International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (17 papers in press)
A Mixed-Integer Programing Model of Registration Signaling and Paging in a Mobile Communication Network
by Payam Khazaelpour, Ahmad Sobhani, Afshan Roshani
Abstract: Handling traffic delays in a Mobile Communication Network (MCN) is a principal problem due to time and cost expenses. Delays limit mobile coverage. Therefore, optimization techniques and tools are applied to minimize delays. However, there is still a high chance that at some points the network will lose its integral connectivity and delays happen. Delays prohibit call transmissions and produce several breaks. System breaks/delays cause call pending for a connection. Accordingly, network partitioning happens, thus leads to disconnection. This paper proposes a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) to minimize network delays while a reliable trade-off between Registration Signaling (RS) and Paging (P) coverage distances is maintained. The proposed MIP is NP-hard. For this reason, a metaheuristic approach, Genetic Algorithm (GA), is developed and compared with it. MIP validation is endorsed by GA approximations in different random trials and comparative analysis investigates GA performance metrics in a numerical example.
Keywords: Genetic Algorithm (GA); Mixed - Integer Programming; Integrated Mobile Network Optimization (IMNO); Registration Signaling (RS); Paging (P); Relaxed Mixed - Integer Programing (RMIP).
A novel genetic algorithm with 2D CDF 9/7 lifting discrete wavelet transform for total target coverage in WSNs deployment
by T. Ganesan, Pothuraju Rajarajeswari
Abstract: In recent days, environmental monitoring has been achieved by wireless sensor networks. The node placement problem is playing a significant role in positioning and infrastructure for gathering information from engineering and environment fields. When the number of sensors is limited to cover the maximum area or total target coverage (TTC) imposes a real challenge in sensor placement in a different field because of complicated weather condition. The quality of maximum coverage is achieved by deploying sensors in an optimum position such that it covers the entire field. In this paper, a novel genetic algorithm with a 2D lifting-based discrete wavelet transform is proposed for finding the optimal location for each sensor with connectivity. The enhanced genetic algorithm generates the population matrix to identify each sensor position whereas, the quality of maximum coverage or monitoring and connectivity of every sensor is achieved by a 2D lifting scheme based on bi-orthogonal Cohen-Daubechies-Feauveau CDF 9/7 wavelet transform for adjusting sensor position optimally. The theoretical analysis and mathematical model have been carried out to the simulation results and are compared with the existing algorithm in the terms of maximum coverage, connectivity, the total number of sensors and optimal position.
Keywords: Wireless senor network; Sensor deployment; Genetic algorithm; Wavelet Transform; Lifting Scheme; Total Target coverage.
Routing Strategies For Underwater Wireless Communication: A Taxonomy
by Manikandan T. T, RAJEEV SUKUMARAN, CHRISTHU R.A.J. M. R, Saravanan M
Abstract: In this research article, we present the broad classification and exhaustive review of the various routing protocols available for underwater wireless communication. In this work, we addressed the various challenges of underwater communication. To present the current state of development in routing strategies for the UWSN we have chosen the unique approach. Here the comparison between routing protocols is done purely based on the design perceptive and the specific issue those protocols address. In terms of design the routing protocols are classified into i)Non Cross Layer and ii)Cross Layer protocols. Similarly, issues such as i)Node Mobility, ii)Energy Balancing, iii)Channel Condition, iv)Energy Consumption,and v)Void Region were taken into consideration for the comparison of a broad range of underwater routing strategies. The observation presented from this analysis is worthy for the future researchers and the network designers to work on improvising the effectiveness of the routing decisions in a challenging underwater environment.
Keywords: Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN); Routing Protocols; Cross Layer; Localization Based Routing; Localization Free Routing; Intelligent Algorithm Based Routing.
An Efficient Cooperative Routing Algorithm for Large-Scale Wireless Networks based on Capacity and Location
by Praveen Kumar Devulapalli, P. Pardhasaradhi
Abstract: Cooperative Communication has been extensively used in small-scale wireless networks, by virtue of its capability to mitigate the fading effects Extending Cooperative Communication technique to large-scale networks undergo severe interference; Multi-Radio-Multi-Channel is exploited in large-scale wireless networks to ameliorate throughput by concurrent transmissions over orthogonal channels to dwindle interference. Capitalizing on these potential advantages stand in need for efficacious routing and potent mapping of channels to radios. In this paper, we have proffered an algorithm by concurrently considering:(i) Relay selection using distance and Maximum-Available-Channel-Capacity parameters;(ii) Channel assignment using dynamic global table at the access-point. Our algorithm selects a relay node based on the available capacity of candidate channel in the shortest-path to minimize the transmission delay without affecting aggregate throughput. The evaluation of the proposed model is compared with Interference-Aware-Cooperative-Routing algorithm and observed that the proposed algorithm has improved delay reduction by 27.5% and average number of hops by 32.5%.
