International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (24 papers in press)
Spectrum occupancy based PUEA detection using SVM- PSO in Cognitive Networks
by Rajagopala M. V, S.C. Lingareddy
Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) is an evolutionary technology for next-generation wireless networks in order to solve the spectrum scarcity problem and efficiently utilise the limited spectrum resources. The potential security threat in cognitive radio networks is the primary user emulation (PUE) attack, which causes failure to dynamic access within the network. In our proposed method, we detect the attack by three phases. In the first phase, the occupancy and status of the spectrum are calculated. The spectrum occupancy is identified by using support vector machine (SVM) method. The optimal selection of kernel and bias values are done by particle swarm optimisation (PSO) in the second phase. By multiple thresholds based fast energy detector, the PUE attack is detected in the final phase. The proposed method is evaluated in the MATLAB platform and the results are analysed to prove the classification accuracy of the system.
Keywords: Primary User Emulation (PUE) attack; Spectrum occupancy; kernel.
Privacy Preserving File Auditing Schemes for Cloud Storage using Verifiable Random Function
by Bharati Mishra, Debasish Jena, Srikanta Patnaik
Abstract: Users leverage the cloud storage to store data by uploading files to the cloud storage. They can use it to share files to work on collaborative projects. However, during administrative operations by Cloud Storage Service Provider (CSSP), there may be some inadvertent corruption of files during data migration and back up. Due to heavy demands, the cloud service provider may not update the desired files immediately when requested by the owner. As a result, a user of the file may receive an obsolete file. To ensure integrity and freshness of files, third party Auditing(TPA) services should be supported by CSSP while maintaining the confidentiality of user files and preserving privacy of users. In this paper, three privacy preserving auditing schemes for files stored in cloud has been proposed. Verifiable random function, Merkle hash tree and ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption has been used to achieve the desired goals.
Keywords: Cloud Storage; Verifiable Random Function; Merkle Hash Tree.
Survivable virtual topology search with impairment awareness and power economy in optical WDM networks
by Rahul Jashvantbhai Pandya
Abstract: Survivability against the link and light-path failures is essential in the optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network along with impairment awareness (IA) and power economy (PE). In this paper, topology search using: 1) Kruskal's minimal weighted topology search algorithm; 2) Hamiltonian cycle (H-cycle)-based survivable topology search algorithm; 3) k-survivable topologies search algorithms have been carried out to find virtual survivable topologies for India's RailTel network. The integer linear programming (ILP) optimisation followed by the heuristics implementation have been carried out for IA and PE with a channel capacity constraint to achieve the survivability considering the case of a single link and light-path failures. We compare the survivable topologies thus obtained in the event of failures, with respect to terminal-to-terminal (terminal) reliability and choose the survivable topologies having the better terminal reliability. Among all, H-cycle-based survivable topology search algorithm shows lowest connection loss probability (CLP) and highest terminal reliability.
Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle; impairment awareness; Kruskal's topology; k-survivable topologies; power economy; survivability; terminal reliability.
Cryptosystem by a community of devices with limited resources
by Rebiha Hadaoui, Karim Tamine, Mehammed Daoui, Mustapha Lalam
Abstract: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) is an encryption algorithm with public-key and is the most widely used for secure data transmission. It provides high safety and consists of modular exponential operation on large numbers. We propose an original approach which makes a distributed calculation of RSA encryption by a community of users endowed with low resources equipment. When a user u of the community wants to encrypte a data X, he exploits the resources of his community. For that, we replace the modular exponentiation operation by a set of calculations dependent of each other and which use fewer resources. These calculations are spread over the members of the user's community to help him perform the operation.
Keywords: encryption; Rivest-Shamir-Adleman; RSA; distributed computing; limited resources system.
