International Journal of Communication Networks and Distributed Systems (24 papers in press)
A Improved Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm Based the Population Feature and Iteration Information
by Binghui Fan, Chaochuan Jia, Ting Yang, Chuanjiang Wang, Fugui He
Abstract: Cuckoo search (CS) is widely used to solve many optimisation problem, which is a biologically inspired the brood parasitic behaviour of a type of cuckoos and the Lévy flights behaviour of some animals. However, it has been demonstrated to easily get trapped into local optimal solutions and slow convergence speed. Therefore, an improved adaptive cuckoo search (IACS) optimisation algorithm is proposed in this article. Two adaptive strategies based on the population feature and iteration information feedback which are integrated into the CS algorithm to adjust the parameters pa and α0. We compared the proposed algorithm to CS and five variants on the 30 benchmark functions proposed in CEC 2014. In addition, the proposed algorithm and CS are integrated into support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Experimental results certify that the modified algorithm is superior to the CS for most optimisation problems and has better performance than the other variants of CS algorithm.
Keywords: Cuckoo search; optimization algorithm; adaptive strategy; support vector machine; classification.
Distributed Chronicle for the fault diagnosis in Distributed Systems
by Jose Aguilar, Juan Vizcarrondo
Abstract: The chronicle paradigm has been used to determine the faults in distributed systems, through the modelled of temporal relationships between observable events, which describe the patterns of the system behaviour. Normally, the diagnostic mechanisms based on chronicles are semi-centralised methods, based on the information from local diagnoses. These models have scalability problems when they are implemented in very large systems. This paper represents the system to be diagnosed as a distributed system composed of several components, and the behaviour of each component is described by its own subchronicles. A chronicle recognition module is assigned to each component, and each local diagnosis result (the recognition of a sub-chronicle) is sent (as an event) to the neighbouring components, so as it can be exploited during the recognition of other sub-chronicles. Additionally, this paper uses continuous query language (CQL), instead of the classic language to define chronicles, to give them more expressiveness.
Keywords: Distributed pattern recognition; temporal pattern recognition; chronicles; distributed fault diagnosis; web service composition.
Energy-Efficient and Spectral-Efficient Mixed Line Rate Optical WDM Networks: A Comparison
by SRIDHAR IYER, Rochak Bajpai, Shree Prakash Singh, Sujata Sengar
Abstract: The tremendous increase in volume and heterogeneity of traffic has resulted in significant innovations in telecommunication networks. In view of optical networks, by adopting a mixed line rate (MLR) strategy, wavelength division multiplexed networks can cost-effectively respond to diverse variety of traffic requirements which have heterogeneous service demands. From existing studies on MLR networks, it can be inferred that depending upon channel configuration, modulation format and link length, a spectral-efficient network can outperform a power-efficient network. In the current work, we compare the performance of a MLR network which is spectral-efficient and power-efficient. We conduct extensive simulations considering realistic parameters and physical layer impairments. To the network designers, our study advocates a MLR network which is spectrally efficient since; our results demonstrate that, in addition to achieving close packing of the channels, a spectrally-efficient MLR network is also able to achieve close performances to that shown by power-efficient MLR network.
Keywords: Mixed line rate; single line rate; power-efficiency; spectral-efficiency; sub-band spacing.
An efficient scheme for detecting and isolating gray-hole attacks in AODV based mobile ad hoc networks
by Muhammad Salman Pathan, Jingsha He, Nafei Zhu, Zulfiqar Ali Zardari, Muhammad Qasim Memon, Aneeka Azmat
Abstract: Malicious nodes in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can launch attacks by providing false routing information to disrupt the normal operations of the networks. Such attacks can be launched by the so-called gray-hole nodes during both route discovery and data transmission. In this paper, we propose an efficient scheme called Mechanism to isolate gray-hole attack from MANET (MIGM) that can isolate gray-hole nodes in MANETs during route discovery based on a dynamic threshold value of the destination sequence number. If a gray-hole node can manage to get itself into the active route, our proposed scheme can detect it during data transmission through the mechanism of neighbor monitoring. Simulation experiment conducted has verified the performance of the proposed detection and isolation scheme. The experiment has also demonstrated that our proposed scheme can counter gray-hole attacks more effectively than some existing schemes under the same adversary attack model with various network parameters.
Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks; Gray-hole Attacks; Black-hole Attacks; AODV; DOS; Destination Sequence Number; Adversary Attack Model; Dynamic Threshold Value; Route Reply; Route Request.
New Multi-secret Sharing Scheme based on Superincreasing Sequence for Level-Ordered Access Structure
by Abdul Basit, Patibandla Chanakya, China Venkaiah Vadlamudi, Salman Abdul
Abstract: Secret sharing is one of the essential tools employed in protecting highly sensitive and crucial information, such as encryption and decryption keys, missile launching codes, financial related information, etc. A new multi-secret sharing scheme that uses a superincreasing sequence and realizes Level-Ordered Access Structure (LOAS) is proposed. The novelty of the scheme is that not only a single share for all the secrets is sufficient but also the secrets can be changed without renewing the shares of the participants. The proposed scheme has low communication cost and less overhead to the participant.
Keywords: Level-Ordered Access Structure; Multi-secret; Multi-stage; superincreasing sequence; Secret Sharing.
Workflow scheduling with data transfer optimization and enhancement of reliability in cloud data centers
by Karima Oukfif, Fatima Oulebsir Boumghar, Samia Bouzefrane, Soumya Banerjee
Abstract: Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) clouds offer huge opportunities to solve large-scale scientific problems. Executing workflows in such environments can be expensive in time if not scheduled rightly. Although scheduling workflows in the cloud is widely studied, most approaches focus on two user's quality of service requirements namely makespan (i.e., completion time) and costs. Other important features of cloud computing such as the heterogeneity of resources and reliability must be considered. In this paper, we present a reliability-aware method based on discrete particle swarm optimisation (RDPSO) for workflow scheduling in multiple and heterogeneous cloud data centres. Our aim is to optimise data transfer time while minimising makespan and enhancing reliability. Based on simulation, our results show a significant improvement in terms of makespan, transferred data and reliability relative to reliability-aware HEFT method (heterogeneous earliest finish time), for the real-world workflows.
Keywords: Cloud computing; Workflow scheduling; Data transfer; Reliability; Discrete particle swarm optimization.
Survivable Virtual Topology Search with Impairment Awareness and Power Economy in Optical WDM Networks
by Rahul Jashvantbhai Pandya
Abstract: Survivability against the link and light-path failures is essential in the optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network along with impairment awareness (IA) and power economy (PE). In this paper, topology search using: 1) Kruskal's minimal weighted topology search algorithm; 2) Hamiltonian cycle (H-cycle)-based survivable topology search algorithm; 3) k-survivable topologies search algorithms have been carried out to find virtual survivable topologies for India's RailTel network. The integer linear programming (ILP) optimisation followed by the heuristics implementation have been carried out for IA and PE with a channel capacity constraint to achieve the survivability considering the case of a single link and light-path failures. We compare the survivable topologies thus obtained in the event of failures, with respect to terminal-to-terminal (terminal) reliability and choose the survivable topologies having the better terminal reliability. Among all, Hcycle- based survivable topology search algorithm shows lowest connection loss probability (CLP) and highest terminal reliability.
Keywords: Hamiltonian cycle; Impairment awareness; Kruskals topology; k-survivable topologies; Power economy; Survivability; Terminal reliability.
Cryptosystem by a Community of devices with limited resources
by Rebiha Hadaoui, Karim KARIM, DAOUI Mehammed, Mustapha LALAM
Abstract: Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) is an encryption algorithm with public-key and is the most widely used for secure data transmission. It provides high safety and consists of modular exponential operation on large numbers. We propose an original approach which makes a distributed calculation of RSA encryption by a community of users endowed with low resources equipment. When a user u of the community wants to encrypte a data X, he exploits the resources of his community. For that, we replace the modular exponentiation operation by a set of calculations dependent of each other and which use fewer resources. These calculations are spread over the members of the user's community to help him perform the operation.
