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International Journal of Critical Infrastructures
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International Journal of Critical Infrastructures (41 papers in press)
Abstract: Critical infrastructures (CIs) are crucial assets for society and the economy, as they are responsible for providing essential goods and services. The interdependence between CIs makes them vulnerable to large-scale cascading disasters that can significantly impacts society. Cascading effects in CIs are thus a worthy area of study and research, with considerable interests in terms of resilience and risk management. In this paper, a domain ontology of cascading effects was developed using the systematic approach to ontology construction (SaBiO) methodology, which provides guidelines for developing domain ontologies. A systematic literature review (SLR) was used to obtain information, an essential part of the first phase of SaBiO. This research identified the main concepts in the domain of cascading effects. Additionally, the relations between the concepts were also identified, which were formalised in the proposed ontology. Besides the proposed ontology, a small analysis of the domain of the cascading effects was also performed. The ontology proposed was also validated using real cases of cascading effects events from an organisation.
Keywords: systematic literature review; interdependencies; ontology; critical infrastructures; SaBiO; cascading effects.
Three-dimensional Finite Element Simulation Model Of Aluminum Beam With Lamination Defects Based On Two-dimensional Fourier Transform
by De-biao Zhao, Yong-yan Wang
Abstract: In order to solve the problems of low detection accuracy and poor modeling effect of traditional methods in establishing the model for aluminum beam with lamination defects, a 3D finite element simulation model for aluminum beam with lamination defects based on 2D Fourier transform is proposed in this paper. In this model, 2D Fourier transform method is used to obtain the full-wave-field signal of aluminum beam structure, and the spatial position wavenumber change curve of the full-wave-field signal in frequency domain
Keywords: 3D finite element; simulation model; lamination defect; aluminum beam; 3D point cloud map; 3D image boundary contour.
A Decision Support Tool for optimal configuration of Critical Infrastructures
by Andrea Tortorelli, Roberto Germanà, Alessandro Giuseppi, Vincenzo Suraci, Andrea Fiaschetti, Andrea Andreani, Francesco Delli Priscoli
Abstract: The objective of the present work is to present a Decision Support System (DSS) aimed at suggesting to a Critical Infrastructure (CI) operator the optimal configuration in terms of deployed security functionalities. The optimization framework adopted by the proposed DSS uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for exploring the solution space and exploits an extended version of the Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) for evaluating the security level of given configurations. Such security evaluation allows to provide CI operator with a holistic insight on the system security level, also by exploiting the knowledge stored in vulnerability databases such as the Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). The performance of three different implementations of the adopted GA are evaluated in realistic operational scenarios and the solutions are validated from a security point of view.
Keywords: Critical Infrastructures; Cyber-physical security; Decision Support Systems; Genetic Algorithms.
The Application Of Bim Technology In The Research On Seismic Performance Of Shear Wall Structure Of Prefabricated Residential Buildings
by Jianwei Chen, Hongwei Ren
Abstract: In order to overcome the problem that the seismic analysis of shear wall is not comprehensive enough and the method efficiency is low, this paper proposes a new method to study the seismic performance of prefabricated shear wall structure. This method selects the technical problems in the construction process of a project for detailed analysis, including the construction process of shear wall structure of prefabricated residential buildings, vertical components and other processes. At the same time, BIM Technology is applied to the prefabricated residential buildings, and Tekla software is used to model the project, and the model is imported into Naviswork for the simulation analysis of four-dimensional construction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can comprehensively analyze the seismic performance of shear wall structure and carry out seismic design according to the requirements of different construction projects.
Keywords: BIM technology; prefabricated residential building; shear wall structure; seismic performance.
Research on Fault Location Method for Low-Voltage Active Distribution Network Based On Correlation Of Main Frequency Components
by YanJing Wang, Daohong Lin, Hongyan Liu, Xinshu Wan, Wangcheng Zhu, Qiang Wu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of poor fault tolerance and low fault recognition rate in traditional fault location methods for power grid, a new method of fault location for low-voltage active distribution network based on correlation of main frequency components is proposed in this paper. This method uses Prony algorithm to extract the main frequency components of distribution network, introduces hierarchical algorithm to construct the fault location model of low-voltage active distribution network, and combines intelligent algorithm to realize the research of fault location method for low-voltage active distribution network based on the correlation of main frequency components. The experimental results show that the fault tolerance rate of the proposed method based on the correlation of main frequency components is over 76% and the fault recognition rate is over 60%, which is obviously higher than other methods. It proves that the proposed method has better fault location performance.
Keywords: Main frequency components; Correlation; Low-voltage active power; Distribution Network; Fault; Location.
