International Journal of Critical Infrastructures (46 papers in press)
Seismic Isolation of Data Centers for Business Continuity
by M.Fevzi Esen
Abstract: Economic losses of earthquakes raised many questions regarding the adequacy of the current seismic design criteria and seismic isolation in data centers. Some organizations have accommodated new explicit seismic isolation applications in their business continuity and disaster recovery plans. These applications aim acceptable damage levels that correspond acceptable business interruption for data centers in case of an earthquake. In this study, we aim to discuss the importance of seismic isolation technologies which can be implemented for data centers against seismic disasters within business continuity and disaster recovery planning context. We conduct a literature review to provide a clearer aspect on seismic isolation applications for data centers. We conclude that GSA, ASCE and Uptime Institute provide internationally recognized standards which make raised floors a good option for data centers. These standards provide technical documentation for service functioning with high levels of availability during an outage.
Keywords: information technologies; data centers; seismic isolation; business continuity.
A comparative study of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow rectangular footing subjected to eccentrically-inclined loads
by Sujata Gupta, Anupam Mital
Abstract: This study is presented for model tests conducted to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity (UBC) of eccentrically-inclined loaded rectangular foundation on sand. Various parameters were investigated in this study included depth of embedment (Df ? B), eccentricity (e / B) and the angle of inclination of applied loads (?). In the present study, the reduction factor is calculated as the ratio of UBC of rectangular footing subjected to eccentric and inclined load at any embedment depth to the UBC of the same footing under similar conditions but subjected to axial centric load. The reduction factor was compared with those based on the previous bearing capacity studies in this area. This comparison appears to be reasonably well. Furthermore, numerical analysis on the prototype footing was directed using commercial finite element method based software PLAXIS 3D to authenticate the test results. A very close agreement was found between experimental and numerical analysis.
Keywords: eccentric loading; load inclination; geogrid; rectangular footing; ultimate bearing capacity; UBC; reduction factor; PLAXIS 3D.
A Review on Smart Water Management in Various Domestic Areas: An Approach for Water Consumption and Leakage Perspectives
by V.A. Sankar Ponnapalli, Saiteja S
Abstract: One of the major issues that affecting the water utilities in the domestic areas is leakages through the distribution networks, non-revenue water estimation, and failure in the prediction of water consumption at individual spaces. This review paper basically focuses on these three important directions to understand the feasible domestic water management systems with integrated models of internet of things and artificial intelligence approaches. Different smart water management techniques have reported in the literature to improve the efficiency and avoiding non-revenue water issues and these are consolidated in this paper. Prediction failure of water utility in the water distribution systems is also presented in this paper. This article summarises a measure of water consumption statistics, a detailed summary of non-revenue water, and leak detection technologies at extensive areas to provide a wide sense of understanding for the prediction of the water consumption and the leakage detection.
Keywords: smart water management; leakages; non-revenue water; NREW; district metered area; DMA; artificial intelligence; domestic areas; water consumption; distribution networks.
SVM-Based predictive model for the most frequent structural failure in Bogota sewer system
by Alejandra Caicedo, Sergio Aldair Castiblanco Ballesteros, Leyner Cardenas Mercado, Jhonny Erick Valle Mendoza, Sandra Paola Espitia Layton, Luis Carlos Vanegas Granados, Andres Torres
Abstract: Deterioration models simulate non-inspected sewer pipelines structural conditions and are used to support strategic asset management. Most of the deterioration models have been constructed based on state ratings (SR) of the infrastructure. However, recent studies have shown that this simplification could provide incomplete information of the networks state, and therefore the SR may not be adequate to develop deterioration models. A support vector machine (SVM)-based modelling procedure was developed to predict the probabilities of structural failures of sewer pipes in urban areas and the reliability of these predictions. We applied this procedure to Bogotas sewer system. The results suggest that classification SVMs are feasible for developing predictive models of structural failures in sewer systems, which can be used to plan the inspections of sewerage networks, giving priority to specific areas where it is most likely to find the failure.
Keywords: sewer asset management; support vector machine; SVM; sewer failures; urban characteristics.
