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International Journal of Critical Infrastructures

International Journal of Critical Infrastructures (IJCIS)

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International Journal of Critical Infrastructures (50 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • Seismic Isolation of Data Centers for Business Continuity   Order a copy of this article
    by M.Fevzi Esen 
    Abstract: Economic losses of earthquakes raised many questions regarding the adequacy of the current seismic design criteria and seismic isolation in data centers. Some organizations have accommodated new explicit seismic isolation applications in their business continuity and disaster recovery plans. These applications aim acceptable damage levels that correspond acceptable business interruption for data centers in case of an earthquake. In this study, we aim to discuss the importance of seismic isolation technologies which can be implemented for data centers against seismic disasters within business continuity and disaster recovery planning context. We conduct a literature review to provide a clearer aspect on seismic isolation applications for data centers. We conclude that GSA, ASCE and Uptime Institute provide internationally recognized standards which make raised floors a good option for data centers. These standards provide technical documentation for service functioning with high levels of availability during an outage.
    Keywords: information technologies; data centers; seismic isolation; business continuity.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2022.10034563
     
  • A Review on Smart Water Management in Various Domestic Areas: An Approach for Water Consumption and Leakage Perspectives   Order a copy of this article
    by V.A. Sankar Ponnapalli, Saiteja S 
    Abstract: One of the major issues that affecting the water utilities in the domestic areas is leakages through the distribution networks, non-revenue water estimation, and failure in the prediction of water consumption at individual spaces. This review paper basically focuses on these three important directions to understand the feasible domestic water management systems with integrated models of internet of things and artificial intelligence approaches. Different smart water management techniques have reported in the literature to improve the efficiency and avoiding non-revenue water issues and these are consolidated in this paper. Prediction failure of water utility in the water distribution systems is also presented in this paper. This article summarises a measure of water consumption statistics, a detailed summary of non-revenue water, and leak detection technologies at extensive areas to provide a wide sense of understanding for the prediction of the water consumption and the leakage detection.
    Keywords: smart water management; leakages; non-revenue water; NREW; district metered area; DMA; artificial intelligence; domestic areas; water consumption; distribution networks.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10036773
     
  • Information-flawing Filters in Critical Infrastructure Protection: The deficient Information Basis in a Swedish Approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Christine Große, Aron Larsson, Olof Björkqvist 
    Abstract: Various societal functions, such as healthcare, freight transports, water supplies and electricity, ensure the daily life, endurance and progress of modern societies. The protection of such critical functions requires comprehensive information processing. Based on evidence from documents on the Swedish planning process STYREL and interviews with entrusted decision-makers at county administrative boards, municipalities and power grid operators, this study aims to crystallise information pathways and flaws to highlight information filtration and alteration. Analyses of the material reveal a set of information-flawing filters, such as information withholding or loss when sharing, information scarcity in criticality assessments and ad-hoc information creation due to scarcity. Because of these filters, the Swedish process causes an altering of information that affects the quality of decisions and the emergency response plan that relies on them. Thus, this study indicates deficiencies that relate to information sharing, information security and decision-making that pose risks to citizens and businesses.
    Keywords: critical infrastructure protection; CIP; societal security; information management; decision analysis; multi-level planning; public private policy network; filters; Swedish policy.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10038635
     
  • A Review of Research Developments on Submerged Floating Tunnel   Order a copy of this article
    by Sahil Rana, M. Abdul Akbar 
    Abstract: Submerged Floating Tunnel as a high investment project has been conceptualised multiple times by different countries has not been implemented yet. Being a critical infrastructure, the complexities and challenges involved in the construction of this underwater tunnel is a natural progression of the multiple factors that need consideration in its engineering analysis and design. The improvement in computational resources and techniques of the 21st century has enabled a closer to accurate engineering analysis of this structure under the influence of dynamic effects of water including design consideration for blast loading and tsunami. The techniques proposed to keep the tunnel afloat along with the variations in the nature of its support with seabed has seen the coalition of multiple disciplines of engineering. The paper presents a comprehensive review of various engineering analysis that has been performed on Submerged Floating Tunnel in addition to a review of the different policy-based conclusions on this new technology. The current trends and challenges ahead are also discussed based on projections into the future as a natural extrapolation of the current state of progress.
    Keywords: Submerged Floating Tunnel; computational fluid dynamics; stress analysis; structural design; transportation; underwater tunnel; critical infrastructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10038938
     
  • Major Hazard Industries Disaster Preparedness: An Empirical Study of Liquified Petroleum Gas Storage Facilities   Order a copy of this article
    by RASYIMAWATI M.A.T. RASHID, Radin Zaid Radin Umar, Nadiah Ahmad 
    Abstract: Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities storing more than 50 tonnes of LPG are classified as major hazard installations (MHIs). This industry involves highly flammable hydrocarbon chemicals that can cause destruction of property and endanger human lives. This study aims to investigate the level of disaster preparedness among 23 LPG storage facilities in Malaysia. The preparedness performance of the facilities was assessed through a five-point instrument measure in six preparedness domains. For overall preparedness, 60% of LPG facilities were rated poor or weak, and remaining 40% were rated as good or satisfactory. This indicates a serious gap in the overall current capacity of the majority of facilities to respond to major hazard disasters. Across all facilities,
    Keywords: liquefied petroleum gas; LPG storage; LPG stockist; emergency preparedness; major hazard installation; MHI; control industrial major accident hazards; CIMAH.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10038939
     
  • A methodological Approach for Characterization of Critical National Infrastructure   Order a copy of this article
    by Julius A. Makinde, Uche M. Mbanaso, Victor Kulugh 
    Abstract: This article presents a methodological approach for the characterisation of critical national infrastructure (CNI). Despite several approaches to identifying CNI, there has not been any universally acceptable way that is agreeable because a country’s CNI priority may differ. CNI enabled by information and communications technology (ICT) is usually referred to as critical national information infrastructure (CNII). Thus, the security of CNII requires a far-reaching approach that is harmonised and agile to mutually respond to global cyber threats. Without proportionate safeguards, the increasingly interconnected and interdependent infrastructures can create vulnerability opportunities that can cause failures with cascading or escalating effects. Consequently, proper characterisation, categorisation and designation of CNI are vital to effective CNII protection and resilience. We approached the study by extensive review, analysis and synthesis of CNI of selected countries around the globe. Then, we applied a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) to show how CNI can be derived, and designated.
    Keywords: critical national infrastructure; CNI; critical national information infrastructure; CNII; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; comparative analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10040420
     