Seismic Isolation of Data Centers for Business Continuity
by M.Fevzi Esen
Abstract: Economic losses of earthquakes raised many questions regarding the adequacy of the current seismic design criteria and seismic isolation in data centers. Some organizations have accommodated new explicit seismic isolation applications in their business continuity and disaster recovery plans. These applications aim acceptable damage levels that correspond acceptable business interruption for data centers in case of an earthquake. In this study, we aim to discuss the importance of seismic isolation technologies which can be implemented for data centers against seismic disasters within business continuity and disaster recovery planning context. We conduct a literature review to provide a clearer aspect on seismic isolation applications for data centers. We conclude that GSA, ASCE and Uptime Institute provide internationally recognized standards which make raised floors a good option for data centers. These standards provide technical documentation for service functioning with high levels of availability during an outage.
Keywords: information technologies; data centers; seismic isolation; business continuity.
Prediction of COVID-19 Spread in World using Pandemic Dataset with Application of Auto ARIMA and SIR Models
by SUNIL GUPTA
Abstract: COVID-19 has now become worlds highly infectious disease because of the high transmission capability of the coronavirus. This virus has also deeply impacted the global economy. The world situation need the better predication analysis for prevention and decision making. The aim of this analysis is to use Auto-ARIMA model to predict the spread of coronavirus in the world in the next 100 days. We also determine when new confirmed cases, death cases and recovery of COVID-19 would stabilize in top most five affected countries. The results obtained from Auto-ARIMA are then compared with those obtained by applying Susceptible Infected Removed (SIR) model.
Keywords: COVID-19; Prediction; Auto ARIMA; SIR Model.
Study on the seismic behavior of upper masonry floor with variable stiffness for multi-story brick structures with bottom-frame based on finite element simulation
by Canbin Yin, Hongyu Deng, Zhonghao Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Baitao Sun, Peiyu Ying
Abstract: The upper masonry layers of the multi-story brick structures with bottom-frame were usually destroyed seriously in the actual earthquake. But it is not clear that whether the design method of equal rigidity in vertical direction of upper masonry layer is reasonable. In this paper, four contrastive models of bottom frame structures were established though ABAQUS, and the different design methods of variable vertical stiffness were used for the upper masonry layers. The seismic response results show that the upper masonry layers especially the transitional layer is severely damaged when the design method of equal rigidity in vertical direction is used. According to the principle that the stiffness of the floor in proportion to its seismic force, when the upper masonry layer uses the design method of variable stiffness along vertical direction, which can lead to uniform failure of each layer. The seismic performance of the whole structure is improved greatly.
Keywords: bottom frame structure; variable vertical stiffness; elastic-plastic time-history analysis; seismic behaviour.
Quantitative Assessment of Critical Infrastructures Degree of Dependency on Information and Communications Technology
by Victor Kulugh, Uche M. Mbanaso, Habiba Musa, Gilbert I.O. Aimufua, Emmanuel S. Dandaura
Abstract: This paper presents a computational model for the quantification of critical infrastructure (CI) degree of dependency on ICT. Traditional CIs that support modern society in providing uninterruptable vital services are increasingly ICT dependent. To build the needed bulwark against cyber threats, there is the need to assess their dependency on ICT since ICT infrastructure comes with vulnerabilities that amplify cyber risk. Consequently, the proposed computational model for the quantification of CI degree of dependency on ICT is a function of ICT metrics and indicators based on mathematical constructs. The outcome is ICT dependency index (IDI), and ICT dependency quadrant (IDQ), which compare, rank, and visualise the IDI of sectors and organisations. The findings show that no one sector can be chosen arbitrarily as the most critical ICT dependent. The model is particularly useful for developing countries to uniformly assess CIs degree of dependency on ICT as opposed to uninformed valuation.
Keywords: critical infrastructure; critical systems; critical national information infrastructure; ICT dependency.
A comparative study of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow rectangular footing subjected to eccentrically-inclined loads
by Sujata Gupta, Anupam Mital
Abstract: This study is presented for model tests conducted to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity (UBC) of eccentrically-inclined loaded rectangular foundation on sand. Various parameters were investigated in this study included depth of embedment (Df ? B), eccentricity (e / B) and the angle of inclination of applied loads (?). In the present study, the reduction factor is calculated as the ratio of UBC of rectangular footing subjected to eccentric and inclined load at any embedment depth to the UBC of the same footing under similar conditions but subjected to axial centric load. The reduction factor was compared with those based on the previous bearing capacity studies in this area. This comparison appears to be reasonably well. Furthermore, numerical analysis on the prototype footing was directed using commercial finite element method based software PLAXIS 3D to authenticate the test results. A very close agreement was found between experimental and numerical analysis.
Keywords: eccentric loading; load inclination; geogrid; rectangular footing; ultimate bearing capacity; UBC; reduction factor; PLAXIS 3D.