Optimal picocell base station density for energy-efficient heterogeneous cellular network under received power constraint
by Jie Yang, Ziyu Pan, Han Hu
Abstract: Heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) have emerged as the primary solution for overwhelming traffic demands. However, the dense deployment of small cell base stations (BSs) inevitably triggers a tremendous escalation of energy consumption. In this paper, we apply tools from stochastic geometry to investigate and optimise the energy efficiency (EE) for a two-tier HCN. The average successful transmission rate per unit area of a two-tier HCN is derived, and then the total power consumption of all the BSs in per unit area of a two-tier HCN is derived. Based on that, the EE expression of the whole HCN is formulated. We analysis the received signal power constraint for a typical user and convert the power constraint to density constraint. Finally, we use a one-dimensional optimisation algorithm to maximise the EE by optimising picocell BS density. Simulation results validate the accuracy of the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the proposed optimal picocell BS density can obviously improve EE.
Keywords: energy efficiency; density; power; rate; signal-to-interference ratio; SIR.
Analysis of new multi-priority P-CSMA of non-persistent type random multiple access ad hoc network in MAC protocol analysis
by Han Zejun, Ding Hongwei, Bao Liyong, Yang Zhijun, Liu Qianlin
Abstract: A multichannel non-persistent of P-CSMA (NP-CSMA) random multiple access ad hoc network in MAC protocol based on variable collision length is proposed. It has important applications value in wireless ad hoc network and so on. When the channel is idle, the end-users are sent by P probability; while the channel is busy, it will not listen to the channel and wait for a certain period of time to send it again. The multi-priority mechanism is introduced to meet the needs of QoS in different priorities. By modelling the new multi-priority NP-CSMA protocol, the throughput of each channel is obtained by using the average cycle method. Compared with other protocols, the superiority of this protocol is obtained, and the accuracy of the protocol is verified through simulation experiments.
Keywords: variable collision length; NP-CSMA; ad hoc network; multi-priority mechanism; average cycle method; throughput.
Performance analysis of wireless communication networks with threshold activation process and interference signals
by Xiangran Yu, Zhanyou Ma, Shanshan Guo, Li Chen
Abstract: In order to reduce energy consumption in wireless communication networks, the sleep mode in the energy saving strategy and the threshold activation process of the base station are considered. Combining with practice, the existence of interference signals and possible errors in the transmission of data packets are considered. At the same time, considering that the wireless communication network system has two channels and one of them is incompletely reliable, a queuing model of repairable M/M/2 multiple working vacations with start-up period, negative customers, feedback and N-strategy is established. Using quasi birth-and-death process (QBD) and Gauss-Seidel iterative method, the expressions of the average delay of the data packet and other performance indicators are given. Then, using MATLAB software for numerical analysis, the influence of system parameters on the average delay and other performance indicators is analysed. Finally, the social optimal parameters are found by constructing benefit functions.
Keywords: wireless communication network; sleep mode; activation process; negative customer; N-strategy; feedback.
QoS and traffic aware greedy resource allocation in foggy internet of things
by Hamidreza Mahini, Reza Hajisheykhi, Mina Shahini
Abstract: Fog computing is a response to the increasing growth of data generated by the internet of things (IoT) applications developed in the cloud computing platform. It is a solution to materialise the IoT and helps to improve the resource allocation problem. In this paper, we propose an effective method to conquer the resource allocation problem in IoT applications. Our method defines two important objectives: 1) reducing the internet core traffic; 2) serving subscribers with the appropriate quality of service level. The experimental results, which are reported in form of numerous and various scenarios, indicate that the suggested MMGM method can reduce the internet core traffic up to 50%. Also, the minimum deviation from the required or the contracted quality level of service is realised with the help of the Most Graceful Matching (MGM) assignment method.
Keywords: fog computing; internet of things; IoT; resource allocation; quality of service; QoS; traffic aware.
Performance evaluation of wireless sensor network MAC protocols with early sleep problem
by Gulshan Soni, Kandasamy Selvaradjou
Abstract: Energy efficiency and increased throughput are the two major goals in the design of MAC protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The traditional sensor-MAC (S-MAC) and timeout-MAC (T-MAC) protocols have been proposed to achieve these dual desirable goals by proper scheduling of duty cycles. Although these protocols have been proved to excel the performance when compared with their predecessor protocols for MANETs, the idea of duty cycling, if not tuned carefully may not work well in some linear chain topologies. We, in this paper investigated the 'early sleep' problem in specific topologies which results in undesirable extended latency in packets delivery. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of T-MAC protocol with early sleep problem. As a solution to this problem, this work also proposes a disable extended timeout MAC (DETMAC) protocol that helps the forwarding nodes towards the sink node to adaptively re-schedule their sleep/wakeup timing. It is shown through simulation results that our proposed DETMAC protocol outperforms in the terms of throughput and energy efficiency when compared to T-MAC and its variants.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; WSN; medium access control; duty cycle; early sleep problem; delay aware scheduling.
