Forthcoming articles

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems

International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (IJCNDS)

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International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (16 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  •   Free full-text access Open AccessGateway Controller with Deep Sensing: Learning to be Autonomic in Intelligent Internet of Things
    ( Free Full-text Access ) CC-BY-NC-ND
    by Rahim Rahmani, Ramin Firouzi 
    Abstract: The Internet of Things(IoT) will revolutionize the Future Internet through ubiquitous sensing. One of the challenges of having hundreds of billions of devices that are estimated to be deployed would be a rise of an enormous amount of data, along with the devices' ability to manage. This paper presents an approach as a controller solution and designed specifically for autonomous management, connectivity, and data interoperability in an IoT gateway. The approach supports distributed IoT nodes with both management and data interoperability with other cloud-based solutions. The concept further allows gateways to easily collect and process interoperability of data from IoT devices. We demonstrated the feasibility of the approach and evaluate its advantages regarding deep sensing and autonomous enabled gateway as an edge computational intelligence.
    Keywords: Intelligent IoT; Open Distributed system; Autonomous Gateway; Context-aware pervasive systems; Deep Sensing; Advanced Machine Learning; Edge computing; Fog computing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10031028
  • Spectrum occupancy based PUEA detection using SVM- PSO in Cognitive Networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajagopala M. V, S.C. Lingareddy 
    Abstract: Cognitive radio (CR) is an evolutionary technology for next-generation wireless networks in order to solve the spectrum scarcity problem and efficiently utilise the limited spectrum resources. The potential security threat in cognitive radio networks is the primary user emulation (PUE) attack, which causes failure to dynamic access within the network. In our proposed method, we detect the attack by three phases. In the first phase, the occupancy and status of the spectrum are calculated. The spectrum occupancy is identified by using support vector machine (SVM) method. The optimal selection of kernel and bias values are done by particle swarm optimisation (PSO) in the second phase. By multiple thresholds based fast energy detector, the PUE attack is detected in the final phase. The proposed method is evaluated in the MATLAB platform and the results are analysed to prove the classification accuracy of the system.
    Keywords: Primary User Emulation (PUE) attack; Spectrum occupancy; kernel.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10027341
  • Privacy Preserving File Auditing Schemes for Cloud Storage using Verifiable Random Function   Order a copy of this article
    by Bharati Mishra, Debasish Jena, Srikanta Patnaik 
    Abstract: Users leverage the cloud storage to store data by uploading files to the cloud storage. They can use it to share files to work on collaborative projects. However, during administrative operations by Cloud Storage Service Provider (CSSP), there may be some inadvertent corruption of files during data migration and back up. Due to heavy demands, the cloud service provider may not update the desired files immediately when requested by the owner. As a result, a user of the file may receive an obsolete file. To ensure integrity and freshness of files, third party Auditing(TPA) services should be supported by CSSP while maintaining the confidentiality of user files and preserving privacy of users. In this paper, three privacy preserving auditing schemes for files stored in cloud has been proposed. Verifiable random function, Merkle hash tree and ciphertext-policy attribute based encryption has been used to achieve the desired goals.
    Keywords: Cloud Storage; Verifiable Random Function; Merkle Hash Tree.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10029661
  • Mobility Prediction Assisted Call Admission Control Model for Mobile Heterogeneous Cellular Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Satyasrikanth Palle, SHIVA SHANKAR 
    Abstract: The exponential rise in mobile wireless networks and allied demands has revitalized academia-industries to achieve more efficient and Quality of Service (QoS) centric communication systems. On the other hand, high pace up surge of mobile communication and internet services have alarmed industries to ensure seamless QoS provision to the mobile user’s (MUs) irrespective of geographical locations and movement pattern. The emergence of Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems too have broadened the horizon of Heterogeneous Cellular Networks (HCNs) that supports continuous service delivery to major device-to-device (D2D) communication purposes. In this paper a highly robust mobility prediction assisted handoff management model is developed for Call Admission Control in HCN Our method employs Levenberg-Marquardt Artificial Neural Network based mobility prediction, target cell prioritization and optimal selection for QoS centric CAC decision. The results have shown low handoff and reduced call blocking probability which makes it suitable for HCNs with constrained network conditions.