Comparative analysis of Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making methods in maintenance prioritization of infrastructure assets
by Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Farham Shahrivar, Chun-Qing Li
Abstract: The maintenance prioritisation of infrastructure assets is conventionally evaluated by calculating the risk an asset can pose to the owner organisation in terms of agreed criteria. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods are utilised to prioritise asset maintenance. Using fuzzy theory which is developed to deal with vagueness in human thinking is believed to release more accurate criteria weights and consequently alternative performance values in a qualitative multi-criteria decision-making evaluation. This paper presents an empirical application and comparison of four compensatory MCDM methods including technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), complex proportional assessment (COPRAS), weighted sum model (WSM), and weighted product model (WPM) in a fuzzy environment to prioritise irrigation asset maintenance. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method is used, also in a fuzzy environment, to obtain the criteria weights. Seven evaluation criteria and six irrigation channels from different areas in Northern Victoria, Australia, are considered as the case study data. Results of the MCDM methods are analysed and their reliability, simplicity, and applicability with pros and cons are evaluated. Finally, the most straightforward and at the same time reliable method for similar practical applications is suggested.
Keywords: Infrastructure maintenance prioritization; Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Weighted Sum Model (WSM); Weighted Product Model (WPM); COmplex PRoportion.
A Review on Smart Water Management in Various Domestic Areas: An Approach for Water Consumption and Leakage Perspectives
by V.A. Sankar Ponnapalli, Saiteja S
Abstract: One of the major issues that affecting the water utilities in the domestic areas is leakages through the distribution networks, non-revenue water estimation, and failure in the prediction of water consumption at individual spaces. This review paper basically focuses on these three important directions to understand the feasible domestic water management systems with integrated models of internet of things and artificial intelligence approaches. Different smart water management techniques have reported in the literature to improve the efficiency and avoiding non-revenue water issues and these are consolidated in this paper. Prediction failure of water utility in the water distribution systems is also presented in this paper. This article summarises a measure of water consumption statistics, a detailed summary of non-revenue water, and leak detection technologies at extensive areas to provide a wide sense of understanding for the prediction of the water consumption and the leakage detection.
Keywords: smart water management; leakages; non-revenue water; NREW; district metered area; DMA; artificial intelligence; domestic areas; water consumption; distribution networks.
SVM-Based predictive model for the most frequent structural failure in Bogota sewer system
by Alejandra Caicedo, Sergio Aldair Castiblanco Ballesteros, Leyner Cardenas Mercado, Jhonny Erick Valle Mendoza, Sandra Paola Espitia Layton, Luis Carlos Vanegas Granados, Andres Torres
Abstract: Deterioration models simulate non-inspected sewer pipelines structural conditions and are used to support strategic asset management. Most of the deterioration models have been constructed based on state ratings (SR) of the infrastructure. However, recent studies have shown that this simplification could provide incomplete information of the networks state, and therefore the SR may not be adequate to develop deterioration models. A support vector machine (SVM)-based modelling procedure was developed to predict the probabilities of structural failures of sewer pipes in urban areas and the reliability of these predictions. We applied this procedure to Bogotas sewer system. The results suggest that classification SVMs are feasible for developing predictive models of structural failures in sewer systems, which can be used to plan the inspections of sewerage networks, giving priority to specific areas where it is most likely to find the failure.
Keywords: sewer asset management; support vector machine; SVM; sewer failures; urban characteristics.
Research on green Building energy Consumption monitoring Method based on Discrete Cuckoo algorithm
by Xiaoliang Li, Jinfeng Lu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long instruction transmission period and poor accuracy of data connection in traditional monitoring methods, an energy consumption monitoring method for green building based on discrete cuckoo algorithm is proposed. Through the application of embedded system, it can collect green buildings energy consumption data and establish a database, and then use the discrete cuckoo algorithm to decode the energy consumption data. According to the simulation experiment data, it can be seen that: the daily power consumption and water consumption of green buildings collected by this method are closest to the actual results, which proves that the monitoring error of this method is small, the average value of monitoring instruction transmission period is 7.8 s, and the accuracy of data connection is always maintained above 90%. It shows that the method can effectively improve the monitoring effect of green building energy consumption.
Keywords: green building; energy consumption monitoring; discrete cuckoo; data decoding; sample correlation; regression analysis.
Research on differential settlement monitoring of highway expansion based on BIM technology
by Lili Zhou
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long response time and high error in traditional settlement monitoring methods of highway, a differential settlement monitoring method based on BIM technology is proposed in this paper. According to the large-scale general finite element program and geotechnical theory, the numerical analysis model of highway expansion project is established to obtain the deformation value of highway expansion subgrade under different subgrade design parameters and subgrade materials. The differential settlement deformation mode and influencing factors of highway expansion are analysed. According to the analysis results, combined with SAR and BIM technology, the differential settlement of expressway expansion in the study area is monitored. The simulation results show that the response time of the proposed method is always less than 5ms, the maximum monitoring error is only 0.067%, the response time is short and the monitoring error is small.
Keywords: BIM technology; highway; expansion; differential settlement; settlement monitoring; numerical analysis model.