  • Research on BIM technology-based measurement method of stress parameters of prefabricated building engineering   Order a copy of this article
    by Yadi Duan, Huilin Liu 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low reliability and poor robustness of construction parameters caused by the lack of stress parameter analysis in the conventional construction methods of precast construction projects, a precast building stress parameter measurement method based on building information model (BIM) technology is proposed. Subdivide BIM units by constructing a BIM-based prefabricated construction engineering information database. The 3D reconstruction model of engineering construction design was established by using nonlinear iterative method. Based on this, the stress parameters were measured and analysed, and the construction parameters of the prefabricated house project were optimised through BIM technology. A simulation experiment has been carried out, and the results show that the method can provide more than 90% reliability and has high stability, indicating that the method has high application performance.
    Keywords: building information model; BIM technology; prefabricated buildings; engineering construction parameters; fusion of three-dimensional parameters; stress parameter analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10040421
     
  • Research on collaborative construction management of construction project based on BIM technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Chenwen Zhan, Chunwei Fu, Xiaohong WU 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of high root mean square error, low monitoring accuracy and low reliability in construction project collaborative management, a new construction project collaborative management method based on BIM technology is proposed. Combined with BIM technology and collaborative management, this method establishes the network structure model of collaborative management, expounds the evolution process of collaborative management, makes qualitative analysis and quantitative research on the collaborative degree of project management by combining logistic model and order parameter principle, and completes the collaborative management of project construction based on the project organisation management system of BIM technology. The experimental results show that the root mean square of relative error is reduced by 0.84, the accuracy of monitoring is improved by 41%, and the reliability is improved by 18%, which is suitable for the collaborative management mode of current project innovation in China.
    Keywords: BIM technology; construction engineering; construction management; collaborative management.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10040661
     
  • BIM-based cycle control method for the whole process of building production and construction   Order a copy of this article
    by Xinjie Yuan 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of poor convergence and low control accuracy of conventional cycle control for the whole process of building production and construction due to the lack of consideration of parameter fusion and resource scheduling, a new BIM-based cycle control method for the whole process is proposed. A whole-process cycle control constraint model is constructed for parameter analysis, and with the BIM technology, parameter fusion is carried out to judge control convergence. With the BIM scheduling method, a resource scheduling control model for cycle control is constructed, so as to effective control and manage the whole process cycle. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can deliver better convergence and lower control error for whole-process cycle control, the lowest difference of safety quality control was less than 0.01, which demonstrates that the method has a strong ability in carrying out whole-process cycle control.
    Keywords: BIM; building production and construction; whole-process; cycle control; information fusion; convergence.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10040701
     
  • Risk Assessment of Public Private Partnerships Projects in Developing Countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Zineb BELGHITI, Khadija ANGADE 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess risks that arise with PPPs transportation projects in Morocco and to provide a better understanding of the risk ranking profile in developing countries. To conduct the study, a questionnaire was administered in order to determine the most critical risks according to public and private sector entities involved in transportation PPPs projects. The results generated 28 critical risks and the top five risk factors were mostly at the meso level. Comparing these results with previous studies on the risk assessment of PPPs in developing countries, it was found that the business environment indicator provides a better explanation of the risks ranking of PPPs in developing countries. Thus, the study concludes that macro-risks in developing countries with an attractive business environment, will have a lower impact compared to developing countries with an unfavourable investment climate.
    Keywords: developing countries; infrastructure; Morocco; public private partnership; PPP; risk assessment; transportation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2021.10040707
     
  • Development of an Accident Prediction Model for Freeways Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Md Faysal Kabir, Sahadev Roy 
    Abstract: This paper presents a model using log-logistics accelerated failure time approach based on the traffic accident records collected in the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India in 2018
    Keywords: freeway accident; accident duration model; accident prediction; traffic hazard; freeway systems.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10041627
     
  • Risk identification of subway tunnel shield construction based on WBS-RBS method   Order a copy of this article
    by Qiang You, Haitao Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Mingyang Xu 
    Abstract: The shield construction technology has been widely used with the vigorous development of subway construction. The safety risk identification about the shield tunnelling construction of Shenzhen Metro was carried out. Firstly, the work breakdown structure (WBS) was used to decompose the construction process in stages, then the risk factors were decomposed into different factor units by risk breakdown structure (RBS), then the WBS-RBS matrix was constructed to identify a number of risk factors. Meanwhile, based on the questionnaire survey method, the reliability and validity of the results were tested. Finally, the principal component analysis method was used to extract the key risk factors, so that the number of indicators was greatly reduced, which provided a basis for constructing the risk evaluation index system.
    Keywords: shield tunnelling construction; risk identification; WBS-RBS; principal component analysis.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10041628
     
  • Simulation Study on Electric Loss Assessment Model in Solar Power Generation   Order a copy of this article
    by Chongyu Cui, Zhaoxia Li, Xiaoyan Jiang 
    Abstract: In order to solve the problem of insufficient adaptive optimisation ability and insufficient evaluation accuracy when faced with a large number of calculations of existing solar power loss evaluation methods, a power loss evaluation model based on fuzzy information fusion is proposed. Through the comprehensive power quality index parameters, the output characteristic value of the power loss evaluation in solar power generation is obtained, and the power loss fuzzy control is performed. The power loss evaluation relationship in energy generation is extracted, and the power loss quality information fusion in solar energy generation is completed. Combined with the association rule constraint reconstruction, the power loss evaluation model of solar power generation is constructed. The simulation results show that the accuracy of power loss assessment is high, and the degree of information fusion is good, which improves the quality of solar power generation.
    Keywords: solar power generation; power loss; fuzzy information fusion; association rules.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10041631
     