Keywords: Encryption; RSA; Distributed Computing; Limited resources system.
Optimal Picocell Base Station Density for Energy-efficient Heterogeneous Cellular Network Under Received Power Constraint
by Jie Yang, Han Hu, Ziyu Pan
Abstract: Heterogeneous cellular networks (HCNs) have emerged as the primary solution for overwhelming traffic demands. However, the dense deployment of small cell base stations (BSs) inevitably triggers a tremendous escalation of energy consumption. In this paper, we apply tools from stochastic geometry to investigate and optimise the energy efficiency (EE) for a two-tier HCN. The average successful transmission rate per unit area of a two-tier HCN is derived, and then the total power consumption of all the BSs in per unit area of a two-tier HCN is derived. Based on that, the EE expression of the whole HCN is formulated. We analysis the received signal power constraint for a typical user and convert the power constraint to density constraint. Finally, we use a one-dimensional optimisation algorithm to maximise the EE by optimising picocell BS density. Simulation results validate the accuracy of the theoretical analysis and demonstrate the proposed optimal picocell BS density can obviously improve EE.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; Density; Power; Rate; Signal-to-Interference Ratio.
SAHAR: A Control Plane Architecture for High Available Software-Defined Networks
by Ahmad Akbari, Mehran Shetabi
Abstract: The current study
Keywords: Software-defined networking; OpenFlow; availability; Multiple-controllers.
Design and Performance Analysis of Link-by-Link Congestion Avoidance (LbLCA) Algorithm
by Sneha Thombre, L.M. Patnaik, Anil Tavildar
Abstract: In this paper, a simple but new approach, namely link-by-link congestion avoidance (LbLCA) algorithm, which works at the network layer, has been proposed. LbLCA is a proactive congestion avoidance algorithm. It uses explicit feedback to prevent congestion to happen in the first place. The novelty of LbLCA is that no per flow information is required, which makes it more scalable. Based on the design philosophy and equations, sizing of various router buffers has been arrived at for different typical network topologies. Buffer sizes depend upon the mean arrival rate at router input and outgoing link capacities and are independent of round trip time (RTT) and the number of flows passing through the router. The buffer sizes determined using LbLCA design are validated using extensive NS2 simulations. The performance evaluation has been done using NS2 simulations on the typical network topologies. The performance comparison between TCP and LbLCA reveals that proposed LbLCA algorithm gives improved performance for the end-to-end delay and packet delivery ratio. LbLCA is impartial to all flows, as LbLCA works at network layer and therefore, cannot differentiate between flows.
Keywords: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP); Link-by-Link Congestion Avoidance (LbLCA); buffer size; network delay; Packet Delivery ratio (PDR).
QoS and traffic aware greedy resource allocation in foggy Internet of Things
by Hamidreza Mahini, Reza Hajisheykhi, Mina Shahini
Abstract: Fog computing is a response to the increasing growth of data generated by the internet of things (IoT) applications developed in the cloud computing platform. It is a solution to materialise the IoT and helps to improve the resource allocation problem. In this paper, we propose an effective method to conquer the resource allocation problem in IoT applications. Our method defines two important objectives: 1) reducing the internet core traffic; 2) serving subscribers with the appropriate quality of service level. The experimental results, which are reported in form of numerous and various scenarios, indicate that the suggested MMGM method can reduce the internet core traffic up to 50%. Also, the minimum deviation from the required or the contracted quality level of service is realised with the help of the Most Graceful Matching (MGM) assignment method.
Keywords: Fog Computing; Internet-of-Things(IoT); Resource Allocation.