Enhancing the resilience of drinking water infrastructures
by Ritsche Anne Kloosterman, Paulien M. Herder, Jan Peter Van Der Hoek
Abstract: Long term uncertainties in combination with long lifetime of assets of drinking water infrastructures (DWIs) and changing expectations of stakeholders make strategic decisions in drinking water infrastructures (DWIs) complex. A framework with building blocks and design spaces was developed to support these decisions. Building blocks, divided in governance and system properties, were generic resilience enhancing design principles found in literature. The design spaces were defined by characteristics (water quantity, water quality and environmental impact), and the scale dimension. The DWI design principles framework was operationalised in a case study. The case showed that the DWI design principles framework was useful for strategic issues and the results were recognised and accepted by a diverse group of stakeholders. It may also be possible to apply the framework for other water infrastructures with comparable characteristics and dimensions.
Keywords: drinking water; infrastructure; resilience; complex systems; design principles; water quantity; water quality; environmental impact; long term planning; Vitens.
Research on Differential Lightning Protection of 10kV Distribution Lines in Mountainous Area Based on Classification and Recognition of Topography
by Lixing Zhou, Yubin Liu, Zhiqiang Xu, Fuzhi Kang, Zeyu Xu
Abstract: In view of the serious lightning damage of distribution lines in mountainous areas of South China, the relationship between lightning strike and topography of distribution lines is studied. Seven topographical features, such as tower elevation and soil resistivity, are extracted to construct the terrain feature vector representing the lightning probability of tower location, and typical topographical samples of high lightning probability tower are obtained. BP artificial neural network classifier is constructed to classify and identify the topographical features of distribution line tower location in mountainous area. The case application shows that the classifier can correctly identify the lightning risk of tower location. The differential lightning protection measures for distribution lines are proposed, and comprehensive protection measures are taken for lightning prone tower positions. The lightning protection of cross valley section is simulated by using ATPDraw. The results show that the comprehensive lightning protection measures are effective.
Keywords: distribution lines; topography; neural network; differentiated lightning protection.
Information-flawing Filters in Critical Infrastructure Protection: The deficient Information Basis in a Swedish Approach
by Christine Große, Aron Larsson, Olof Björkqvist
Abstract: Various societal functions, such as healthcare, freight transports, water supplies and electricity, ensure the daily life, endurance and progress of modern societies. The protection of such critical functions requires comprehensive information processing. Based on evidence from documents on the Swedish planning process STYREL and interviews with entrusted decision-makers at county administrative boards, municipalities and power grid operators, this study aims to crystallise information pathways and flaws to highlight information filtration and alteration. Analyses of the material reveal a set of information-flawing filters, such as information withholding or loss when sharing, information scarcity in criticality assessments and ad-hoc information creation due to scarcity. Because of these filters, the Swedish process causes an altering of information that affects the quality of decisions and the emergency response plan that relies on them. Thus, this study indicates deficiencies that relate to information sharing, information security and decision-making that pose risks to citizens and businesses.
Keywords: critical infrastructure protection; CIP; societal security; information management; decision analysis; multi-level planning; public private policy network; filters; Swedish policy.
Secure Access Control for Cloud-Based Tele medical System
by SUNIL GUPTA, Akansha Bhansiya, Mansi Saini, Amuleek Sidhu
Abstract: Recent technological advancements are offering users new and easier ways to access healthcare services. With the advent of high-speed networks, low cost storage, inexpensive telecommunication systems, patient monitoring systems, cloud computing, telecare medical information system (TMIS) is be-coming a reality. Due to the advantage of telehealthcare medical system, we are reaching directly to the patient home over internet or mobile networks and data is stored as electronic medical records (EMR). The major challenge here is ensuring secure access of communication data by patients and doctors, for this we need a secure and efficient way of user access control, so that attacker cannot impersonate the user or medical server. The confidentiality, integrity and availability need to be ensured. Also, the authentication process should be user friendly so that even elderly patients can use it easily. Medical data includes medical images which might be tampered by intruders. Our aim is to overcome the limitation of present market scenario and provide the efficient way of communication between user and doctor with help of cloud-based system.
Keywords: oud computing; access control; telecare medical information system; TMIS.
A Review of Research Developments on Submerged Floating Tunnel
by Sahil Rana, M. Abdul Akbar
Abstract: Submerged Floating Tunnel as a high investment project has been conceptualised multiple times by different countries has not been implemented yet. Being a critical infrastructure, the complexities and challenges involved in the construction of this underwater tunnel is a natural progression of the multiple factors that need consideration in its engineering analysis and design. The improvement in computational resources and techniques of the 21st century has enabled a closer to accurate engineering analysis of this structure under the influence of dynamic effects of water including design consideration for blast loading and tsunami. The techniques proposed to keep the tunnel afloat along with the variations in the nature of its support with seabed has seen the coalition of multiple disciplines of engineering. The paper presents a comprehensive review of various engineering analysis that has been performed on Submerged Floating Tunnel in addition to a review of the different policy-based conclusions on this new technology. The current trends and challenges ahead are also discussed based on projections into the future as a natural extrapolation of the current state of progress.