Exploiting hybrid decode-and-forward – amplify-and-forward in NOMA: an application to device-to-device networks
by Huu-Phuc Dang, Minh-Sang V. Nguyen, Dinh-Thuan Do, Hong-Lien Pham
Abstract: A novel model regarding downlink cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in device-to-device network will be investigated in this paper, especially combining amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) to achieve a hybrid scheme. We consider a remarkable trade-off between outage performances and power allocation factors. Especially, we study a hybrid AF and DF scheme, namely HDAF scheme for NOMA as follows: 1) The proposed scheme applies the AF scheme when the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the relay is below a predefined threshold such that the relay cannot successfully decode the signal; 2) On the other hand, when the SINR at the relay is greater than the predefined threshold, the system will be applied the DF scheme to decode the signal and then forwards it to the destination, i.e., avoids noise and interference amplification at the relay. An analytical expression of the outage probability of the hybrid HDAF NOMA is derived based on the outage probability function in AF and DF mode. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the influence of network parameters such as transmit power, power constraint, and link distances on the outage probability.
Keywords: outage probability; D2D communications; non-orthogonal multiple access; NOMA.
Wireless energy-aware non-orthogonal multiple access network under full-duplex mode: performance analysis
by Chi-Bao Le, Dinh-Thuan Do
Abstract: An application of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is proposed in this paper to employ in non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) network. This paper considers impact self-interference due to full-duplex transmission to system performance evaluation of NOMA transmission. In particular, expressions of outage performance are derived in situation of wireless energy harvesting-based relay in cooperative relaying system to help to forward to far NOMA users. As main advantage, NOMA and full-duplex scheme are two architecture deployed to enhance the spectral efficiency. In addition, a power allocation strategy, energy harvesting time and self-interference factor are considered parameters to perform in simulations. The correct of derived formula is presented via Monte Carlo simulation and it is compared with analytical results.
Keywords: full-duplex; simultaneous wireless information and power transfer; SWIPT; non-orthogonal multiple access; NOMA.
Joint user scheduling and power allocation in two-tier heterogeneous networks
by Xin Song, Lei Qin, Haijun Qian, Yue Ni, Zhigang Xie
Abstract: An appropriate scheme is proposed based on QoE and energy consumption in this paper for the fact that the impact of imbalanced loading on resource availability cannot be neglected, which jointly optimises user scheduling and power allocation. In this proposed scheme, the bias factor is optimised to balance the fairness for users' distribution and system resource allocation. A new dynamic linear user scheduling algorithm based on bias programming is presented, in which the negative and the positive bias factors are both considered that are optimised by iterative method to achieve load balancing. Then QoE models of different types of services are built to allocate resource, in which Boolean type dual iterative algorithm is applied to obtain the globally optimal solution. The time and space complexity for the proposed two algorithms are analysed. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approaches.
Keywords: HetNets; user scheduling; CRE; load balancing; QoE; energy consumption; power allocation; green communication; communication networks; users distribution.
A hybrid BFO-FOA-based energy efficient cluster head selection in energy harvesting wireless sensor network
by Maddali M.V.M. Kumar, Aparna Chaparala
Abstract: This paper proposed a hybrid bacterial foraging optimisation (BFO) and fruitfly optimisation algorithm (FOA) for energy efficient cluster head (CH) selection in wireless sensor network. The bacterial foraging optimisation algorithm is inspired by the group foraging behaviour of bacteria such as E. coli and M. xanthus realising chemistry in the environment and moving away from specific signals. The FOA is simple framework and easy to implement for solving an optimisation problem with different characteristics. It is robust and fast algorithm and used to solve discrete optimisation problems. The performance metrics of the proposed method is evaluated for end to end delay, packet delivery, drop ratio, energy consumption, network lifetime and throughput. The simulation results show that the proposed method achieves better energy efficiency and network lifetime of 35%, 58%, and 67% compared to existing methods like ant colony optimisation, particle swarm optimisation and genetic algorithm.