  • A cooperative control method of voltage imbalance in microgrid with multiple micro sources   Order a copy of this article
    by Wei Shu, Dajiang He 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of unstable current waveform, high voltage imbalance and long voltage control time in traditional voltage imbalance control methods for microgrid, a new cooperative control method of voltage imbalance in microgrid with multiple micro sources is proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of microgrid structure, the dynamic phasor model of microgrid voltage is constructed. On this basis, a cooperative controller is designed to realise the voltage balancing control of microgrid with multiple micro sources. In order to verify the cooperative control effect of voltage imbalance in microgrid, a comparative experiment is designed. The experimental results show that the current waveform of the proposed method is stable, the voltage imbalance is only 2.5%, and the cooperative voltage control time is less than 7 s, which shows that the proposed method has high efficiency and good cooperative control effect of voltage imbalance in microgrid.
    Keywords: multi-micro source microgrid; dynamic phasor model; voltage imbalance; cooperative control.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10041648
     
  • Enabling Active Safety System along with Realtime monitoring and audio alerts in Two Wheelers through Smart Helmet System   Order a copy of this article
    by SUNIL GUPTA, Nikita Agarwala, Nikita Arora, Goldie Gabrani 
    Abstract: A report by the Indian Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, estimated that over 1.5 lakh lives were claimed in various accidents on Indian Roads in 2018. Over-speeding has been found as a major violation accounting for nearly 67% of the road accidents. To address this concern, authors in this paper, have proposed a methodology to make the helmet smarter using Internet of Things (IoT). This modification in the existing smart helmet adds on to the safety of the bikers. Drivers for two wheeled automobiles are cautioned about their speed through audio alerts. These alerts are in accordance with one’s speed and location and updated in real time. To implement this technology in the existing helmets, Bluetooth technology was deployed, and the communication channel was realised through various IoT protocols such as XMPP and MQTT. The suggested protocols have been analysed in the deployed communication channel of the proposed smart helmet for their performance. Further, ubiquitous connectivity is also an important feature of the proposed smart helmet.
    Keywords: accident avoidance; two wheelers; smart helmet; sensors; active safety system; IoT.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10046181
     
  • Fog Based Smart Building IoT Model: Development and Energy Cost Estimation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Gupta 
    Abstract: Due to the expansion and accessibility of the internet of things (IoTs), the user gets interacted to use advanced technology. The development and improvement of fog computing and cloud computing services allow developing the IoT application like smart building. In this paper, an IoT-fog-based prototype is proposed and implemented to check the cost estimation. Fog computing reduces the consumption of energy and latency during communication with the smart building. This prototype aims to develop the system based on real-time energy cost estimation, used further for a real-time billing system. In the proposed prototype, the information (current, voltage, power, and energy) is being collected in two real-time scenarios. One is based on fog-IoT-based system, and the other is a conventional system with the help of two circuits with the same equipment attached to find the energy consumed. In this paper, the analysis of energy consumption shows the advantages in terms of optimisation and cost-saving using the proposed prototype.
    Keywords: fog computing; internet of thing; IoT; NodeMCU; smart building; Arduino; energy efficient.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046182
     
  • Application of Deep Learning Approach for detecting Brain Tumor in MR Images   Order a copy of this article
    by Jyoti Agarwal, Manoj Kumar, Anuj Rani, Sunil Gupta 
    Abstract: A tumour is an abnormal mass of tissue which consume normal body cells, kill them, and continue to increase in size. For detection of infected tumour area and lesions, magnetic resonance imaging has been used widely in medical field. Image processing and machine learning is also used widely for brain tumour detection and segmentation, but they are not the most appropriate ones, therefore methods involving deep learning are also proposed for the same. In this paper, six traditional machine learning classification algorithms are compared. Afterwards, convolutional neural network is implemented using Keras and TensorFlow in python. Two different CNN based models VGG16 and DenseNet available in Keras trained on imagenet dataset is also used. The dataset contains in total 253 images which were later augmented to train the model better. From results, it was analysed that deep learning algorithms yield better results than the traditional ML classification algorithms.
    Keywords: brain tumour; CNN; deep learning; model; pooling; DenseNet; TensorFlow.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046183
     
  • Campus Smart Street Lamps Using Internet of Things Technology   Order a copy of this article
    by Mengxia Liu 
    Abstract: Based on the Internet of Things (IoT), this paper analysed the intelligent control of campus street lamps, designed an intelligent system combined with fuzzy control, and tested the system. The test found that the system had good networking and communication capabilities. When the distance was 100 m, the packet loss rate was 6.05%. Compared with the time control and light control systems, the designed system had smaller parameters and better energy-saving performance (63.59%). The results verify the effectiveness of the designed system in intelligent control. And the designed system can be further promoted and applied in the actual campus construction.
    Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; intelligent street lamp system; campus construction; fuzzy control; ZigBee.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046184
     
  • Techniques to safeguard the Underground Tunnels against Surface Blast load   Order a copy of this article
    by SENTHIL KASILINGAM, Muskaan Sethi, Loizos Pelecanos 
    Abstract: Due to the growth of underground tunnels, the safety of structures under blast loading is a major threat. Therefore, this paper focused on various techniques such as tunnel burial depth, tunnel shape, tunnel lining materials and varying the location of the blast source to safeguard underground tunnels against blast load using numerical analysis. The behaviour of concrete, reinforcement steel and the soil were incorporated by using the different constitutive model available in ABAQUS v. 2020. The predicted results were compared with the experimental results available in literature and found in close agreement. It is concluded that the layering of soil filling and depth of the burial of the tunnel found to be most important in case of external blast, whereas the stress bearing capacity of the concrete found to be important in case of internal blast. It is also concluded that the circular shape tunnel is one of the best performing tunnels.
    Keywords: tunnels; blast load; burial depth; lining materials; tunnel shape; blast location.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046185
     
  • The Vibration Control of Magnetorheological Elastomer Damper for Eccentric Workshop   Order a copy of this article
    by Changsheng Wang 
    Abstract: Aiming at the problem of translational and torsional vibration of the eccentric structure under earthquake, the control effect of magnetorheological elastomer damper on translational and torsional vibration of the eccentric workshop structure is studied. Firstly, the mechanical model of magnetorheological elastomer damper and a finite element model of the structure are established. Then, the finite element simulation is utilised to analyse the damping effect of the damper on the structure. The analysis results show that the damping effect of the damper on the translational vibration of the eighth layer of the structure is 43.27%, and the damping effect on the torsional response of the fifth layer is 37.37%. Finally, do a shaking table test. The test results show that when the damper acts, the translational displacement of the top layer of the structure decreases by 34.97%, and the torsional response of the fifth layer of the structure reduces by 41.58%.
    Keywords: eccentric workshop; magnetorheological elastomer damper; mechanics model; shaking table test; damping effect.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046208
     