    Keywords: Call Admission Control; Mobility Prediction assisted Handoff Management; Heterogeneous Cellular Networks; QoS Sensitive Optimal Cell Selection.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10030009
  • Finding Location of Fake and Phantom Source for Source Location Privacy in Wireless Sensor Network   Order a copy of this article
    by Pradeep Kumar Roy, Rimjhim ., J.P. Singh 
    Abstract: Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) has various advantages over wired networks and hence have become favourite area for researchers. Several issues of WSN such as energy, delay, routing, security have been addressed in the past and still work is going on. The issues of 'Privacy' have not been addressed much till now. Earlier, to provide the Source Location Privacy fake and phantom sources have been used however none of them address the issues of selecting the location of fake and phantom nodes. To fill this gap,we proposed an algorithm which help to identify the location of fake and phantom sources in the network in order to provide the better privacy to source node. The experimental results confirmed that the proposed model has given an outstanding trade-off between privacy and other constraints such as energy and traffic.
    Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; Source Location Privacy; Phantom; textit{Fake Source}; Anonymity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10030838
  • Research on Intelligent Home Design of Internet of Things Based on ZIGBEE   Order a copy of this article
    by Jie Yuan, Yi He 
    Abstract: With the rapid development of information technology, improving the intelligent level of family life and modern life style is the trend of future development. Based on the analysis of the development of smart home at home and abroad, a smart home system is designed by combining ZigBee wireless sensor network, gateway technology and mobile terminal remote control APP. Firstly, the development and relating technologies of ZigBee are discussed. Secondly, the system overall architecture and data outlier analysis are carried out. Thirdly, the routing algorithm of ZigBee is improved based on neighbor table, and corresponding mathematical model is designed. Fourthly, the location algorithm of ZigBee is improved based on RSSI location algorithm and DV-Hop algorithm. Finally, the system performance is tested based on simulation analysis, results show that the proposed intelligent home system has better performance.
    Keywords: ZigBee; Internet of Things; Intelligent home system; Location algorithm; Routing algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2021.10030881
  • Analysis of spectrum handoff delay using finite queuing model in cognitive radio networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Shashank Shekhar, Shanidul Hoque, Wasim Arif 
    Abstract: Spectrum handoff is an inevitable phenomenon to exploit dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks (CRNs) for better spectrum utilisation. When a licensed or primary user reclaims its operating channel, the cognitive user has to initiate a suitable handoff procedure for successful completion of its ongoing transmission. This paper analyses the prioritised proactive spectrum handoff decision for a finite capacity cognitive radio network using preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1/K queuing model. Cumulative handoff delay (CHD) and total service time (TST) are taken to investigate the performance of the handoff strategies. We establish an analytical model of cumulative handoff delay and total service time of proactive switching spectrum handoff for the proposed finite length queuing network. The impact of queue length on performance measuring metrics such as CHD and TST in terms of arrival rate of primary users and mobility factor of spectrum holes are presented extensively.
    Keywords: cognitive radio networks; CRNs; cognitive user; handoff delay; proactive spectrum handoff; PRP M/G/1/K.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10023989
  • Multi-level data fusion algorithm towards privacy protection in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Zheng Wang, Liang Li, Chen Ao, Dapeng Wu, Wenjun Zhou, Xiaojun Yu 
    Abstract: Data fusion is one of the key technologies in wireless sensor networks. To promote secure and efficient data fusion for wireless sensor networks, a privacy protection-based multi-level data fusion algorithm is proposed. In order to minimise the network energy consumption, the optimal number of cluster heads is selected and the adaptive clustering is performed according to the node energy and the positional relationship between nodes. Then, the cluster members collect and encrypt data, whereas the cluster head cleans and integrates the encrypted data. Furthermore, by analysing the correlation between data and constructing the BP neural network, cluster heads and the sink node can fuse the data in a cluster and the data between clusters to achieve the optimal data fusion. Results show that the mechanism proposed in this paper can significantly reduce resource overheads, effectively guarantee data security and fusion efficiency.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; data fusion; privacy protection; data compression; BP neural network.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028909
  • Selective-path clustered-based routing protocol for large scale wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Olayinka O. Ogundile, Muhtahir O. Oloyede, Opeyemi A. Osanaiye, Elijah O. Falayi, Adetokunbo A. Okusanya 
    Abstract: Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of large number of small low-powered electronic sensor devices. Therefore, reliable power saving schemes must be developed in order to manage the energy dissipated and extend the network life and functionality for a meaningful time. Arranging sensor nodes (SNs) into clusters has been viewed as an efficient approach of balancing the energy dissipated in WSNs. Regardless, a clustered WSN needs a robust energy efficient (EE) and energy balanced (EB) routing communication protocol. This paper proposes a selective-path priority table (SPT) EE and EB routing protocol (RP) ideal for most conventional clustering algorithms. The SPT RP forms the priority table by prioritising the k nearest multi-hop paths to the cluster heads (CHs) and/or base station (BS) based on some robust rules. These rules are compiled using a combination of some routing metrics which include the residual energy (RE) and transmission range/power. Firstly, the simulation results indicate that the SPT RP can be combined with most of the conventional clustering algorithm irrespective of the number of deployed SNs. Secondly, the performance of the SPT RP improves as the value of the selected number of routing paths (k) increase. More so, the simulation results show that the SPT RP reduces the energy dissipated and can prolong the network life and throughput as compared to related routing schemes.