Keywords: energy harvesting; wireless sensor network; WSN; energy efficiency; bacterial foraging optimisation; BFO; fruitfly optimisation algorithm; FOA; packet delivery ratio.
On the performance of online routing enabled translucent space division multiplexing-based elastic optical networks
by Sridhar Iyer
Abstract: We focus on lightpath optimisation in a space division multiplexing-based elastic optical network by proposing the online routing algorithm with regeneration algorithm which accounts for the presence of transceivers in the network, and also ensures routing of translucent lightpaths through spectral super-channels over spatial multiple core fibres links. In regard to regeneration, we investigate three different scenarios which differ in their regeneration variability level in addition to the adjustment of modulation formats according to the transmission route characteristics. We conduct extensive simulations considering two realistic network topologies and two different multiple core fibre crosstalk values which result in different transmission reach values. The obtained results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the various reference routing techniques, and significant benefits can be obtained in regard to the utilisation of resources with much lesser BwBP when regeneration is conducted with complete flexibility and modulation format conversion is permitted at every network node.
Keywords: elastic optical network; EON; space division multiplexing; SDM; online routing; regeneration; resource allocation; network optimisation.
Analysis of spectrum handoff delay using finite queuing model in cognitive radio networks
by Shashank Shekhar, Shanidul Hoque, Wasim Arif
Abstract: Spectrum handoff is an inevitable phenomenon to exploit dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks (CRNs) for better spectrum utilisation. When a licensed or primary user reclaims its operating channel, the cognitive user has to initiate a suitable handoff procedure for successful completion of its ongoing transmission. This paper analyses the prioritised proactive spectrum handoff decision for a finite capacity cognitive radio network using preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1/K queuing model. Cumulative handoff delay (CHD) and total service time (TST) are taken to investigate the performance of the handoff strategies. We establish an analytical model of cumulative handoff delay and total service time of proactive switching spectrum handoff for the proposed finite length queuing network. The impact of queue length on performance measuring metrics such as CHD and TST in terms of arrival rate of primary users and mobility factor of spectrum holes are presented extensively.
Keywords: cognitive radio networks; CRNs; cognitive user; handoff delay; proactive spectrum handoff; PRP M/G/1/K.
Multi-level data fusion algorithm towards privacy protection in wireless sensor networks
by Zheng Wang, Liang Li, Chen Ao, Dapeng Wu, Wenjun Zhou, Xiaojun Yu
Abstract: Data fusion is one of the key technologies in wireless sensor networks. To promote secure and efficient data fusion for wireless sensor networks, a privacy protection-based multi-level data fusion algorithm is proposed. In order to minimise the network energy consumption, the optimal number of cluster heads is selected and the adaptive clustering is performed according to the node energy and the positional relationship between nodes. Then, the cluster members collect and encrypt data, whereas the cluster head cleans and integrates the encrypted data. Furthermore, by analysing the correlation between data and constructing the BP neural network, cluster heads and the sink node can fuse the data in a cluster and the data between clusters to achieve the optimal data fusion. Results show that the mechanism proposed in this paper can significantly reduce resource overheads, effectively guarantee data security and fusion efficiency.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; data fusion; privacy protection; data compression; BP neural network.
Selective-path clustered-based routing protocol for large scale wireless sensor networks
by Olayinka O. Ogundile, Muhtahir O. Oloyede, Opeyemi A. Osanaiye, Elijah O. Falayi, Adetokunbo A. Okusanya
Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of large number of small low-powered electronic sensor devices. Therefore, reliable power saving schemes must be developed in order to manage the energy dissipated and extend the network life and functionality for a meaningful time. Arranging sensor nodes (SNs) into clusters has been viewed as an efficient approach of balancing the energy dissipated in WSNs. Regardless, a clustered WSN needs a robust energy efficient (EE) and energy balanced (EB) routing communication protocol. This paper proposes a selective-path priority table (SPT) EE and EB routing protocol (RP) ideal for most conventional clustering algorithms. The SPT RP forms the priority table by prioritising the k nearest multi-hop paths to the cluster heads (CHs) and/or base station (BS) based on some robust rules. These rules are compiled using a combination of some routing metrics which include the residual energy (RE) and transmission range/power. Firstly, the simulation results indicate that the SPT RP can be combined with most of the conventional clustering algorithm irrespective of the number of deployed SNs. Secondly, the performance of the SPT RP improves as the value of the selected number of routing paths (k) increase. More so, the simulation results show that the SPT RP reduces the energy dissipated and can prolong the network life and throughput as compared to related routing schemes.