  • Critical Infrastructures: A Comparison of Definitions   Order a copy of this article
    by Kim Smith, Ian Wilson 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify common characteristics of critical infrastructure that is informed by national, standards and academic sources. A fundamental understanding of the interconnectivity and dependencies and interdependencies that exist within critical infrastructure is essential to ensure international protection. In working towards an international definition of critical infrastructure there will need to be cooperation and collaboration between nations. The paper determines, through analysis, the foundation of critical infrastructure and its complexity given national and international links to support collective understanding. The paper highlights the potential harm that can be caused if critical infrastructure links are not fully understood. A definition of critical infrastructure is proposed, and future work suggested.
    Keywords: critical infrastructure; dependencies; interdependencies; complexity; vulnerabilities; infrastructure characteristics.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046186
     
  • A Comparative Framework for Cyber Threat Modelling: Case of Healthcare and Industrial Control Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Mobolarinwa Balogun, Hayretdin Bahsi, Omer F. Keskin, Unal Tatar 
    Abstract: Cyberattacks target organisations and cause property loss, disruption of operation, and for healthcare facilities, even loss of life. With the advent of the internet of things (IoT) devices, the attack surface has extended significantly. Organisations need a cyber threat modelling approach to assess their network from the attackers’ perspective to safeguard their assets better. In this study, a framework was developed to compare cyber threat modelling of various IoT networks by focusing on the capabilities of the threat actors in the light of various factors, such as accessibility, stealth, technical ability, and time. The developed framework is applied to two different networks: SCADA and healthcare IoT infrastructure for demonstration. The results suggest that it is possible to cause a physical impact in IoT-based healthcare systems by using less sophisticated cyberattacks.
    Keywords: cyberattack; SCADA; internet of things; IoT; threat modelling; attack trees; attack sophistication; healthcare.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046187
     
  • A Systematic Mapping on Cascading Effects in Critical Infrastructures   Order a copy of this article
    by Beatriz Toscano, André Fernandes, Miguel Mira Da Silva, Flávia Santoro 
    Abstract: Critical infrastructures (CIs) are crucial assets for society and the economy, since they are responsible for supplying essential goods and services. Currently, and increasingly, CIs depend on each other. This interdependency among CIs makes them vulnerable to cascading disasters on a large scale, which can have a huge impact. The interconnection among CIs makes that a failure in a CI can affect another CI(s), generating so-called cascading effects. Cascading effects on CIs make a research area worthy of study and investigation and have considerable interest in terms of resilience and risk management. This paper aims to provide, through a systematic mapping study, an overview of the existing literature on cascading effects in critical infrastructures, detailing the work performed in this domain. In addition, the paper also identifies the approaches that are being taken in the context of cascade effects in critical infrastructures. We also discuss the relationship between cascade effects and infrastructures interdependencies.
    Keywords: systematic mapping; cascading effects; interdependency; critical infrastructures.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046189
     
  • Master Planning Frame for Road Infrastructure Projects: Decision Making Model for Private Investments   Order a copy of this article
    by Norayr Badasyan, Andreas Wibowo, Ansgar Bendiek 
    Abstract: This paper develops a project management framework that master plans private investments in road infrastructure by providing the primary mechanisms for monetarising social benefits under different public-private partnership payment mechanisms. Its novelty lies in providing a platform for decision-makers to compare various private investment alternatives by assessing the possible impacts of the payment mechanisms on the relevant projects’ social benefits and economic results. The paper uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. It determines the main social effects of the relevant projects under a social welfare framework and develops formulas that enable decision-makers to compare the impact of various payment mechanisms on the added social value. This paper demonstrates that the social outcomes of projects can vary considerably, depending on the chosen payment mechanism. The proposed framework will facilitate the stakeholders to develop projects with a broader spectrum of possible analyses to correlate payment mechanisms and social welfare.
    Keywords: public-private partnership; PPP; infrastructure management; infrastructure economics; economic net present value; project management; road sector.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10044516
     
  • CPW-Fed Printed Patch Antenna for 5G-IoT Infrastructure Development   Order a copy of this article
    by KAUSHAL MUKHERJEE, Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay, Sahadev Roy 
    Abstract: Antennas with a high gain, good radiation efficiency, and an omnidirectional radiation pattern over a wide bandwidth will be able to solve some of the issues of existing communication networks. In this work a comparative analysis of different types of 5G antenna along with their performance improvements techniques are discussed. In this study we also proposed a simple planar printed antenna which is also offered high gain and desired radiation efficiencies. The proposed work is different in that, despite being a planar printed antenna, the antenna achieves a wider bandwidth of 4.5 GHz, peak gain of 11.6 dB, radiation efficiency of 92%, VSWR of 1.2, and SAR of 1.42 W/Kg for 1 g of tissue by utilising a U-shape of slot over the radiating patch structure and also useful for 5G-IoT-based Infrastructure developments as a replacement for multi-layer antennas.
    Keywords: 5G network; CPW-fed; single layer; printed patch antenna; data infrastructure development; internet of things; IoT; millimetre wave band; mmW.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046124
     
  • Success Factors and Lessons Learned during the Implementation of a Cooperative Space for Critical Infrastructures   Order a copy of this article
    by Luciano Morabito, Benoit Robert 
    Abstract: It is largely documented that the exchange of information among critical infrastructures (CIs) is crucial to strategies involving the identification of their interdependencies and increasing their resilience. Based on the experience of the Centre Risque & Performance, Polytechnique Montr
    Keywords: collaboration; cooperation; critical infrastructures; domino effects; information sharing; integrated risk management; interdependencies; large organisations; knowledge; social constructivism.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046126
     
