distributed file system; Client side caching; Prefetching; Hierarchical caching; Replacement algorithms.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10032440
  • Research on Intelligent Indoor Location Method Based on WI-FI Fingerprint   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Yuan, Yi He 
    Abstract: In order to improve indoor location performance based on Wi-Fi fingerprint, the novel algorithm is put forward based on K-mean algorithm and fuzzy support vector machine. Firstly, the basic theories of Wi-Fi location technology, indoor location principle based on location fingerprint database are studied. Secondly, the basic theory of K-means algorithm and fuzzy support vector machine and nearest incremental algorithm are discussed, and the corresponding mathematical model is deduced. Thirdly, the Wi-Fi fingerprint location algorithm procedure is designed. Finally, the simulation analysis is carried out, and results show that the proposed method has higher location performance.
    Keywords: Intelligent indoor location; Wi-Fi fingerprint; Fuzzy support vector machine; K-means.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10032508
  • Many-objective Optimization-based Optimal drone deployment for agricultural zone   Order a copy of this article
    by Hassina Ait Issad, Rachida AOUDJIT, Malika BELKADI, Joel Rodrigues 
    Abstract: Monitoring using drones is not just a civilian and military task, but it also concerns the agricultural sector, where it can play an important role in the context of smart agriculture. It seems to be a very valuable tool in the future. However, the optimal deployment of a set of monitoring drones is a very challenging problem; it is a NP-Hard problem. In this paper, the deployment problem has been modeled as a constrained many-objective optimization problem. Powerful heuristics, namely MOABC, MOPSO, NSGA II, SPEA II and NSGA III are used to find the optimal deployment strategy with four goals: minimizing energy consumption, maximizing total coverage, maintaining connectivity and minimizing overlaps. A comparative study was carried out and the results showed that the SPEA II, NSGA III and NSGA II algorithms have better convergence and maintain good diversity than the other algorithms.
    Keywords: Drones deployment; Coverage problem; UAV; Many-objective optimization; Pareto front.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10032590
  • The adopting factors of Campus Mobile Software applications   Order a copy of this article
    by Chiu-Hung Su, Wen-Cheng Wang, Nai-Yuan Pai 
    Abstract: Many criteria are used for evaluating the quality of campus mobile software utilization, though largest of those standards are interdependent or interactive, making it challenging to efficiently separate and enhance the position of campus mobile software applications. This study aims to solve this problem by using a various multicriteria decision-making approach, including decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL), DEMATEL-based analytical network process (DANP), and the VIKOR method. The relationship between operating standards and value-added assistance content providers can be followed to determine relationship and feedback issues to fit the demands of the mobile communications trade.
    Keywords: mobile software application; quality improvement (product; user; and service qualities); DEMATEL-based analytic network process; VIKOR; influential network relation map.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10032591
  • A Mixed-Integer Programing Model of Registration Signaling and Paging in a Mobile Communication Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Payam Khazaelpour, Ahmad Sobhani, Afshan Roshani 
    Abstract: Handling traffic delays in a Mobile Communication Network (MCN) is a principal problem due to time and cost expenses. Delays limit mobile coverage. Therefore, optimization techniques and tools are applied to minimize delays. However, there is still a high chance that at some points the network will lose its integral connectivity and delays happen. Delays prohibit call transmissions and produce several breaks. System breaks/delays cause call pending for a connection. Accordingly, network partitioning happens, thus leads to disconnection. This paper proposes a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) to minimize network delays while a reliable trade-off between Registration Signaling (RS) and Paging (P) coverage distances is maintained. The proposed MIP is NP-hard. For this reason, a metaheuristic approach, Genetic Algorithm (GA), is developed and compared with it. MIP validation is endorsed by GA approximations in different random trials and comparative analysis investigates GA performance metrics in a numerical example.
    Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA); Mixed - Integer Programming; Integrated Mobile Network Optimization (IMNO); Registration Signaling (RS); Paging (P); Relaxed Mixed - Integer Programing (RMIP).
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10032674
  • Lightweight Coordination Model for Mobile Collaborative Mapping   Order a copy of this article
    by MECHAOUI Moulay Driss, IMINE Abdessamad 
    Abstract: The rapid development of mobile devices features offers new opportunities for mobile peer-to-peer computing that can be used for providing location-based services and social/collaborative platforms using short-range networks. We are interested in collaborative mappings which provide computer support for nomadic users to manipulate at will and simultaneously shared map on mobile devices. However, maintaining data consistency in mobile environment remains a challenging issue due to the arbitrary order of updates reception and the battery-life management. We propose a low-cost and flexible mobile collaborative mapping using simple primitive updates and easily customizable for rich features-based maps. No central coordination is necessary for preserving the shared map consistency. Indeed, we design a concurrency control protocol based on Operational Transformation (OT) approach to synchronize collaborative works in fully decentralized way. With a straightforward deployment on P2P networks, our application supports dynamic groups where mobile users can participate in and quit freely.