Research on green Building energy Consumption monitoring Method based on Discrete Cuckoo algorithm
by Xiaoliang Li, Jinfeng Lu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long instruction transmission period and poor accuracy of data connection in traditional monitoring methods, an energy consumption monitoring method for green building based on discrete cuckoo algorithm is proposed. Through the application of embedded system, it can collect green buildings energy consumption data and establish a database, and then use the discrete cuckoo algorithm to decode the energy consumption data. According to the simulation experiment data, it can be seen that: the daily power consumption and water consumption of green buildings collected by this method are closest to the actual results, which proves that the monitoring error of this method is small, the average value of monitoring instruction transmission period is 7.8 s, and the accuracy of data connection is always maintained above 90%. It shows that the method can effectively improve the monitoring effect of green building energy consumption.
Keywords: green building; energy consumption monitoring; discrete cuckoo; data decoding; sample correlation; regression analysis.
Research on differential settlement monitoring of highway expansion based on BIM technology
by Lili Zhou
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long response time and high error in traditional settlement monitoring methods of highway, a differential settlement monitoring method based on BIM technology is proposed in this paper. According to the large-scale general finite element program and geotechnical theory, the numerical analysis model of highway expansion project is established to obtain the deformation value of highway expansion subgrade under different subgrade design parameters and subgrade materials. The differential settlement deformation mode and influencing factors of highway expansion are analysed. According to the analysis results, combined with SAR and BIM technology, the differential settlement of expressway expansion in the study area is monitored. The simulation results show that the response time of the proposed method is always less than 5ms, the maximum monitoring error is only 0.067%, the response time is short and the monitoring error is small.
Keywords: BIM technology; highway; expansion; differential settlement; settlement monitoring; numerical analysis model.
Enhancing the resilience of drinking water infrastructures
by Ritsche Anne Kloosterman, Paulien M. Herder, Jan Peter Van Der Hoek
Abstract: Long term uncertainties in combination with long lifetime of assets of drinking water infrastructures (DWIs) and changing expectations of stakeholders make strategic decisions in drinking water infrastructures (DWIs) complex. A framework with building blocks and design spaces was developed to support these decisions. Building blocks, divided in governance and system properties, were generic resilience enhancing design principles found in literature. The design spaces were defined by characteristics (water quantity, water quality and environmental impact), and the scale dimension. The DWI design principles framework was operationalised in a case study. The case showed that the DWI design principles framework was useful for strategic issues and the results were recognised and accepted by a diverse group of stakeholders. It may also be possible to apply the framework for other water infrastructures with comparable characteristics and dimensions.
Keywords: drinking water; infrastructure; resilience; complex systems; design principles; water quantity; water quality; environmental impact; long term planning; Vitens.
Research on Differential Lightning Protection of 10kV Distribution Lines in Mountainous Area Based on Classification and Recognition of Topography
by Lixing Zhou, Yubin Liu, Zhiqiang Xu, Fuzhi Kang, Zeyu Xu
Abstract: In view of the serious lightning damage of distribution lines in mountainous areas of South China, the relationship between lightning strike and topography of distribution lines is studied. Seven topographical features, such as tower elevation and soil resistivity, are extracted to construct the terrain feature vector representing the lightning probability of tower location, and typical topographical samples of high lightning probability tower are obtained. BP artificial neural network classifier is constructed to classify and identify the topographical features of distribution line tower location in mountainous area. The case application shows that the classifier can correctly identify the lightning risk of tower location. The differential lightning protection measures for distribution lines are proposed, and comprehensive protection measures are taken for lightning prone tower positions. The lightning protection of cross valley section is simulated by using ATPDraw. The results show that the comprehensive lightning protection measures are effective.
Keywords: distribution lines; topography; neural network; differentiated lightning protection.
Information-flawing Filters in Critical Infrastructure Protection: The deficient Information Basis in a Swedish Approach
by Christine Große, Aron Larsson, Olof Björkqvist
Abstract: Various societal functions, such as healthcare, freight transports, water supplies and electricity, ensure the daily life, endurance and progress of modern societies. The protection of such critical functions requires comprehensive information processing. Based on evidence from documents on the Swedish planning process STYREL and interviews with entrusted decision-makers at county administrative boards, municipalities and power grid operators, this study aims to crystallise information pathways and flaws to highlight information filtration and alteration. Analyses of the material reveal a set of information-flawing filters, such as information withholding or loss when sharing, information scarcity in criticality assessments and ad-hoc information creation due to scarcity. Because of these filters, the Swedish process causes an altering of information that affects the quality of decisions and the emergency response plan that relies on them. Thus, this study indicates deficiencies that relate to information sharing, information security and decision-making that pose risks to citizens and businesses.