  • Fault location of high voltage overhead transmission line based on ACO-ENN algorithm.   Order a copy of this article
    by Guangxin Zhang, Qi Zhang, Jun Ma, Gang Liu, Dong Sun, Zimeng Zhang 
    Abstract: Aiming at solving the problems of poor positioning accuracy and long time in traditional methods, a fault location of high voltage overhead transmission line based on ACO-ENN algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, self-coding neural network is used to reduce dimension of transmission line signal data. Secondly, the relationship between fault distance and natural frequency is obtained by main frequency extraction method. Finally, ACO-ENN algorithm is used to construct the hidden interlayer weight matrix to obtain the fault location error function of the transmission line, and the fault location result of the high voltage overhead transmission line is obtained under the condition of the minimum error function. The results show that the mean square error of the proposed method is less than 187 m, and when the fault distance of the high voltage overhead transmission line is 300 km, the fault location time of the proposed method is only 0.43 s.
    Keywords: ACO-ENN algorithm; high voltage overhead; transmission line; fault location; main frequency extraction; self-coding neural network; error function.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046155
     
  • new A construction schedule management method of large-scale construction project based on BIM model   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheng Yin 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long response time and small number of manageable indicators existing in traditional construction project schedule management methods, a new construction schedule management method based on BIM model is designed in this paper. The construction progress data acquisition and decoding module circuit is set to complete the construction progress data acquisition, and the K-means algorithm is used to preprocess the construction progress data. Decompose the construction project progress, divide the large-scale construction project into different progress management levels by WBS analysis method, establish functional information module, import the construction project progress data into BIM model, and realise the BIM information function management of the method. The experimental results show that the proposed method has low response time and multiple schedule management indicators, and the shortest response time of the proposed method is only 1.1 s.
    Keywords: management pheromone; management rules; definition residue; BIM model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10046163
     
  • new Maritime Cyber-Insurance: The Norwegian Case   Order a copy of this article
    by Ulrik Franke, Even Langfeldt Friberg, Hayretdin Bahsi 
    Abstract: Major cyber incidents such as the Maersk case have demonstrated that the lack of cyber security can induce huge operational losses in the maritime sector. Cyber-insurance is an instrument of risk transfer, enabling organisations to insure themselves against financial losses caused by cyber incidents and get access to incident management services. This paper provides an empirical study of the use of cyber-insurance in the Norwegian maritime sector, with a particular emphasis on the effects of the General Data Protection Regulation and the Directive on Security of Network and Information Systems. Norway constitutes a significant case as a country having a highly mature IT infrastructure and well-developed maritime industry. Interviews were conducted with supplier- and demand-side maritime actors. Findings point to a widespread lack of knowledge about cyber-insurance. Furthermore, neither GDPR nor NIS were found to be significant drivers of cyber-insurance uptake among maritime organisations.
    Keywords: security; risk; policy; regulation; cyber-insurance; information sharing.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2022.10046164
     
  • The dynamic and secure storage of enterprise financial data based on cloud platform   Order a copy of this article
    by Li Zhang  
    Abstract: n order to overcome the problems of poor data security, low integrity and long storage time of traditional methods, this paper proposes a dynamic and secure storage method of enterprise financial data based on cloud platform. Firstly, the absolute correlation degree of the data in the financial database is calculated by using the grey correlation analysis method, and the data mining and clustering are carried out according to the results of the absolute correlation degree calculation. Then, the DES algorithm is used to encrypt the clustering results of financial data and remove redundant data. Finally, according to the cloud platform access time length, access frequency and the relationship between enterprise financial datasets to achieve data dynamic security storage. Experimental results show that this method can encrypt all data, the average integrity of the storage results is 9.7, the average storage time is 0.51 s, and the practical application effect is good.
    Keywords: cloud platform; corporate financial data; dynamic security storage; absolute correlation degree; DES algorithm.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046613
     
  • Intelligent Agent for Hurricane Emergency Identification and Text Information Extraction from Streaming Social Media Big Data   Order a copy of this article
    by Jingwei Huang, Wael Khallouli, Ghaith Rabadi, Mamadou Seck 
    Abstract: This paper presents our research on leveraging social media big data and AI to support hurricane disaster emergency response. The current practice of hurricane emergency response for rescue highly relies on emergency call centres. The more recent Hurricane Harvey event reveals the limitations of the current systems. We use Hurricane Harvey and the associated Houston flooding as the motivating scenario to conduct research and develop a prototype as a proof-of-concept of using an intelligent agent as a complementary role to support emergency centres in hurricane emergency response. This intelligent agent is used to collect real-time streaming tweets during a natural disaster, to identify tweets requesting rescue, to extract key information such as address and associated geocode, and to visualise the extracted information in an interactive map in decision supports. Our experiment shows promising outcomes and the potential application of the research in support of hurricane emergency response.
    Keywords: big data; social media; twitter; tweets; information extraction; emergency response; natural disaster; hurricane; hurricane Harvey; flooding.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10046727
     
  • Political Protests and its Impacts on Interdependent Infrastructure Systems   Order a copy of this article
    by Yousaf Ali, Jehangir Khan, Muhammad Sabir 
    Abstract: Political uncertainty and protests can influence any economy in many ways. Despite abundant scholarly literature on the economic impacts of political protests, not a single study investigated the impacts of such unlikely events on the entire economy using various sectors of the economy. The current work applies the inoperability input-output model (IIM) and dynamic inoperability input-output model (DIIM) to study the economic impacts of political protests in Pakistan from 14 August 2014 to 17 December 2014. The study calculates each sector’s inoperability levels and economic losses using input-output tables for 25 sectors of the Pakistan economy. The study ranks all sectors based on their inoperability levels and economic losses and also provides the recovery period for each sector from the protests. The findings indicate that sectors having strong linkages with the manufacturing sector bear the highest economic losses. The research is helpful for the authorities to develop preventive measurements and recovery plans to minimise the economic losses in case of such unlikely events.
    Keywords: protests; economic shock; inoperability input-output model; IIM; dynamic inoperability input-output; DIIM; disaster management; Pakistan.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10046728
     
  • A construction schedule management method of large-scale construction project based on BIM model   Order a copy of this article
    by Sheng Yin 
    Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long response time and small number of manageable indicators existing in traditional construction project schedule management methods, a new construction schedule management method based on BIM model is designed in this paper. The construction progress data acquisition and decoding module circuit is set to complete the construction progress data acquisition, and the K-means algorithm is used to preprocess the construction progress data. Decompose the construction project progress, divide the large-scale construction project into different progress management levels by WBS analysis method, establish functional information module, import the construction project progress data into BIM model, and realise the BIM information function management of the method. The experimental results show that the proposed method has low response time and multiple schedule management indicators, and the shortest response time of the proposed method is only 1.1 s.
    Keywords: management pheromone; management rules; definition residue; BIM model.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2023.10046738
     