    Keywords: collaborative mapping; mobile collaboration; concurrency control; data consistency; operational transformation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10032835
  • A naive time of flight ranging scheme for wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Asif Iqbal Baba, Fan Wu, Tanvir Ahmed 
    Abstract: Recently wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have been in high demand. The key aspects of these applications is 'localisation'. Due to low energy and limited processing capability, many sensor nodes do not have any knowledge about their location, thus requires a method to get localised within a network. Nodes can be localised based on the measurements estimated using different techniques. In this paper, a naive time of flight (ToF) ranging measurement scheme is presented which minimises the error coming from low resolution clocks of the deployed nodes and removes the effect of clock drift on ranging measurements. The proposed scheme uses inter-arrival time of multiple ranging requests on the receiver side and uses solely the receiver node's clock to calculate the time of flight. The accuracy achieved with the proposed method is better than other existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieved the accuracy within 1m.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; WSN; time of flight; ToF; ranging inaccuracy; clock resolution; localisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028908
  • Influence of undersea acoustic parameters on path loss for RF-based underwater sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Saini, Rishi Pal Singh, Adwitiya Sinha 
    Abstract: Path loss models necessitate effective deployment of underwater sensor networks by predicting amount of loss in signal strength of the propagating wave. There are several existing path loss models that have been developed for terrestrial purpose. However, due to significant challenges unique to underwater network, these existing terrestrial models cannot be directly applied to aquatic applications. Therefore, path loss model is required to be distinctly designed for underwater applications. Three modes of underwater communication include acoustics, optics and radio waves. We have proposed a novel path loss model based on variable conductivity. Our research highlights different ways in which depth and temperature of seawater impact on signal propagating undersea. Experimental results reveal that attenuation loss confronted by deep sea is comparatively lesser than that in case of shallow water. Furthermore, communication model for deep water is also developed that combines acoustic and radio waves for communication in acoustic sensor network.
    Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks; radio waves; attenuation loss; interface loss; path loss.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028900
  • A robust QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol for cognitive radio sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Dileep Reddy Bolla, Shiva Shankar 
    Abstract: The exponential rise in wireless communication demands have alarmed academia-industries to develop certain robust routing protocol to achieve quality-of-service (QoS) communication over constrained network conditions. Amongst major wireless communication technologies wireless sensor network (WSN) has been found as the dominant paradigm to meet major communication demands such as surveillance systems, healthcare sector, intelligent transport system, industrial monitoring and control, defence systems, etc. Being a constrained networking technologies WSN demands certain resource efficient (i.e., energy-efficient as well as spectrum efficient) routing protocol to meet exponential up surging demands. Unlike major classical routing protocols, in this paper the prime focus is made on augmenting major functional paradigms of the clustered-CRSN systems by augmenting joint power and resource access/scheduling in intra-cluster as well as inter-cluster data communication, QoS-sensitive cognitive terminal activation (QS-CTA) etc. to achieve energy-efficient dynamic resource access (EDRA) or provision. We have proposed QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol that exploited efficacy of joint-power and resource scheduling and data channel quality (DCQ) and reporting channel quality (RCQ) assisted cognitive terminal activation to accomplish energy-efficient and QoS centric communication over CRSN. Performance comparison for the proposed QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol exhibited that it outperforms existing state-of-art dynamic resource access protocols.
    Keywords: cognitive radio sensor network; energy-efficiency; quality-sensitive cognitive terminal activation; dynamic power allocation; dynamic spectrum sensing and access.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028910
  • Prediction-based energy efficient opportunistic routing protocol in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Nagadivya, R. Manoharan 
    Abstract: Opportunistic routing is a most promising routing method for improving the network lifetime and throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSN). It utilises the broadcast nature of WSN, that allows to select and prioritise a node from the potential forwarder set as next-hop forwarder. The design of energy efficient routing protocol becomes one of the major concern in WSN, due to limited battery power of a sensor node. The common energy loss reasons of existing routing protocols are: 1) packets may travel through a specific set of sensor nodes will drain out a battery energy very soon; 2) packets discard will create a packet retransmission. Opportunistic routing broadcast nature will avoid packet retransmission. The proposed energy efficient Markov prediction-based opportunistic routing (EEMPOR) protocol uses the following metrics to select and prioritise the energy efficient nodes namely, number of transactions of a node and residual energy of a node. Then proposed protocol shows that Markov prediction-based opportunistic routing protocol provides better network performance than non-prediction-based method. Simulation results show, that the proposed protocol outperforms the existing OR in terms of consumed energy, residual energy, network lifetime, and throughput.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; energy efficiency; opportunistic routing; Markov prediction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028899
  • Increasing base-station anonymity through illusive void formation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Boulaiche, Mohamed Younis 
    Abstract: A wireless sensor network consists of a set of nodes connected by wireless links. These nodes probe their surroundings and send their data over multi-hop routes to a base-station (BS) for processing. The BS further interfaces the network to remote command centres. Given the critical role that the BS plays, it becomes a natural target for adversary attacks. Although cryptographic primitives and anonymous routing protocols can hide the identity of the BS, the traffic pattern in the network degrades the BS location anonymity and makes it vulnerable. In this paper, we propose an approach for formation of illusive void for increased BS anonymity (FIVA). FIVA exploits the features of geographic routing to confuse the adversary about the routing topology. Specifically, FIVA opts to construct a fake void around the BS and gets nodes to forward packets to encounter such a void. The goal is to exclude the BS from all traceable data paths in order to avert the adversary attention away from the BS vicinity. FIVA is validated through simulation and is shown to outperform prominent competing anti-traffic analysis techniques.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; anonymity; traffic analysis; location privacy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028901