Keywords: Submerged Floating Tunnel; computational fluid dynamics; stress analysis; structural design; transportation; underwater tunnel; critical infrastructure.
Major Hazard Industries Disaster Preparedness: An Empirical Study of Liquified Petroleum Gas Storage Facilities
by RASYIMAWATI M.A.T. RASHID, Radin Zaid Radin Umar, Nadiah Ahmad
Abstract: Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities storing more than 50 tonnes of LPG are classified as major hazard installations (MHIs). This industry involves highly flammable hydrocarbon chemicals that can cause destruction of property and endanger human lives. This study aims to investigate the level of disaster preparedness among 23 LPG storage facilities in Malaysia. The preparedness performance of the facilities was assessed through a five-point instrument measure in six preparedness domains. For overall preparedness, 60% of LPG facilities were rated poor or weak, and remaining 40% were rated as good or satisfactory. This indicates a serious gap in the overall current capacity of the majority of facilities to respond to major hazard disasters. Across all facilities,
Keywords: liquefied petroleum gas; LPG storage; LPG stockist; emergency preparedness; major hazard installation; MHI; control industrial major accident hazards; CIMAH.
A methodological Approach for Characterization of Critical National Infrastructure
by Julius A. Makinde, Uche M. Mbanaso, Victor Kulugh
Abstract: This article presents a methodological approach for the characterisation of critical national infrastructure (CNI). Despite several approaches to identifying CNI, there has not been any universally acceptable way that is agreeable because a countrys CNI priority may differ. CNI enabled by information and communications technology (ICT) is usually referred to as critical national information infrastructure (CNII). Thus, the security of CNII requires a far-reaching approach that is harmonised and agile to mutually respond to global cyber threats. Without proportionate safeguards, the increasingly interconnected and interdependent infrastructures can create vulnerability opportunities that can cause failures with cascading or escalating effects. Consequently, proper characterisation, categorisation and designation of CNI are vital to effective CNII protection and resilience. We approached the study by extensive review, analysis and synthesis of CNI of selected countries around the globe. Then, we applied a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) to show how CNI can be derived, and designated.
Keywords: critical national infrastructure; CNI; critical national information infrastructure; CNII; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; comparative analysis.
Research on BIM technology-based measurement method of stress parameters of prefabricated building engineering
by Yadi Duan, Huilin Liu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low reliability and poor robustness of construction parameters caused by the lack of stress parameter analysis in the conventional construction methods of precast construction projects, a precast building stress parameter measurement method based on building information model (BIM) technology is proposed. Subdivide BIM units by constructing a BIM-based prefabricated construction engineering information database. The 3D reconstruction model of engineering construction design was established by using nonlinear iterative method. Based on this, the stress parameters were measured and analysed, and the construction parameters of the prefabricated house project were optimised through BIM technology. A simulation experiment has been carried out, and the results show that the method can provide more than 90% reliability and has high stability, indicating that the method has high application performance.
Keywords: building information model; BIM technology; prefabricated buildings; engineering construction parameters; fusion of three-dimensional parameters; stress parameter analysis.
Research on collaborative construction management of construction project based on BIM technology
by Chenwen Zhan, Chunwei Fu, Xiaohong WU
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of high root mean square error, low monitoring accuracy and low reliability in construction project collaborative management, a new construction project collaborative management method based on BIM technology is proposed. Combined with BIM technology and collaborative management, this method establishes the network structure model of collaborative management, expounds the evolution process of collaborative management, makes qualitative analysis and quantitative research on the collaborative degree of project management by combining logistic model and order parameter principle, and completes the collaborative management of project construction based on the project organisation management system of BIM technology. The experimental results show that the root mean square of relative error is reduced by 0.84, the accuracy of monitoring is improved by 41%, and the reliability is improved by 18%, which is suitable for the collaborative management mode of current project innovation in China.
Keywords: BIM technology; construction engineering; construction management; collaborative management.
BIM-based cycle control method for the whole process of building production and construction
by Xinjie Yuan
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of poor convergence and low control accuracy of conventional cycle control for the whole process of building production and construction due to the lack of consideration of parameter fusion and resource scheduling, a new BIM-based cycle control method for the whole process is proposed. A whole-process cycle control constraint model is constructed for parameter analysis, and with the BIM technology, parameter fusion is carried out to judge control convergence. With the BIM scheduling method, a resource scheduling control model for cycle control is constructed, so as to effective control and manage the whole process cycle. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can deliver better convergence and lower control error for whole-process cycle control, the lowest difference of safety quality control was less than 0.01, which demonstrates that the method has a strong ability in carrying out whole-process cycle control.