  • CLOSING THE GAP: FINANCIAL CLOSURE IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP MARKETS   Order a copy of this article
    by Alex Nduhura, Thekiso Molokwane, Muhiya Tshombe Lukamba, Innocent Nuwagaba, Francis Can 
    Abstract: The paper analyses the context of financial closure in public private partnerships markets. Existing studies indicate that the success rate of projects that move to the financial closure is limited and stands at less than 50%. To improve the financial closure rates, this study aimed at establishing process for, factors and challenges associated with financial closure for public private partnerships. Based on a review of existing literature, this paper identifies the factors responsible for the high failure rate of financial closure and provides recommendations, necessary for improving the success rate of financial closure. The outcome of this study is important since it makes an invaluable and original contribution to the PPP body of knowledge, since the paper provides a range of issues and activities that must be considered to improve the success rate for financial closure is historically rated as too long and with low chance of success.
    Keywords: financial closure; public private partnerships; PPPs; infrastructure.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10046958
     
  • Utilizing the Fuzzy Analytic Network Process Technique to Prioritize Safety Challenges in Construction Projects   Order a copy of this article
    by Pouyakian Mostafa, Ali Akbar Shafikhani, Amir Abbas Najafi, Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi, Amir Kavousi 
    Abstract: This study aims to identify and rank the obstacles to implementing a safety program in the Iranian construction industry. The obstacles were identified through literature review and interviews with experts in the Iranian construction industry. Because of the complex structure of the relationships between the obstacles and their mutual effects, the fuzzy analysis network Process method was used to model them. Obstacles to safety implementation were identified and ranked using the proposed model. Fourteen obstacles were identified in the three organisational, contractors, and systems dimensions. The most critical obstacles include tight project schedules, resource constraints, fierce competition between contractors to reduce time and cost. This study showed that the Iranian construction industry, despite its advantages, faces obstacles in the successful implementation of safety programs. It seems that the identified obstacles can be removed by modelling the safety program in project scheduling. However, more studies are needed in this area.
    Keywords: safety; accidents; construction; analytic network process; ANP; fuzzy evaluation.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10047707
     
  • Simulation-based seismic risk and robustness assessment of aging bridge networks   Order a copy of this article
    by Tian Lu, Luca Capacci, Mattia Anghileri, Silvia Bianchi, Luo Dong, Fabio Biondini 
    Abstract: Civil infrastructure systems are prone to environmental deterioration processes that gradually reduce their mechanical properties and their capability to sustain severe natural hazards, such as earthquakes. The rate of occurrence of major seismic events, the time-variant seismic vulnerability of single bridges, and the indirect economic losses due to traffic flow redistribution related to the closure of key routes within the highway network are affected by uncertainties to be addressed by modelling their constitutive parameters as random variables and processes. This paper presents an integrated simulation-based methodology to estimate the user cost-based risk and system robustness of spatially-distributed bridge networks subjected to prescribed deterioration and regional seismic hazard scenarios. Life-cycle seismic risk metrics are evaluated in terms of bridges failure rates and exceedance rates of indirect monetary losses based on free-flow traffic analysis and user cost assessment. The lifetime system robustness is also evaluated based on appropriate probabilistic performance indicators.
    Keywords: multi-hazard risk; structural robustness; Monte Carlo simulation; MCS; aging bridge networks; seismic hazard; fragility curves; user cost.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10048368
     
  • Land Value Capture as Breakthrough of Financing Scheme in Urban Railway Development in Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Fery Safaria, Najid Najid, Carunia Firdausy 
    Abstract: This study aims at examining whether or not the LVC can be used as an alternative financing instrument in urban railway infrastructure in Indonesia. The results confirmed that the LVC can be a breakthrough scheme in financing the development of urban railway infrastructure in Indonesia. The most urgent aspect to be prepared by the government to implement the LVC scheme in financing the urban railway infrastructure is the availability of regulations. Also, the approach to developing and executing the plan of LVC needs to be based on an assessment of the cost of the benefit analysis, the land value, the market condition of the location, sustainability, and people’s participation in urban railway development. Further detailed research to examine the full potential and the benefits of applying the LVC in financing urban railway infrastructure development is needed as Indonesia faces budget constraints and as we move into a post-pandemic recovery.
    Keywords: land value capture; LVC; financial scheme; budget limit; urban railway infrastructures; Indonesia.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10049301
     
  • Investigating Safety Development Methodologies in the Construction Industry and Identifying Gaps in the Studies: A Review Article   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostafa Pouyakian, Ali Akbar Shafikhani, Amir Abbas Najafi, Behrouz Afshar Nadjafi, Amir Kavousi 
    Abstract: Identifying the appropriate safety methodology is essential to improving construction safety performance. This study aims to investigate safety development methodologies in the construction industry and identify gaps in the studies. Articles published from 2000 to 2022 were reviewed. Seventy-seven eligible articles were selected based on comprehensive and exclusive criteria. After obtaining selected literature, gaps in using these methodologies were discussed. Twelve criteria were used to compare safety methodologies. The selected literature focused more on the construction phase and did not provide an effective strategy in the project planning phase. Although the studies had specific benefits, none examined the safety program based on actual project conditions (resource, time, and cost constraints). There is a need for a model that examines safety in terms of actual project conditions (time, cost, and resource constraints). In addition, the model must optimise not only safety but also other vital components of the project (cost, time, and quality) while considering resource constraints (especially equipment constraints). If such a model is designed, the project team will not resist safety changes, which benefits all the construction stakeholders.
    Keywords: construction industry; safety management; project schedule; occupational health.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10049397
     
  • Social and Economic Risk Analysis of Natural Gas Distribution Networks
    by Fabrizio Zuena, Marco Dell'Isola, Giorgio Ficco, Luisa Lavalle, Alberto Tofani 
    Abstract: The continuity of service as well as with its safety and security represent a crucial issue for natural gas transmission and distribution networks and a detailed analysis of the associated risks is essential to increase their reliability. In particular, natural gas distribution networks are characterised by a high number of users and present a very complex structure (with nodes and stretches and presenting mixed typologies, e.g., point to point, star, meshed) which make often difficult to forecast the effects of localised failure events, especially by a social and economic point of view. In this work, the authors develop a methodology for the analysis of the economic and social risk associated with natural gas distribution network failures and for the quantification of the related consequences on residential, commercial and/or industrial users. To this aim, the authors present and discuss the case study represented by a city distribution network located in southern Italy. The results demonstrate the developed method is effective in identifying the structural criticalities of the network, allowing the quick detection of the most critical areas affected by significant risk of service disruption.
    Keywords: failure analysis; risk analysis; distribution network; natural gas.