Keywords: critical infrastructure protection; CIP; societal security; information management; decision analysis; multi-level planning; public private policy network; filters; Swedish policy.
Secure Access Control for Cloud-Based Tele medical System
by SUNIL GUPTA, Akansha Bhansiya, Mansi Saini, Amuleek Sidhu
Abstract: Recent technological advancements are offering users new and easier ways to access healthcare services. With the advent of high-speed networks, low cost storage, inexpensive telecommunication systems, patient monitoring systems, cloud computing, telecare medical information system (TMIS) is be-coming a reality. Due to the advantage of telehealthcare medical system, we are reaching directly to the patient home over internet or mobile networks and data is stored as electronic medical records (EMR). The major challenge here is ensuring secure access of communication data by patients and doctors, for this we need a secure and efficient way of user access control, so that attacker cannot impersonate the user or medical server. The confidentiality, integrity and availability need to be ensured. Also, the authentication process should be user friendly so that even elderly patients can use it easily. Medical data includes medical images which might be tampered by intruders. Our aim is to overcome the limitation of present market scenario and provide the efficient way of communication between user and doctor with help of cloud-based system.
Keywords: oud computing; access control; telecare medical information system; TMIS.
A Review of Research Developments on Submerged Floating Tunnel
by Sahil Rana, M. Abdul Akbar
Abstract: Submerged Floating Tunnel as a high investment project has been conceptualised multiple times by different countries has not been implemented yet. Being a critical infrastructure, the complexities and challenges involved in the construction of this underwater tunnel is a natural progression of the multiple factors that need consideration in its engineering analysis and design. The improvement in computational resources and techniques of the 21st century has enabled a closer to accurate engineering analysis of this structure under the influence of dynamic effects of water including design consideration for blast loading and tsunami. The techniques proposed to keep the tunnel afloat along with the variations in the nature of its support with seabed has seen the coalition of multiple disciplines of engineering. The paper presents a comprehensive review of various engineering analysis that has been performed on Submerged Floating Tunnel in addition to a review of the different policy-based conclusions on this new technology. The current trends and challenges ahead are also discussed based on projections into the future as a natural extrapolation of the current state of progress.
Keywords: Submerged Floating Tunnel; computational fluid dynamics; stress analysis; structural design; transportation; underwater tunnel; critical infrastructure.
Major Hazard Industries Disaster Preparedness: An Empirical Study of Liquified Petroleum Gas Storage Facilities
by RASYIMAWATI M.A.T. RASHID, Radin Zaid Radin Umar, Nadiah Ahmad
Abstract: Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) storage facilities storing more than 50 tonnes of LPG are classified as major hazard installations (MHIs). This industry involves highly flammable hydrocarbon chemicals that can cause destruction of property and endanger human lives. This study aims to investigate the level of disaster preparedness among 23 LPG storage facilities in Malaysia. The preparedness performance of the facilities was assessed through a five-point instrument measure in six preparedness domains. For overall preparedness, 60% of LPG facilities were rated poor or weak, and remaining 40% were rated as good or satisfactory. This indicates a serious gap in the overall current capacity of the majority of facilities to respond to major hazard disasters. Across all facilities,
Keywords: liquefied petroleum gas; LPG storage; LPG stockist; emergency preparedness; major hazard installation; MHI; control industrial major accident hazards; CIMAH.
A methodological Approach for Characterization of Critical National Infrastructure
by Julius A. Makinde, Uche M. Mbanaso, Victor Kulugh
Abstract: This article presents a methodological approach for the characterisation of critical national infrastructure (CNI). Despite several approaches to identifying CNI, there has not been any universally acceptable way that is agreeable because a countrys CNI priority may differ. CNI enabled by information and communications technology (ICT) is usually referred to as critical national information infrastructure (CNII). Thus, the security of CNII requires a far-reaching approach that is harmonised and agile to mutually respond to global cyber threats. Without proportionate safeguards, the increasingly interconnected and interdependent infrastructures can create vulnerability opportunities that can cause failures with cascading or escalating effects. Consequently, proper characterisation, categorisation and designation of CNI are vital to effective CNII protection and resilience. We approached the study by extensive review, analysis and synthesis of CNI of selected countries around the globe. Then, we applied a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) to show how CNI can be derived, and designated.