    Keywords: clustering techniques; energy balanced; energy efficient; network lifetime; priority table; routing protocol; selective-path priority table; SPT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028905
  • OPS: a fairness link allocation based on SDN in datacentre networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Tain-Lieng Kao, Yan Ting Miao, San-Yuan Wang 
    Abstract: Nowadays, redundant topologies with multiple forwarding paths between original-destination (OD) pairs have been proposed for datacentre networks, such as fat-tree topology. To achieve resultant fairness (fair utilisation) in this topology, previous algorithms were based on traditional shortest path algorithms or equal-cost multiple paths algorithms (ECMP). However, these algorithms are facing with take up a lot of resources of the SDN controller and may cause a large amount of loss of resultant fairness for the network that has different configurations of link capacity. In this paper, we present out port selection (OPS) mechanisms, including modular out port selection (MOPS) and random out port selection (ROPS), novel methods to improve resultant fairness of fat-tree topology SDN-based datacentre network. Compare with static load-balance methods, our MOPS and ROPS can reduce 65% and 33% loss of fairness, respectively. Further, combining with elephant flows detecting and handling mechanisms, MOPSE and ROPSE can dynamically assign better forwarding path for elephant flows.
    Keywords: software defined networking; SDN; datacentre network; fat-tree topology; fairness; elephant flow; OpenFlow.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028907
  • Fast SDN updates using tree-based architecture   Order a copy of this article
    by Rashid Hatami, Hossein Bahramgiri 
    Abstract: Network updates and configurations in software-defined networking (SDN) are critical and occur frequently. The effectiveness of many systems depends on the speed of adaption to their current workload and updates. Slower updates would reduce network utilisation because during a longer period it can lead to congestion and packet loss. Hence, quickly updating is a challenge in SDN architecture. In this paper, we propose a practical method for implementing a system for fast updates, using tree-based architecture. It can be used to implement the inserting, deleting and modifying rules on the flow-table quickly, and achieves a reduction in the update time. Experimental results show that our design can improve the median update speed.
    Keywords: software defined networking; SDN; network updates; tree-based architecture.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028906
  • A naive time of flight ranging scheme for wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Asif Iqbal Baba, Fan Wu, Tanvir Ahmed 
    Abstract: Recently wireless sensor network (WSN) applications have been in high demand. The key aspects of these applications is 'localisation'. Due to low energy and limited processing capability, many sensor nodes do not have any knowledge about their location, thus requires a method to get localised within a network. Nodes can be localised based on the measurements estimated using different techniques. In this paper, a naive time of flight (ToF) ranging measurement scheme is presented which minimises the error coming from low resolution clocks of the deployed nodes and removes the effect of clock drift on ranging measurements. The proposed scheme uses inter-arrival time of multiple ranging requests on the receiver side and uses solely the receiver node's clock to calculate the time of flight. The accuracy achieved with the proposed method is better than other existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed scheme achieved the accuracy within 1m.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; WSN; time of flight; ToF; ranging inaccuracy; clock resolution; localisation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028908
  • Influence of undersea acoustic parameters on path loss for RF-based underwater sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Preeti Saini, Rishi Pal Singh, Adwitiya Sinha 
    Abstract: Path loss models necessitate effective deployment of underwater sensor networks by predicting amount of loss in signal strength of the propagating wave. There are several existing path loss models that have been developed for terrestrial purpose. However, due to significant challenges unique to underwater network, these existing terrestrial models cannot be directly applied to aquatic applications. Therefore, path loss model is required to be distinctly designed for underwater applications. Three modes of underwater communication include acoustics, optics and radio waves. We have proposed a novel path loss model based on variable conductivity. Our research highlights different ways in which depth and temperature of seawater impact on signal propagating undersea. Experimental results reveal that attenuation loss confronted by deep sea is comparatively lesser than that in case of shallow water. Furthermore, communication model for deep water is also developed that combines acoustic and radio waves for communication in acoustic sensor network.
    Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks; radio waves; attenuation loss; interface loss; path loss.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028900
  • A robust QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol for cognitive radio sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Dileep Reddy Bolla, Shiva Shankar 
    Abstract: The exponential rise in wireless communication demands have alarmed academia-industries to develop certain robust routing protocol to achieve quality-of-service (QoS) communication over constrained network conditions. Amongst major wireless communication technologies wireless sensor network (WSN) has been found as the dominant paradigm to meet major communication demands such as surveillance systems, healthcare sector, intelligent transport system, industrial monitoring and control, defence systems, etc. Being a constrained networking technologies WSN demands certain resource efficient (i.e., energy-efficient as well as spectrum efficient) routing protocol to meet exponential up surging demands. Unlike major classical routing protocols, in this paper the prime focus is made on augmenting major functional paradigms of the clustered-CRSN systems by augmenting joint power and resource access/scheduling in intra-cluster as well as inter-cluster data communication, QoS-sensitive cognitive terminal activation (QS-CTA) etc. to achieve energy-efficient dynamic resource access (EDRA) or provision. We have proposed QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol that exploited efficacy of joint-power and resource scheduling and data channel quality (DCQ) and reporting channel quality (RCQ) assisted cognitive terminal activation to accomplish energy-efficient and QoS centric communication over CRSN. Performance comparison for the proposed QSCTA-EDRA routing protocol exhibited that it outperforms existing state-of-art dynamic resource access protocols.
    Keywords: cognitive radio sensor network; energy-efficiency; quality-sensitive cognitive terminal activation; dynamic power allocation; dynamic spectrum sensing and access.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028910
  • Prediction-based energy efficient opportunistic routing protocol in wireless sensor networks   Order a copy of this article
    by S. Nagadivya, R. Manoharan 
    Abstract: Opportunistic routing is a most promising routing method for improving the network lifetime and throughput of wireless sensor networks (WSN). It utilises the broadcast nature of WSN, that allows to select and prioritise a node from the potential forwarder set as next-hop forwarder. The design of energy efficient routing protocol becomes one of the major concern in WSN, due to limited battery power of a sensor node. The common energy loss reasons of existing routing protocols are: 1) packets may travel through a specific set of sensor nodes will drain out a battery energy very soon; 2) packets discard will create a packet retransmission. Opportunistic routing broadcast nature will avoid packet retransmission. The proposed energy efficient Markov prediction-based opportunistic routing (EEMPOR) protocol uses the following metrics to select and prioritise the energy efficient nodes namely, number of transactions of a node and residual energy of a node. Then proposed protocol shows that Markov prediction-based opportunistic routing protocol provides better network performance than non-prediction-based method. Simulation results show, that the proposed protocol outperforms the existing OR in terms of consumed energy, residual energy, network lifetime, and throughput.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; energy efficiency; opportunistic routing; Markov prediction.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028899
  • Increasing base-station anonymity through illusive void formation   Order a copy of this article
    by Mehdi Boulaiche, Mohamed Younis 
    Abstract: A wireless sensor network consists of a set of nodes connected by wireless links. These nodes probe their surroundings and send their data over multi-hop routes to a base-station (BS) for processing. The BS further interfaces the network to remote command centres. Given the critical role that the BS plays, it becomes a natural target for adversary attacks. Although cryptographic primitives and anonymous routing protocols can hide the identity of the BS, the traffic pattern in the network degrades the BS location anonymity and makes it vulnerable. In this paper, we propose an approach for formation of illusive void for increased BS anonymity (FIVA). FIVA exploits the features of geographic routing to confuse the adversary about the routing topology. Specifically, FIVA opts to construct a fake void around the BS and gets nodes to forward packets to encounter such a void. The goal is to exclude the BS from all traceable data paths in order to avert the adversary attention away from the BS vicinity. FIVA is validated through simulation and is shown to outperform prominent competing anti-traffic analysis techniques.
    Keywords: wireless sensor network; anonymity; traffic analysis; location privacy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCNDS.2020.10028901