Performance analysis of wireless communication networks with threshold activation process and interference signals
by Xiangran Yu, Zhanyou Ma, Shanshan Guo, Li Chen
Abstract: In order to reduce energy consumption in wireless communication networks, the sleep mode in the energy saving strategy and the threshold activation process of the base station are considered. Combining with practice, the existence of interference signals and possible errors in the transmission of data packets are considered. At the same time, considering that the wireless communication network system has two channels and one of them is incompletely reliable, a queuing model of repairable M/M/2 multiple working vacations with start-up period, negative customers, feedback and N-strategy is established. Using quasi birth-and-death process (QBD) and Gauss-Seidel iterative method, the expressions of the average delay of the data packet and other performance indicators are given. Then, using MATLAB software for numerical analysis, the influence of system parameters on the average delay and other performance indicators is analysed. Finally, the social optimal parameters are found by constructing benefit functions.
Keywords: wireless communication network; sleep mode; activation process; negative customer; N-strategy; feedback.
Exploiting Hybrid Decode-and-Forward - Amplify-and-Forward in NOMA: An application to Device-To-Device Networks
by Dinh-Thuan Do, Minh-Sang Nguyen, Huu-Phuc Dang
Abstract: A novel model regarding downlink cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) in device-to-device network will be investigated in this paper, especially combining amplify-and-forward (AF) and decode-and-forward (DF) to achieve a hybrid scheme. We consider a remarkable trade-off between outage performances and power allocation factors. Especially, we study a hybrid AF and DF scheme, namely HDAF scheme for NOMA as follows: 1) The proposed scheme applies the AF scheme when the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the relay is below a predefined threshold such that the relay cannot successfully decode the signal; 2) On the other hand, when the SINR at the relay is greater than the predefined threshold, the system will be applied the DF scheme to decode the signal and then forwards it to the destination, i.e., avoids noise and interference amplification at the relay. An analytical expression of the outage probability of the hybrid HDAF NOMA is derived based on the outage probability function in AF and DF mode. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the influence of network parameters such as transmit power, power constraint, and link distances on the outage probability.
Keywords: Outage probability; D2D communications; NOMA.
Wireless Energy-Aware Non-orthogonal multiple access Network under Full-duplex Mode: Performance Analysis
by Dinh-Thuan Do, Chi-Bao Le
Abstract: An application of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) is proposed in this paper to employ in non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) network. This paper considers impact self-interference due to full-duplex transmission to system performance evaluation of NOMA transmission. In particular, expressions of outage performance are derived in situation of wireless energy harvesting-based relay in cooperative relaying system to help to forward to far NOMA users. As main advantage, NOMA and full-duplex scheme are two architecture deployed to enhance the spectral efficiency. In addition, a power allocation strategy, energy harvesting time and self-interference factor are considered parameters to perform in simulations. The correct of derived formula is presented via Monte Carlo simulation and it is compared with analytical results.
Keywords: Full-duplex; Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer; NOMA.
Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Network MAC protocols with Early Sleep problem
by Gulshan Soni, K.A. Selvaradjou
Abstract: Energy efficiency and increased throughput are the two major goals in the design of MAC protocols in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The traditional sensor-MAC (S-MAC) and timeout-MAC (T-MAC) protocols have been proposed to achieve these dual desirable goals by proper scheduling of duty cycles. Although these protocols have been proved to excel the performance when compared with their predecessor protocols for MANETs, the idea of duty cycling, if not tuned carefully may not work well in some linear chain topologies. We, in this paper investigated the 'early sleep' problem in specific topologies which results in undesirable extended latency in packets delivery. In this paper, we evaluated the performance of T-MAC protocol with early sleep problem. As a solution to this problem, this work also proposes a disable extended timeout MAC (DETMAC) protocol that helps the forwarding nodes towards the sink node to adaptively re-schedule their sleep/wakeup timing. It is shown through simulation results that our proposed DETMAC protocol outperforms in the terms of throughput and energy efficiency when compared to T-MAC and its variants.
Keywords: MAC Protocol; T-MAC; WSNs ; early sleep problem ; linear chain topologies.