  • Argentina’s critical infrastructures: topics for their regulation
    by Gonzalo CACERES 
    Abstract: Argentina’s last National Defence Policy Directive (2021) explicitly mentions the protection of critical infrastructures, making it necessary to define them, establish priorities and responsibilities. However, Argentina published a first critical infrastructure standard in 2019 that lists vaguely those sectors to be included. The resolution does not allow to program actions and establish responsibilities since there is no identification of actors and, therefore, of their duties. In this article, we will discuss the relevant aspects that could be considered for future legislative work in Argentina and the role of the Ministry of Defence. Main topics are: 1) the genesis of the notion of critical infrastructures and the aspects that gave rise to their identification as the object of security policy and that of National Defence in particular; 2) those cases that are of interest in thinking about the national case in comparative perspective; 3) a synthesis of the elements under discussion that we understand structure the treatment of critical infrastructures.
    Keywords: critical infrastructure legislation; Argentina; national defence; security.

  • Efficient Indian Sign Language Recognition and Classification Using Enhanced Machine Learning Approach
    by Edwin Shalom Soji, T. Kamalakannan 
    Abstract: Deafness and voice impairment are two significant disabilities that make it difficult for people to communicate in verbal languages with others in a verbally communicating population. To solve this problem, the sign language recognition (SLR) system was constructed by combining machine learning and deep learning. The SLR employs hand gestures to convey messages. Earlier research aims to develop vision-based recognisers by extracting feature descriptors from gesture photos. When dealing with a large sign vocabulary recorded under chaotic and complex backgrounds, these strategies are ineffective. Hence, an improved convolution neural network is proposed in this paper to predict the most frequently used gestures in the Indian population with improved efficiency. The presented system is compared to SVM and CNN. The suggested approach is tested on 2,565 UCI instances and 22 training attributes. It showed both-handed ISL movements against various backgrounds. The augmented CNN has a precision of 89% and 90.1% accuracy, which is higher than most other approaches. According to this survey, we had an 83% recall and a 0.4 F score. Python evaluates our work.
    Keywords: sign language recognition; SLR; machine learning; convolution neural network; CNN; Indian sign languages; ISLs; accuracy; precision.

  • Non-Invasive Prediction Mechanism for COVID
    by Arnav Bhardwaj, Hitesh Agarwal, Anuj Rani, Prakash Srivastava, Manoj Kumar, Sunil Gupta 
    Abstract: This paper has focused on developing a model to detect non-diagnostically whether the person is infected with the COVID-19 disease using all relevant symptoms and details mentioned by the person and then comparing it with a pre-defined dataset of positive cases using machine learning. Different models have been developed to predict the same but none of them focused on the detection of COVID-19 based on symptoms. In a developing nation with huge population, where the diagnostic availability is scarce so, just scanning the body temperature will not help in detection of COVID-19 of a particular individual. This paper presents a model that can predict COVID-19 cases without any testing kit to an accuracy of 99.30%, performing better than other similar approaches with objective to put forward a method that can reduce the need of producing testing kits and also the need to wait for hours before we get the results.
    Keywords: COVID-19; non-invasive; symptoms; machine learning.

  • Non-Invasive Prediction Mechanism for COVID
    by Arnav Bhardwaj 
    Abstract: This paper has focused on developing a model to detect non-diagnostically whether the person is infected with the COVID-19 disease using all relevant symptoms and details mentioned by the person and then comparing it with a pre-defined dataset of positive cases using machine learning. Different models have been developed to predict the same but none of them focused on the detection of COVID-19 based on symptoms. In a developing nation with huge population, where the diagnostic availability is scarce so, just scanning the body temperature will not help in detection of COVID-19 of a particular individual. This paper presents a model that can predict COVID-19 cases without any testing kit to an accuracy of 99.30%, performing better than other similar approaches with objective to put forward a method that can reduce the need of producing testing kits and also the need to wait for hours before we get the results.
    Keywords: COVID-19; non-invasive; symptoms; machine learning.

  • A Structured Model for Identification and Classification of Critical Information Infrastructure
    by Alaba O. Adejimi, Adesina S. Sodiya, Olusegun Ojesanmi, Olusola J. Adeniran 
    Abstract: The growing incidence of attacks on critical information infrastructures has necessitated the development of a model for properly identifying and designating information infrastructure whose destruction or interruption could jeopardise the well-being of a state and ensure its preservation. Some of the previous methodologies and models were prejudiced, lacked scientific support, and the criticality criteria were not categorised to encompass global demands. To universally determine the criticality of information infrastructure, this work proposes a factor impact sensitivity approach (FISA), which identifies, structures, and models relevant state criteria into mathematical concepts. An application was developed to implement the structured mathematical model and designate an infrastructure as
    Keywords: criticality strength; information infrastructure; categorisation; multi-criteria; impact factor; risk assessment; alternative scope; likelihood; disruption.

  • Stacking-based Multi-objective Approach for Detection of Smart Power Grid Attacks using Evolutionary Ensemble Learning
    by Manikant Panthi, Tanmoy Kanti Das 
    Abstract: Smart power grid (SPG) has gained a reputation as the advanced paradigm of the power grid. It provides a medium for exchanging real-time data between the company and users through the advanced metering infrastructure delivering transparent and resilient service to electricity consumers. The widespread deployment of remotely accessible networked equipment for grid monitoring and control has vastly increased the surface of SPG for attackers to locate vulnerable points. The early and accurate identification of the above counteracts is paramount to ensure stable and efficient power distribution. This paper proposes a stacking-based multi-objective evolutionary ensemble scheme to identify various attacks in the SPG. The proposed method used a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm to learn the non-linear, overlapping, and complex electrical grid features to predict the type of malicious attacks. The experimental results and comparison using multiclass dataset validate the presented
    Keywords: non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm; cyber-attack; power grid; machine learning.