Keywords: BIM; building production and construction; whole-process; cycle control; information fusion; convergence.
Risk Assessment of Public Private Partnerships Projects in Developing Countries
by Zineb BELGHITI, Khadija ANGADE
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess risks that arise with PPPs transportation projects in Morocco and to provide a better understanding of the risk ranking profile in developing countries. To conduct the study, a questionnaire was administered in order to determine the most critical risks according to public and private sector entities involved in transportation PPPs projects. The results generated 28 critical risks and the top five risk factors were mostly at the meso level. Comparing these results with previous studies on the risk assessment of PPPs in developing countries, it was found that the business environment indicator provides a better explanation of the risks ranking of PPPs in developing countries. Thus, the study concludes that macro-risks in developing countries with an attractive business environment, will have a lower impact compared to developing countries with an unfavourable investment climate.
Keywords: developing countries; infrastructure; Morocco; public private partnership; PPP; risk assessment; transportation.
Development of an Accident Prediction Model for Freeways Systems
by Md Faysal Kabir, Sahadev Roy
Abstract: This paper presents a model using log-logistics accelerated failure time approach based on the traffic accident records collected in the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India in 2018
Keywords: freeway accident; accident duration model; accident prediction; traffic hazard; freeway systems.
Risk identification of subway tunnel shield construction based on WBS-RBS method
by Qiang You, Haitao Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Mingyang Xu
Abstract: The shield construction technology has been widely used with the vigorous development of subway construction. The safety risk identification about the shield tunnelling construction of Shenzhen Metro was carried out. Firstly, the work breakdown structure (WBS) was used to decompose the construction process in stages, then the risk factors were decomposed into different factor units by risk breakdown structure (RBS), then the WBS-RBS matrix was constructed to identify a number of risk factors. Meanwhile, based on the questionnaire survey method, the reliability and validity of the results were tested. Finally, the principal component analysis method was used to extract the key risk factors, so that the number of indicators was greatly reduced, which provided a basis for constructing the risk evaluation index system.
Keywords: shield tunnelling construction; risk identification; WBS-RBS; principal component analysis.
Simulation Study on Electric Loss Assessment Model in Solar Power Generation
by Chongyu Cui, Zhaoxia Li, Xiaoyan Jiang
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of insufficient adaptive optimisation ability and insufficient evaluation accuracy when faced with a large number of calculations of existing solar power loss evaluation methods, a power loss evaluation model based on fuzzy information fusion is proposed. Through the comprehensive power quality index parameters, the output characteristic value of the power loss evaluation in solar power generation is obtained, and the power loss fuzzy control is performed. The power loss evaluation relationship in energy generation is extracted, and the power loss quality information fusion in solar energy generation is completed. Combined with the association rule constraint reconstruction, the power loss evaluation model of solar power generation is constructed. The simulation results show that the accuracy of power loss assessment is high, and the degree of information fusion is good, which improves the quality of solar power generation.
Keywords: solar power generation; power loss; fuzzy information fusion; association rules.
A cooperative control method of voltage imbalance in microgrid with multiple micro sources
by Wei Shu, Dajiang He
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of unstable current waveform, high voltage imbalance and long voltage control time in traditional voltage imbalance control methods for microgrid, a new cooperative control method of voltage imbalance in microgrid with multiple micro sources is proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of microgrid structure, the dynamic phasor model of microgrid voltage is constructed. On this basis, a cooperative controller is designed to realise the voltage balancing control of microgrid with multiple micro sources. In order to verify the cooperative control effect of voltage imbalance in microgrid, a comparative experiment is designed. The experimental results show that the current waveform of the proposed method is stable, the voltage imbalance is only 2.5%, and the cooperative voltage control time is less than 7 s, which shows that the proposed method has high efficiency and good cooperative control effect of voltage imbalance in microgrid.
Keywords: multi-micro source microgrid; dynamic phasor model; voltage imbalance; cooperative control.
Electricity Utilization and Firm Efficiency in Nigeria: Evidence from Data Envelopment Analysis
by Ambrose Nnaemeka Omeje, Augustine Jideofor Mba, Michael Okike UGWU
Abstract: Electricity consumption is a major factor that influence economic activities of firms. Epileptic electricity supply can reduce the ease of doing business for firms by raising production costs if they switch to alternative electricity supply. This study utilised Nigeria Enterprise Survey (2014) data and data envelopment analysis to find out if utilisation of electricity supply makes firms in Nigeria more efficient compared to when they utilise alternative electricity. It was found that electricity utilisation does not encourage firms in Nigeria to increase their efficiency levels under CRS due to the fact that there exist epileptic/erratic national grid electricity supply accompanied with low voltage whenever the supply is available. The study recommends that Nigerian government and its various agencies in power/electricity sector should strive more to provide constant electricity supply to the people and the firms, to encourage more economic productions that would spur economic growth and development of the country.