Analysis of Spectrum Handoff delay using Finite Queuing model in Cognitive Radio Networks
by Shanidul Hoque, Shashank Shekhar, Wasim Arif
Abstract: Spectrum handoff is an inevitable phenomenon to exploit dynamic spectrum access in cognitive radio networks (CRNs) for better spectrum utilisation. When a licensed or primary user reclaims its operating channel, the cognitive user has to initiate a suitable handoff procedure for successful completion of its ongoing transmission. This paper analyses the prioritised proactive spectrum handoff decision for a finite capacity cognitive radio network using preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1/K queuing model. Cumulative handoff delay (CHD) and total service time (TST) are taken to investigate the performance of the handoff strategies. We establish an analytical model of cumulative handoff delay and total service time of proactive switching spectrum handoff for the proposed finite length queuing network. The impact of queue length on performance measuring metrics such as CHD and TST in terms of arrival rate of primary users and mobility factor of spectrum holes are presented extensively.
Keywords: Cognitive Radio Networks; Cognitive User; Handoff Delay; Proactive Spectrum Handoff; PRP M/G/1/K.
Analysis of New Multi-priority NP-CSMA Random Multiple Access Ad Hoc Network in MAC Protocol Analysis
by Hongwei Ding, Zejun Han, Liyong Bao, Zhijun Yang, Qianlin Liu
Abstract: A multichannel non-persistent of P-CSMA (NP-CSMA) random multiple access Ad Hoc network in MAC protocol based on variable collision length is proposed. It has important applications value in wireless Ad Hoc network and so on. When the channel is idle, the end-users are sent by P probability; while the channel is busy, it will not listen to the channel and wait for a certain period of time to send it again. The multi-priority mechanism is introduced to meet the needs of QoS in different priorities. By modelling the new multi-priority NP-CSMA protocol, the throughput of each channel is obtained by using the average cycle method. Compared with other protocols, the superiority of this protocol is obtained, and the accuracy of the protocol is verified through simulation experiments.
Keywords: variable collision length; NP-CSMA; Ad Hoc network; multi-priority mechanism; average cycle method; throughput.
Joint user scheduling and power allocation in two-tier heterogeneous networks
by Lei Qin, Xin Song, Haijun Qian, Yue Ni, Zhigang Xie
Abstract: An appropriate scheme is proposed based on QoE and energy consumption in this paper for the fact that the impact of imbalanced loading on resource availability cannot be neglected, which jointly optimises user scheduling and power allocation. In this proposed scheme, the bias factor is optimised to balance the fairness for users' distribution and system resource allocation. A new dynamic linear user scheduling algorithm based on bias programming is presented, in which the negative and the positive bias factors are both considered that are optimised by iterative method to achieve load balancing. Then QoE models of different types of services are built to allocate resource, in which Boolean type dual iterative algorithm is applied to obtain the globally optimal solution. The time and space complexity for the proposed two algorithms are analysed. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and stability of the proposed approaches.
Keywords: HetNets; user scheduling; CRE; load balancing; QoE; energy consumption; power allocation; green communication; communication networks; users distribution.
Nonlinear system parameter estimation of drying process using modified state transition algorithm in cloud environment
by Karthik Chandran, Manikandan Ramasamy, Sathian Dananjayan, Ankur Dumka, Loganathan Jayakumar
Abstract: The parameter estimation optimisation with constraints for the nonlinear complex system requires a serious of computation. This paper introduced a novel constrained optimisation method named Lagrangian-based state transition algorithm (LSTA) to solve problems in distributed cloud computing environment. LSTA with the physical constraints involved in solving the problems which occurs while the conventional techniques are used. In LSTA, the updating of the result to an optimisation problem with constraints known as, a state transition. The Lagrangian multiplier is used as a constraint for state transition process to estimate the drying process system effectively. The experiments are conducted in the cloud computing environment and simulated results validated the proposed LSTA methodology for parameter estimation. This method is a promising way for system identification due to its searching competency, enduring performance considering physical limitations and quick convergence.
Keywords: system identification; system analysis and design; computational modelling; computer simulation; clouds.