  • Real-world application of face mask detection system using YOLOv6   Order a copy of this article
    by Jonathan Atrey, Rajeshkannan Regunathan, Rajasekaran Rajkumar 
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic has drastically reshaped the human lifestyle and has placed immense importance on our health, safety, and sanitation practices. Among the various safety protocols assigned by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for the same, the usage of face masks to prevent the spread of the virus from an infected person to a healthy person has been of prime significance. To enable efficient execution of the WHO protocol, this case study proposes creating a real-time detection model built explicitly for capturing an audience to alert people who are not following COVID prevention protocols. The proposed case study utilises the state-of-the-art (SOTA) YOLOv6 algorithm along with different iterations of the YOLO algorithm, such as YOLOv4, and YOLOv5, for representing the variation in training performance among various iterations of YOLO. Further, it discusses and analyses the effectiveness of using a real-time detector for face mask detection. This study aims to decrease the risk of a healthy person being affected by the COVID-19 virus by keeping a check on a designated crowd and contributes towards the prevention of the further spread of the virus by crowd monitoring and control methods. The real-time implementation of the proposed case study reports a positive impact, with a 36% increment in people following the standard COVID-19 protocol of wearing masks in public places.
    Keywords: YOLOv6; DarkNetCSP; CNN; COVID-19; case study; computer vision; ecological studies; healthcare-related research; real-time monitoring system.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10052165
     
  • IoT Cloud-based Telecare Medical Healthcare System with Lightweight Authentication Scheme   Order a copy of this article
    by Sunil Gupta, Goldie Gabrani 
    Abstract: TMIS has huge potential for enhancing health care delivery, it also creates certain issues with regards to accessibility, privacy, security and confidentiality of sensitive patient information. Son et al.’s (2020) proposal for a secure authentication mechanism for cloud-based TMIS differs from Amin and Biswas’ (2015a) proposal for a TMIS architecture based on numerous physical servers. For gaining access to the medical servers, they have devised an authentication system. They have argued that their scheme removes all the shortcomings of earlier schemes. We, in this paper, will show that their architecture based on dedicated multiple physical servers has certain limitations. Such systems are usually either under-provisioned or over-provisioned and are quite expensive. In addition, Amin and Biswas (2015a) Mutual authentication and user anonymity are not provided by the scheme, and therefore is vulnerable to malicious assaults. In order to get over these restrictions, we suggest I a unique design for the TMIS based on cloud based on OTP. We show that the performance of our suggested system is enhanced while simultaneously overcoming the drawbacks of Amin and Biswas (2015a) approach.
    Keywords: smart card; IoT-cloud computing; mutual authentication; telecare medical information systems; TMIS; one-time password; OTP; anonymity; AVISPA.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10052846
     
  • Non-Linear Control Based Class-D Amplifier for Audio Intelligent Infrastructure Applications
    by Sridhar Joshi, S.Silvia Priscila, Suman Rajest George, Kriti Srivastava, Prasath Alias Surendhar S, Rajasekaran Rajkumar 
    Abstract: A nonlinear control-based class-D amplifier using a dc power source for medium-power audio applications is proposed in this paper. The amplifier utilises switches in a half-bridge configuration to realise the class-D power stage. A passive second-order bandpass filter is cascaded with the power stage to render a highly linear audio amplifier for high-quality audio reproduction. A nonlinear technique-based controller is used for a closed-loop amplifier system which offers high immunity to power supply noise, robustness, and fault tolerance without using a triangular carrier generator. An 80 W, 20 Hz to 20 kHz amplifier model is developed considering the nonlinearity present in the power electronic switches of the power stage. Simulation results of the proposed amplifier with a full range 4 ? loudspeaker load are presented. The amplifier’s response at different frequencies in the audio spectrum is presented, which confirms the amplifier’s linearity and command following property. To confirm the high linearity of the amplifier, the THD versus frequency plot is depicted, which ensures the suitability of the proposed amplifier for high-fidelity audio amplification.
    Keywords: nonlinear control; class-D; amplifier; audio applications; intelligent infrastructures; power supply noise; robustness; half-bridge audio amplifier; HBAA; PWM wave.

  • Study on the influence of deep foundation pit excavation on the deformation of adjacent viaduct pile foundation   Order a copy of this article
    by Haitao Wang, Mingyang Xu, Tao Guo, Minghua Cui, Jiangtao Tian 
    Abstract: In order to study the influence of deep foundation pit excavation on the deformation of adjacent viaduct pile foundation in water-rich karst environment, a three-dimensional finite element analysis model was established, and the dewatering process of deep foundation pit was simulated. The results show that with the increasing of pile depth, the horizontal displacement of pile foundation is larger at the top and smaller at the bottom. The dewatering of deep foundation pit has influence on the bending moment and axial force of adjacent viaduct pile foundation, but they are in a relatively safe range. The horizontal displacement of bridge pile is negatively correlated with the distance between bridge pile and deep foundation pit, the supporting stiffness of deep foundation pit and the elastic modulus of the first layer soil.
    Keywords: Deep foundation pit; Pile foundation; Bridge pier; Numerical calculation; Influence parameters; Karst cave.
    DOI: 10.1504/IJCIS.2024.10053029
     
  • Critical success factors of Composite LPG Cylinders in India
    by Binod Kumar Singh, Tamajeet Chatterjee, Nistha Srivastava Srivastava, Mahesh Amarjit S.V 
    Abstract: Metal cylinders are being phased out in favour of composite LPG cylinders. These cylinders are light, have a pleasing colour and shape, are rust and corrosion resistant, UV resistant, and also 100% explosion proof. The aim of this study is to understand consumer’s awareness level and likeliness to shift to composite LPG cylinders. The paper studies the relative strength and weaknesses of composite LPG cylinders in comparison with traditional metal cylinders. This paper provides the opportunity to identify the consumer’s needs and to bridge by suggesting technological applications, thus giving an idea to streamline the value chain of LPG cylinder distribution. This study also provides a holistic study of both B2B and B2C segments in the LPG cylinder value chain and thus provides a scope of improving the existing system. The paper will help the business leaders in composite LPG cylinder manufacturing along with cost saving opportunities to the distributors in the long run.
    Keywords: type IV composite cylinders; metal LPG cylinder; composite LPG cylinder; composite cylinder pricing; market feasibility; LPG cylinder safety; India.