Keywords: Channel assignment; Cooperative communication; Cooperative routing; Multi-radio large scale network; Relay selection.
A novel non-disjoint partitioning algorithm for inter-cluster communication in wireless sensor networks
by Karthik Soundarapandian, Ashok Kumar Ambrose
Abstract: Clustering accomplishes energy efficiency, seamless communication, and quality of service (QoS) metrics in wireless sensor networks. The idea of assimilating an overlapping method with clustering presents a virtuous inter-cluster communication in a distributed hostile environment. Therefore, a novel unequal non-disjoint partitioning algorithm called ratings based energy-efficient clustering overlap (REEC overlap) is proposed using K harmonic means (KHM) and fuzzy C means (FCM). The clusters are overlapped by combining the harmonic average distance, and FCM membership function. The cluster heads are chosen and rotated by rating value in which intersecting nodes are eliminated. The route is discovered using the energy required threshold with the least distance of nodes wherein frequency division multiple access (FDMA) is espoused as a data transmission medium. Simulation results show that the proposed work performs better than existing protocols. Moreover, REEC overlap is compared with REEC non-overlap to illustrate the energy dissipation of cluster heads.
Keywords: CWSN; overlapping region; intersect node; hybrid KHM-FCM; rating value; NFN; FDMA; OIERCC.
Detection of Blackhole and Wormhole Attacks in WSN enabled by Optimal Feature Selection using Self-Adaptive Multi-Verse Optimiser with Deep Learning
by Mohandas V. Pawar, Anuradha J
Abstract: The main intent of this paper is to introduce new IDS mainly focusing on blackhole and wormhole attacks in WSN with the aid of improved deep learning algorithm. Here, multiple data pertain to the WSN is collected from which the relevant attributes are extracted as features. In order to capture the optimal features with unique information, optimal feature selection is introduced with the assistance of a new meta-heuristic algorithm called Self Adaptive-Multi-Verse Optimisation (SA-MVO). Finally, the optimally selected features are subjected to a deep learning algorithm termed as Deep Belief Network (DBN). In the detection side, the same proposed SA-MVO is used to improve the DBN by optimising the number of hidden neurons. The results clearly demonstrate that the proposed approach improves the detection probability when compared over conventional methods by analysing diverse performance measures.
Keywords: Intrusion Detection System; Wireless Sensor Network; Blackhole and Wormhole Attacks; Optimal Feature Selection; Deep Belied Network; Self Adaptive-Multi-Verse Optimisation.
A PERFORMANCE OVERVIEW OF CONTEMPORARY HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING ALGORITHMS IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
by G. V. Shaamili Varsa, D. Sridharan
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a significant area in various applications and thereby becoming research hotspot. Energy efficiency is the most significant thing in WSN because of the non-replaceable batteries in sensor nodes. So energy upkeep is an important task in WSN. One of the prevalent keys to accomplish energy management and frequency reuse is Clustering method. Clustering has proven to be an energy efficient method of data transmission and has many aids comprising of scalability and data aggregation. In this paper, a comparative study of state of the art clustering algorithms in WSN is presented. Initially, the state of the art surveys in the domain of clustering is discussed followed by the clustering concept, characteristics, design challenges and merits This work provides the review of topical algorithms in the area of clustering & the classification of the same under various categories including mobility, energy efficiency, fuzzy-based and optimization algorithms.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Network Lifetime; Cluster Head Selection; Survey; Clustering; Energy Efficiency.
Performance and complexity comparison of service oriented architecture and microservices architecture
by Vinay Raj, Ravichandra Sadam
Abstract: Microservices has emerged as a new architectural style of designing applications to overcome the challenges of SOA. With the evolution of microservices architecture, architects have started migrating legacy applications to microservices. However, some of the architects are in chaos whether to migrate the application from SOA to microservices or not. The need for empirical evaluation and comparison of both the SOA and microservices architecture is also on-demand. This work helps the software architects in better understanding of the technical differences between both styles. We, therefore, present a comparison of a web application that is designed using both SOA and microservices architectures. The comparison is presented with two different parameters, (i) Complexity with architectural metrics and (ii) Performance with load testing. It is clear from the results that though the complexity of microservices architecture is high, the response time for processing the requests is very fast compared to SOA services.