Keywords: electricity utilisation; electricity consumption; firm efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; Nigeria Enterprise Survey Data; Nigeria.
Enabling Active Safety System along with Realtime monitoring and audio alerts in Two Wheelers through Smart Helmet System
by SUNIL GUPTA, Nikita Agarwala, Nikita Arora, Goldie Gabrani
Abstract: A report by the Indian Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, estimated that over 1.5 lakh lives were claimed in various accidents on Indian Roads in 2018. Over-speeding has been found as a major violation accounting for nearly 67% of the road accidents. To address this concern, authors in this paper, have proposed a methodology to make the helmet smarter using Internet of Things (IoT). This modification in the existing smart helmet adds on to the safety of the bikers. Drivers for two wheeled automobiles are cautioned about their speed through audio alerts. These alerts are in accordance with ones speed and location and updated in real time. To implement this technology in the existing helmets, Bluetooth technology was deployed, and the communication channel was realised through various IoT protocols such as XMPP and MQTT. The suggested protocols have been analysed in the deployed communication channel of the proposed smart helmet for their performance. Further, ubiquitous connectivity is also an important feature of the proposed smart helmet.
Keywords: accident avoidance; two wheelers; smart helmet; sensors; active safety system; IoT.
Fog Based Smart Building IoT Model: Development and Energy Cost Estimation
by Sunil Gupta
Abstract: Due to the expansion and accessibility of the internet of things (IoTs), the user gets interacted to use advanced technology. The development and improvement of fog computing and cloud computing services allow developing the IoT application like smart building. In this paper, an IoT-fog-based prototype is proposed and implemented to check the cost estimation. Fog computing reduces the consumption of energy and latency during communication with the smart building. This prototype aims to develop the system based on real-time energy cost estimation, used further for a real-time billing system. In the proposed prototype, the information (current, voltage, power, and energy) is being collected in two real-time scenarios. One is based on fog-IoT-based system, and the other is a conventional system with the help of two circuits with the same equipment attached to find the energy consumed. In this paper, the analysis of energy consumption shows the advantages in terms of optimisation and cost-saving using the proposed prototype.
Keywords: fog computing; internet of thing; IoT; NodeMCU; smart building; Arduino; energy efficient.
Application of Deep Learning Approach for detecting Brain Tumor in MR Images
by Jyoti Agarwal, Manoj Kumar, Anuj Rani, Sunil Gupta
Abstract: A tumour is an abnormal mass of tissue which consume normal body cells, kill them, and continue to increase in size. For detection of infected tumour area and lesions, magnetic resonance imaging has been used widely in medical field. Image processing and machine learning is also used widely for brain tumour detection and segmentation, but they are not the most appropriate ones, therefore methods involving deep learning are also proposed for the same. In this paper, six traditional machine learning classification algorithms are compared. Afterwards, convolutional neural network is implemented using Keras and TensorFlow in python. Two different CNN based models VGG16 and DenseNet available in Keras trained on imagenet dataset is also used. The dataset contains in total 253 images which were later augmented to train the model better. From results, it was analysed that deep learning algorithms yield better results than the traditional ML classification algorithms.
Keywords: brain tumour; CNN; deep learning; model; pooling; DenseNet; TensorFlow.
Campus Smart Street Lamps Using Internet of Things Technology
by Mengxia Liu
Abstract: Based on the Internet of Things (IoT), this paper analysed the intelligent control of campus street lamps, designed an intelligent system combined with fuzzy control, and tested the system. The test found that the system had good networking and communication capabilities. When the distance was 100 m, the packet loss rate was 6.05%. Compared with the time control and light control systems, the designed system had smaller parameters and better energy-saving performance (63.59%). The results verify the effectiveness of the designed system in intelligent control. And the designed system can be further promoted and applied in the actual campus construction.
Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; intelligent street lamp system; campus construction; fuzzy control; ZigBee.
Techniques to safeguard the Underground Tunnels against Surface Blast load
by SENTHIL KASILINGAM, Muskaan Sethi, Loizos Pelecanos
Abstract: Due to the growth of underground tunnels, the safety of structures under blast loading is a major threat. Therefore, this paper focused on various techniques such as tunnel burial depth, tunnel shape, tunnel lining materials and varying the location of the blast source to safeguard underground tunnels against blast load using numerical analysis. The behaviour of concrete, reinforcement steel and the soil were incorporated by using the different constitutive model available in ABAQUS v. 2020. The predicted results were compared with the experimental results available in literature and found in close agreement. It is concluded that the layering of soil filling and depth of the burial of the tunnel found to be most important in case of external blast, whereas the stress bearing capacity of the concrete found to be important in case of internal blast. It is also concluded that the circular shape tunnel is one of the best performing tunnels.
Keywords: tunnels; blast load; burial depth; lining materials; tunnel shape; blast location.