Cloud-based service oriented architecture for social vehicular ad hoc network communications
by Muhammad Arif, Guojun Wang
Abstract: This article offers a social networking platform for vehicles, based on cloud computing and service oriented architecture called CSS-IoV for communication and collaboration of vehicle to vehicle (V2V), and vehicle to infrastructure (V2I). CSS-IoV contains five layers: application layer, application service layer, services layer, cloud infrastructure layer, and layer of vehicles. The application layer operation is associated with the functionality of on-board units (OBUs) and road-side units (RSUs). The service layer runs on a service-oriented architecture (SOA) and cloud application services to improve applications. To expand and combine web services on this layer, the application developer and builders can effectively develop the new functions and programs for communication. With the support of dynamic and automated service collaboration, people can easily help and communicate with each other by using OBUs. Our results shows that the proposed scheme provide the best results in terms of both type of communication in VANETs.
Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks; VANETs; service-oriented architecture; SOA; vehicles; cloud computing; communication.
An online routing algorithm for space division multiplexing-based elastic optical networks
by Sridhar Iyer
Abstract: We focus on the optimisation of lightpath routing in an online space division multiplexing-based elastic optical network (SDM-b-EON). We propose a new online routing algorithm, named as online routing algorithm (ORA), which accounts for the presence of the transceivers in the network, and also ensures the routing of the transparent lightpaths through the spectral super-channels over spatial multiple core fibres (MCFs) links. We conduct extensive simulations considering two realistic network topologies and two different MCF crosstalk values which result in different transmission reach values. The obtained results demonstrate that: 1) ORA significantly outperforms the various reference routing techniques in terms of the bandwidth blocking probability (BwBP); 2) in regard to the use of modulation formats, for low crosstalk values, the most used format is QPSK rather than BPSK which results in lesser traffic being accepted by the SDM-b-EON; 3) as the transceivers amount increases, more frequent demands blocking occurs owing to spectrum scarcity. Overall, our study shows that in a SDM-b-EON, larger amount of transceivers can be efficiently used in comparison to the less efficient spectrum usage, since the spectrum significantly experiences fragmentation owing to the spectrum-contiguity and spectrum-continuity constraints.
Keywords: elastic optical networks; EON; online routing; resource allocation; network optimisation; space division multiplexing.
Performance analysis of non-exhaustive wireless sensor networks based on queueing theory
by Jian Cao, Zhanyou Ma, Shanshan Guo, Xiangran Yu
Abstract: An operation mechanism of wireless sensor networks with non-exhaustive service, multiple adaptive sleep and wake-up strategies is presented on the basis of the queueing theory. The operation mechanism is proposed to dominate the workload of the necessary topology maintenance and reduce the energy consumption. The wireless sensor networks are modelled as a complex discrete-time queueing system. We derive the probability generating functions of the number of the data packets, the access delay, and we obtain the expressions of the mean number of the data packets, the mean response time, the utilisation rate and the throughput, etc. The sensitivity analyses of the performance measures are presented by the numerical experiments. Furthermore, the mathematical analyses are made on the energy consumption. Nash equilibrium and the social optimisation strategies are analysed in detail on the utility by using game theory.
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; queueing theory; non-exhaustive; regeneration cycle method; energy consumption; strategy.
A study of situation awareness-based resource management scheme in cloud environment
by Junshe Wang, Zheng Li, Hongbin Zhang, Yuzi Yi
Abstract: In view of the defects of the current cloud resource management, which results in low utilisation of resources. This paper proposes a new method for the cloud environment, which is based on situation awareness. Meanwhile it is particularly important to collect historical load data of resources in the process of situation awareness. In order to improve the quality of data acquisition and reduce the burden of the data collection system, a new adaptive data acquisition algorithm is also designed. The proposed scheme comprehensively evaluates the current situation of the use of resources using FAHP (fuzzy analytic hierarchy process). Meanwhile, the cycle of data acquisition is adjusted in real-time, according to the result of resource evaluation. Then, in order to improve the utilisation of resources and achieve its efficient use, the improved BP algorithm is used to forecast the resource requirement of the next time which can provide the basis for rational allocation.
Keywords: cloud computing; resource requirement; situation awareness; adaptive data acquisition.