Keywords: critical national infrastructure; CNI; critical national information infrastructure; CNII; multi-criteria decision making; MCDM; comparative analysis.
Research on BIM technology-based measurement method of stress parameters of prefabricated building engineering
by Yadi Duan, Huilin Liu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low reliability and poor robustness of construction parameters caused by the lack of stress parameter analysis in the conventional construction methods of precast construction projects, a precast building stress parameter measurement method based on building information model (BIM) technology is proposed. Subdivide BIM units by constructing a BIM-based prefabricated construction engineering information database. The 3D reconstruction model of engineering construction design was established by using nonlinear iterative method. Based on this, the stress parameters were measured and analysed, and the construction parameters of the prefabricated house project were optimised through BIM technology. A simulation experiment has been carried out, and the results show that the method can provide more than 90% reliability and has high stability, indicating that the method has high application performance.
Keywords: building information model; BIM technology; prefabricated buildings; engineering construction parameters; fusion of three-dimensional parameters; stress parameter analysis.
Research on collaborative construction management of construction project based on BIM technology
by Chenwen Zhan, Chunwei Fu, Xiaohong WU
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of high root mean square error, low monitoring accuracy and low reliability in construction project collaborative management, a new construction project collaborative management method based on BIM technology is proposed. Combined with BIM technology and collaborative management, this method establishes the network structure model of collaborative management, expounds the evolution process of collaborative management, makes qualitative analysis and quantitative research on the collaborative degree of project management by combining logistic model and order parameter principle, and completes the collaborative management of project construction based on the project organisation management system of BIM technology. The experimental results show that the root mean square of relative error is reduced by 0.84, the accuracy of monitoring is improved by 41%, and the reliability is improved by 18%, which is suitable for the collaborative management mode of current project innovation in China.
Keywords: BIM technology; construction engineering; construction management; collaborative management.
BIM-based cycle control method for the whole process of building production and construction
by Xinjie Yuan
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of poor convergence and low control accuracy of conventional cycle control for the whole process of building production and construction due to the lack of consideration of parameter fusion and resource scheduling, a new BIM-based cycle control method for the whole process is proposed. A whole-process cycle control constraint model is constructed for parameter analysis, and with the BIM technology, parameter fusion is carried out to judge control convergence. With the BIM scheduling method, a resource scheduling control model for cycle control is constructed, so as to effective control and manage the whole process cycle. The experimental results show that the method proposed in this paper can deliver better convergence and lower control error for whole-process cycle control, the lowest difference of safety quality control was less than 0.01, which demonstrates that the method has a strong ability in carrying out whole-process cycle control.
Keywords: BIM; building production and construction; whole-process; cycle control; information fusion; convergence.
Risk Assessment of Public Private Partnerships Projects in Developing Countries
by Zineb BELGHITI, Khadija ANGADE
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess risks that arise with PPPs transportation projects in Morocco and to provide a better understanding of the risk ranking profile in developing countries. To conduct the study, a questionnaire was administered in order to determine the most critical risks according to public and private sector entities involved in transportation PPPs projects. The results generated 28 critical risks and the top five risk factors were mostly at the meso level. Comparing these results with previous studies on the risk assessment of PPPs in developing countries, it was found that the business environment indicator provides a better explanation of the risks ranking of PPPs in developing countries. Thus, the study concludes that macro-risks in developing countries with an attractive business environment, will have a lower impact compared to developing countries with an unfavourable investment climate.
Keywords: developing countries; infrastructure; Morocco; public private partnership; PPP; risk assessment; transportation.
Development of an Accident Prediction Model for Freeways Systems
by Md Faysal Kabir, Sahadev Roy
Abstract: This paper presents a model using log-logistics accelerated failure time approach based on the traffic accident records collected in the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Government of India in 2018
Keywords: freeway accident; accident duration model; accident prediction; traffic hazard; freeway systems.