The Vibration Control of Magnetorheological Elastomer Damper for Eccentric Workshop
by Changsheng Wang
Abstract: Aiming at the problem of translational and torsional vibration of the eccentric structure under earthquake, the control effect of magnetorheological elastomer damper on translational and torsional vibration of the eccentric workshop structure is studied. Firstly, the mechanical model of magnetorheological elastomer damper and a finite element model of the structure are established. Then, the finite element simulation is utilised to analyse the damping effect of the damper on the structure. The analysis results show that the damping effect of the damper on the translational vibration of the eighth layer of the structure is 43.27%, and the damping effect on the torsional response of the fifth layer is 37.37%. Finally, do a shaking table test. The test results show that when the damper acts, the translational displacement of the top layer of the structure decreases by 34.97%, and the torsional response of the fifth layer of the structure reduces by 41.58%.
Keywords: eccentric workshop; magnetorheological elastomer damper; mechanics model; shaking table test; damping effect.
Critical Infrastructures: A Comparison of Definitions
by Kim Smith, Ian Wilson
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify common characteristics of critical infrastructure that is informed by national, standards and academic sources. A fundamental understanding of the interconnectivity and dependencies and interdependencies that exist within critical infrastructure is essential to ensure international protection. In working towards an international definition of critical infrastructure there will need to be cooperation and collaboration between nations. The paper determines, through analysis, the foundation of critical infrastructure and its complexity given national and international links to support collective understanding. The paper highlights the potential harm that can be caused if critical infrastructure links are not fully understood. A definition of critical infrastructure is proposed, and future work suggested.
Keywords: critical infrastructure; dependencies; interdependencies; complexity; vulnerabilities; infrastructure characteristics.
A Comparative Framework for Cyber Threat Modelling: Case of Healthcare and Industrial Control Systems
by Mobolarinwa Balogun, Hayretdin Bahsi, Omer F. Keskin, Unal Tatar
Abstract: Cyberattacks target organisations and cause property loss, disruption of operation, and for healthcare facilities, even loss of life. With the advent of the internet of things (IoT) devices, the attack surface has extended significantly. Organisations need a cyber threat modelling approach to assess their network from the attackers perspective to safeguard their assets better. In this study, a framework was developed to compare cyber threat modelling of various IoT networks by focusing on the capabilities of the threat actors in the light of various factors, such as accessibility, stealth, technical ability, and time. The developed framework is applied to two different networks: SCADA and healthcare IoT infrastructure for demonstration. The results suggest that it is possible to cause a physical impact in IoT-based healthcare systems by using less sophisticated cyberattacks.
Keywords: cyberattack; SCADA; internet of things; IoT; threat modelling; attack trees; attack sophistication; healthcare.
A Systematic Mapping on Cascading Effects in Critical Infrastructures
by Beatriz Toscano, André Fernandes, Miguel Mira Da Silva, Flávia Santoro
Abstract: Critical infrastructures (CIs) are crucial assets for society and the economy, since they are responsible for supplying essential goods and services. Currently, and increasingly, CIs depend on each other. This interdependency among CIs makes them vulnerable to cascading disasters on a large scale, which can have a huge impact. The interconnection among CIs makes that a failure in a CI can affect another CI(s), generating so-called cascading effects. Cascading effects on CIs make a research area worthy of study and investigation and have considerable interest in terms of resilience and risk management. This paper aims to provide, through a systematic mapping study, an overview of the existing literature on cascading effects in critical infrastructures, detailing the work performed in this domain. In addition, the paper also identifies the approaches that are being taken in the context of cascade effects in critical infrastructures. We also discuss the relationship between cascade effects and infrastructures interdependencies.
Keywords: systematic mapping; cascading effects; interdependency; critical infrastructures.
Comprehensive Vulnerability Evaluation Of Urban Earthquake Disaster Based On Raga-Ppe
by Yanyan Fan, Jianglong Li
Abstract: In view of the multi factor influence problem in the comprehensive vulnerability assessment of urban earthquake disasters, combined with the complex internal characteristics of urban system, based on the pressure state response model, the comprehensive vulnerability index system of urban earthquake disasters is constructed from seven aspects: natural factors, human factors, lifeline system, social status, economic status, engineering seismic capacity and recovery capacity. The urban vulnerability is evaluated by establishing the comprehensive vulnerability evaluation model of urban earthquake disaster, and the best projection direction of projection pursuit evaluation model is sought by using accelerated genetic algorithm. Combined with the evaluation index value, the projection characteristic index value of the evaluation sample is determined. Taking 12 cities in Gansu Province as an example, the comprehensive vulnerability state of cities is determined by the above model, and the main factors influencing the Earthquake Vulnerability of cities are analysed according to the results, which provides the basis for decision makers to make earthquake prevention and disaster reduction planning.
Keywords: pressure-state-response; PSR; real-coded accelerating genetic algorithm; projection pursuit evaluation model; urban earthquake disaster; comprehensive vulnerability.