Keywords: clustering techniques; energy balanced; energy efficient; network lifetime; priority table; routing protocol; selective-path priority table; SPT.
OPS: a fairness link allocation based on SDN in datacentre networks
by Tain-Lieng Kao, Yan Ting Miao, San-Yuan Wang
Abstract: Nowadays, redundant topologies with multiple forwarding paths between original-destination (OD) pairs have been proposed for datacentre networks, such as fat-tree topology. To achieve resultant fairness (fair utilisation) in this topology, previous algorithms were based on traditional shortest path algorithms or equal-cost multiple paths algorithms (ECMP). However, these algorithms are facing with take up a lot of resources of the SDN controller and may cause a large amount of loss of resultant fairness for the network that has different configurations of link capacity. In this paper, we present out port selection (OPS) mechanisms, including modular out port selection (MOPS) and random out port selection (ROPS), novel methods to improve resultant fairness of fat-tree topology SDN-based datacentre network. Compare with static load-balance methods, our MOPS and ROPS can reduce 65% and 33% loss of fairness, respectively. Further, combining with elephant flows detecting and handling mechanisms, MOPSE and ROPSE can dynamically assign better forwarding path for elephant flows.
Keywords: software defined networking; SDN; datacentre network; fat-tree topology; fairness; elephant flow; OpenFlow.
Fast SDN updates using tree-based architecture
by Rashid Hatami, Hossein Bahramgiri
Abstract: Network updates and configurations in software-defined networking (SDN) are critical and occur frequently. The effectiveness of many systems depends on the speed of adaption to their current workload and updates. Slower updates would reduce network utilisation because during a longer period it can lead to congestion and packet loss. Hence, quickly updating is a challenge in SDN architecture. In this paper, we propose a practical method for implementing a system for fast updates, using tree-based architecture. It can be used to implement the inserting, deleting and modifying rules on the flow-table quickly, and achieves a reduction in the update time. Experimental results show that our design can improve the median update speed.
Keywords: software defined networking; SDN; network updates; tree-based architecture.
A naive time of flight ranging scheme for wireless sensor networks
by Asif Iqbal Baba, Fan Wu, Tanvir Ahmed
Abstract: Recently wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have been in high demand. The key aspects of these applications is 'localisation'. Due to low energy and limited processing capability, many sensor nodes do not have any knowledge about their location, thus requires a method to get localised within a network. Nodes can be localised based on the measurements estimated using different techniques. In this paper, a naive time of flight (ToF) ranging measurement scheme is presented which minimises the error coming from low resolution clocks of the deployed nodes and removes the effect of clock drift on ranging measurements. The proposed scheme uses inter-arrival time of multiple ranging requests on the receiver side and uses solely the receiver node's clock to calculate the time of flight. The accuracy achieved with the proposed method is better than other existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieved the accuracy within 1m.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; WSN; time of flight; ToF; ranging inaccuracy; clock resolution; localisation.
Influence of undersea acoustic parameters on path loss for RF-based underwater sensor networks
by Preeti Saini, Rishi Pal Singh, Adwitiya Sinha
Abstract: Path loss models necessitate effective deployment of underwater sensor networks by predicting amount of loss in signal strength of the propagating wave. There are several existing path loss models that have been developed for terrestrial purpose. However, due to significant challenges unique to underwater network, these existing terrestrial models cannot be directly applied to aquatic applications. Therefore, path loss model is required to be distinctly designed for underwater applications. Three modes of underwater communication include acoustics, optics and radio waves. We have proposed a novel path loss model based on variable conductivity. Our research highlights different ways in which depth and temperature of seawater impact on signal propagating undersea. Experimental results reveal that attenuation loss confronted by deep sea is comparatively lesser than that in case of shallow water. Furthermore, communication model for deep water is also developed that combines acoustic and radio waves for communication in acoustic sensor network.