Keywords: Service oriented architecture; Microservices; Architectural metrics; Performance testing; Complexity; Coupling.
Performance analysis of batch receiving wireless sensor networks with interference signals
by Jiaqi Fan, Zhanyou Ma, Xiangran Yu, Yang Zhang
Abstract: In order to improve the energy efficiency, the operating situation of batch receiving wireless sensor network is discussed in this paper. Combining with environmental interference signals, repairable faults of the sensor node and other actual situation, process of receiving and transmitting data packets in wireless sensor networks is simulated. An MX/G/1 vacation queueing model with customers arriving in batches, negative customers, feedback customers, wake-up periods, optional vacations and repairable faults is established. The steady state distribution of the system is solved by using the supplementary variable method, and expressions of the energy saving rate and other performance indexes are given. The equilibrium of the system is discussed by establishing revenue function of the system. Then, using MATLAB software for numerical analysis, the influence of system parameters on performance indexes of wireless sensor networks systems is analysed, and equilibrium numerical results are obtained.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; batch receiving; repairable fault; supplementary variable method; equilibrium strategy.
Optimization Driven-Based Secure Routing in MANET Using Atom Whale Optimization Algorithm
by Suresh R. Halhalli, Shounak R. Sugave, B.N. Jagdale
Abstract: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) routing is a very challenging task because of the dynamic nature of the network. The linking of provisional communication assures based on the infrastructure of MANET, however, there is no centralised monitoring process for making the routing in MANETs in terms of trust and security. Therefore, the stability routing is not considered, which may break easily in dynamic MANETs. Thus, this paper introduces a trust-based secure routing protocol using the proposed atom whale optimisation algorithm (AWOA), which is the trust-aware routing protocol. The developed atom whale optimisation is utilised to select the optimal route with respect to the trust factors, like average encounter rate (AER), and successful cooperation frequency (SCF), integrity factor, and the forwarding rate. Moreover, secure routing is performed between the nodes using the proposed AWOA. The AWOA is the integration of atom search optimisation (ASO), and whale optimisation algorithm (WOA) that inherits the faster global convergence. The fitness function is newly modelled considering mobility, and trust factors. The proposed AWOA outperformed other methods with a minimal end-to-end delay of 0.0083sec, maximal packet delivery ratio (PDR) of 97.73%, and the maximal throughput of 85.05% respectively.
Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks; MANETs; mobility; average encounter rate; AER; whale optimisation algorithm; WOA; atom search optimisation; ASO.
Outage Performance Analysis of Full-Duplex Assisted Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access with Bidirectional Relaying Mode
by Thanh-Luan Nguyen, Dinh-Thuan Do
Abstract: The fifth-generation (5G) wireless network needs massive connectivity to allow large number of users to access to network in the same time. Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and full-duplex (FD) are two promising techniques recommended for the 5G wireless network. This work combines these approaches to improve system outage performance in the situation of bidirectional cooperative relaying. The main metric to evaluate system performance relying on outage probability. Notably, the outage expression for a such system under the Nakagami-m fading environment is derived for exact and approximate computation. The simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of NOMA and FD in low transmit power compared to conventional half-duplex (HD) and orthogonal multiple access (OMA) schemes.
Keywords: full-duplex; two-way relaying network; non-orthogonal multiple access; NOMA.
Shielding against on-off attack pattern in a MANET through a trust computation scheme leveraging the behavioral consistency
by Shirina Samreen
Abstract: The evolution of security mechanisms for defending a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is challenged through intelligent strategies employed by the attackers. The current research involves the design of a robust trust management framework (TMF) which protects the network against an attack pattern termed as on-off attack. Each dimension of the attack vector corresponding to packet droppers and dishonest recommenders employing the on-off attack pattern is countered through an individual dimension of the multi-dimensional trust vector termed as forwarding consistency trust and recommendation consistency trust respectively. The efficiency of proposed scheme in reducing the packet loss is analyzed through network simulation using NS-2 under different attack scenarios. It is found that incorporation of behavioral consistency in the trust computation plays a very significant role in maintaining the network performance in the presence of on-off attackers by improving the packet delivery fraction from 71 % to 85% and the detection ratio from 70% to 95% respectively.
Keywords: mobile ad hoc networks; MANETs; trust management framework; TMF; security attacks; packet droppers; dishonest recommenders; on-off attack pattern; Jousselme distance.