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks; radio waves; attenuation loss; interface loss; path loss.
A robust QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol for cognitive radio sensor networks
by Dileep Reddy Bolla, Shiva Shankar
Abstract: The exponential rise in wireless communication demands have alarmed academia-industries to develop certain robust routing protocol to achieve quality-of-service (QoS) communication over constrained network conditions. Amongst major wireless communication technologies wireless sensor network (WSN) has been found as the dominant paradigm to meet major communication demands such as surveillance systems, healthcare sector, intelligent transport system, industrial monitoring and control, defence systems, etc. Being a constrained networking technologies WSN demands certain resource efficient (i.e., energy-efficient as well as spectrum efficient) routing protocol to meet exponential up surging demands. Unlike major classical routing protocols, in this paper the prime focus is made on augmenting major functional paradigms of the clustered-CRSN systems by augmenting joint power and resource access/scheduling in intra-cluster as well as inter-cluster data communication, QoS-sensitive cognitive terminal activation (QS-CTA) etc. to achieve energy-efficient dynamic resource access (EDRA) or provision. We have proposed QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol that exploited efficacy of joint-power and resource scheduling and data channel quality (DCQ) and reporting channel quality (RCQ) assisted cognitive terminal activation to accomplish energy-efficient and QoS centric communication over CRSN. Performance comparison for the proposed QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol exhibited that it outperforms existing state-of-art dynamic resource access protocols.
Keywords: cognitive radio sensor network; energy-efficiency; quality-sensitive cognitive terminal activation; dynamic power allocation; dynamic spectrum sensing and access.
Prediction-based energy efficient opportunistic routing protocol in wireless sensor networks
by S. Nagadivya, R. Manoharan
Abstract: Opportunistic routing is a most promising routing method for improving the network lifetime and throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSN). It utilises the broadcast nature of WSN, that allows to select and prioritise a node from the potential forwarder set as next-hop forwarder. The design of energy efficient routing protocol becomes one of the major concern in WSN, due to limited battery power of a sensor node. The common energy loss reasons of existing routing protocols are: 1) packets may travel through a specific set of sensor nodes will drain out a battery energy very soon; 2) packets discard will create a packet retransmission. Opportunistic routing broadcast nature will avoid packet retransmission. The proposed energy efficient Markov prediction-based opportunistic routing (EEMPOR) protocol uses the following metrics to select and prioritise the energy efficient nodes namely, number of transactions of a node and residual energy of a node. Then proposed protocol shows that Markov prediction-based opportunistic routing protocol provides better network performance than non-prediction-based method. Simulation results show, that the proposed protocol outperforms the existing OR in terms of consumed energy, residual energy, network lifetime, and throughput.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; energy efficiency; opportunistic routing; Markov prediction.
Increasing base-station anonymity through illusive void formation
by Mehdi Boulaiche, Mohamed Younis
Abstract: A wireless sensor network consists of a set of nodes connected by wireless links. These nodes probe their surroundings and send their data over multi-hop routes to a base-station (BS) for processing. The BS further interfaces the network to remote command centres. Given the critical role that the BS plays, it becomes a natural target for adversary attacks. Although cryptographic primitives and anonymous routing protocols can hide the identity of the BS, the traffic pattern in the network degrades the BS location anonymity and makes it vulnerable. In this paper, we propose an approach for formation of illusive void for increased BS anonymity (FIVA). FIVA exploits the features of geographic routing to confuse the adversary about the routing topology. Specifically, FIVA opts to construct a fake void around the BS and gets nodes to forward packets to encounter such a void. The goal is to exclude the BS from all traceable data paths in order to avert the adversary attention away from the BS vicinity. FIVA is validated through simulation and is shown to outperform prominent competing anti-traffic analysis techniques.
Keywords: wireless sensor network; anonymity; traffic analysis; location privacy.