Enhancement of network lifetime of cloud-assisted internet of things: new contribution of deer hunting and particle swarm optimisation
by Abdalla Alameen, Ashu Gupta
Abstract: In general, WSN maintains the chief support of cloud-assisted internet of things (CIoT). This paper intends to implement a WSN-assisted CIoT model which involves two processes: one is optimal cluster head selection, and the other is optimal shortest path selection. The main intent of this optimal cluster head selection is to select a cluster head using a hybrid optimisation algorithm with the objective of minimising the distance between each IoT sensor node and cluster head and consumed energy. Moreover, the same hybrid algorithm is used in the optimal shortest path selection process. The beneficial concepts of two well-performing meta-heuristic algorithms like deer hunting optimisation algorithm (DHOA), and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) are merged to frame a hybrid algorithm termed as particle swarm-based deer hunting optimisation algorithm (PS-DHOA) to be suited for both cluster head selection and route selection. Developed model has been validated through effective performance analysis.
Keywords: cloud environment; wireless sensor network; distance; normalised energy; IoT; hybrid optimisation algorithm.
Research on intelligent home design of internet of things based on ZigBee
by Jie Yuan, Yi He
Abstract: With the rapid development of information technology, improving the intelligent level of family life and modern life style is the trend of future development. Based on the analysis of the development of smart home at home and abroad, a smart home system is designed by combining ZigBee wireless sensor network, gateway technology and mobile terminal remote control app. Firstly, the development and relating technologies of ZigBee are discussed. Secondly, the system overall architecture and data outlier analysis are carried out. Thirdly, the routing algorithm of ZigBee is improved based on neighbour table, and corresponding mathematical model is designed. Fourthly, the location algorithm of ZigBee is improved based on RSSI location algorithm and DV-Hop algorithm. Finally, the system performance is tested based on simulation analysis, results show that the proposed intelligent home system has better performance.
Keywords: ZigBee; internet of things; IoT; intelligent home system; location algorithm; routing algorithm.
Improving performance of a distributed file system using hierarchical collaborative global caching algorithm with rank-based replacement technique
by Rathnamma Gopisetty, Thirumalaisamy Ragunathan, C. Shoba Bindu
Abstract: In the emerging big data scenario, distributed file systems play a vital role for storage and access of large data generated in the web-based information systems. Improving performance of a distributed file system is a very important research issue in the current context. Client side caching and prefetching techniques enhance performance of the distributed file system. Efficient replacement policy is required to improve performance of the caching process. In this paper, we have proposed a novel client side caching algorithm namely hierarchical collaborative global caching algorithm and a cache replacement algorithm namely rank-based cache replacement algorithm. We have used support value computed for the file blocks, for prefetching, caching and replacement purposes. We have proved through simulation experiments that the proposed algorithm performs better than the existing algorithms discussed in the literature.
Keywords: distributed file system; DFS; client side caching; prefetching; hierarchical caching; replacement algorithms.
Research on intelligent indoor location method based on Wi-Fi fingerprint
by Jie Yuan, Yi He
Abstract: In order to improve indoor location performance based on Wi-Fi fingerprint, the novel algorithm is put forward based on K-mean algorithm and fuzzy support vector machine. Firstly, the basic theories of Wi-Fi location technology, indoor location principle based on location fingerprint database are studied. Secondly, the basic theories of K-means algorithm, fuzzy support vector machine and nearest incremental algorithm are discussed, and the corresponding mathematical model is deduced. Third, the Wi-Fi fingerprint location algorithm procedure is designed. Finally, the simulation analysis is carried out, and results show that the proposed method has higher location performance.
Keywords: intelligent indoor location; Wi-Fi fingerprint; fuzzy support vector machine; FSVM; K-means.
Lightweight coordination model for mobile collaborative mapping
by Moulay Driss Mechaoui, Abdessamad Imine
Abstract: The rapid development of mobile devices features offers new opportunities for mobile peer-to-peer computing that can be used for providing location-based services and social/collaborative platforms using short-range networks. We are interested in collaborative mappings which provide computer support for nomadic users to manipulate at will and simultaneously a shared map on mobile devices. However, maintaining data consistency in mobile environment remains a challenging issue due to the arbitrary order of updates reception and the battery-life management. We propose a low-cost and flexible mobile collaborative mapping using simple primitive updates and easily customisable for rich features-based maps. No central coordination is necessary for preserving the shared map consistency. Indeed, we design a concurrency control protocol based on operational transformation (OT) approach to synchronise collaborative works in fully decentralised way. With a straightforward deployment on P2P networks, our application supports dynamic groups where mobile users can participate in and quit freely.
Keywords: collaborative mapping; mobile collaboration; concurrency control protocol; data consistency; operational transformation.