Risk identification of subway tunnel shield construction based on WBS-RBS method
by Qiang You, Haitao Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Mingyang Xu
Abstract: The shield construction technology has been widely used with the vigorous development of subway construction. The safety risk identification about the shield tunnelling construction of Shenzhen Metro was carried out. Firstly, the work breakdown structure (WBS) was used to decompose the construction process in stages, then the risk factors were decomposed into different factor units by risk breakdown structure (RBS), then the WBS-RBS matrix was constructed to identify a number of risk factors. Meanwhile, based on the questionnaire survey method, the reliability and validity of the results were tested. Finally, the principal component analysis method was used to extract the key risk factors, so that the number of indicators was greatly reduced, which provided a basis for constructing the risk evaluation index system.
Keywords: shield tunnelling construction; risk identification; WBS-RBS; principal component analysis.
Simulation Study on Electric Loss Assessment Model in Solar Power Generation
by Chongyu Cui, Zhaoxia Li, Xiaoyan Jiang
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of insufficient adaptive optimisation ability and insufficient evaluation accuracy when faced with a large number of calculations of existing solar power loss evaluation methods, a power loss evaluation model based on fuzzy information fusion is proposed. Through the comprehensive power quality index parameters, the output characteristic value of the power loss evaluation in solar power generation is obtained, and the power loss fuzzy control is performed. The power loss evaluation relationship in energy generation is extracted, and the power loss quality information fusion in solar energy generation is completed. Combined with the association rule constraint reconstruction, the power loss evaluation model of solar power generation is constructed. The simulation results show that the accuracy of power loss assessment is high, and the degree of information fusion is good, which improves the quality of solar power generation.
Keywords: solar power generation; power loss; fuzzy information fusion; association rules.
A cooperative control method of voltage imbalance in microgrid with multiple micro sources
by Wei Shu, Dajiang He
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of unstable current waveform, high voltage imbalance and long voltage control time in traditional voltage imbalance control methods for microgrid, a new cooperative control method of voltage imbalance in microgrid with multiple micro sources is proposed in this paper. Based on the analysis of microgrid structure, the dynamic phasor model of microgrid voltage is constructed. On this basis, a cooperative controller is designed to realise the voltage balancing control of microgrid with multiple micro sources. In order to verify the cooperative control effect of voltage imbalance in microgrid, a comparative experiment is designed. The experimental results show that the current waveform of the proposed method is stable, the voltage imbalance is only 2.5%, and the cooperative voltage control time is less than 7 s, which shows that the proposed method has high efficiency and good cooperative control effect of voltage imbalance in microgrid.
Keywords: multi-micro source microgrid; dynamic phasor model; voltage imbalance; cooperative control.
Electricity Utilization and Firm Efficiency in Nigeria: Evidence from Data Envelopment Analysis
by Ambrose Nnaemeka Omeje, Augustine Jideofor Mba, Michael Okike UGWU
Abstract: Electricity consumption is a major factor that influence economic activities of firms. Epileptic electricity supply can reduce the ease of doing business for firms by raising production costs if they switch to alternative electricity supply. This study utilised Nigeria Enterprise Survey (2014) data and data envelopment analysis to find out if utilisation of electricity supply makes firms in Nigeria more efficient compared to when they utilise alternative electricity. It was found that electricity utilisation does not encourage firms in Nigeria to increase their efficiency levels under CRS due to the fact that there exist epileptic/erratic national grid electricity supply accompanied with low voltage whenever the supply is available. The study recommends that Nigerian government and its various agencies in power/electricity sector should strive more to provide constant electricity supply to the people and the firms, to encourage more economic productions that would spur economic growth and development of the country.
Keywords: electricity utilisation; electricity consumption; firm efficiency; data envelopment analysis; DEA; Nigeria Enterprise Survey Data; Nigeria.
Enabling Active Safety System along with Realtime monitoring and audio alerts in Two Wheelers through Smart Helmet System
by SUNIL GUPTA, Nikita Agarwala, Nikita Arora, Goldie Gabrani
Abstract: A report by the Indian Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, estimated that over 1.5 lakh lives were claimed in various accidents on Indian Roads in 2018. Over-speeding has been found as a major violation accounting for nearly 67% of the road accidents. To address this concern, authors in this paper, have proposed a methodology to make the helmet smarter using Internet of Things (IoT). This modification in the existing smart helmet adds on to the safety of the bikers. Drivers for two wheeled automobiles are cautioned about their speed through audio alerts. These alerts are in accordance with ones speed and location and updated in real time. To implement this technology in the existing helmets, Bluetooth technology was deployed, and the communication channel was realised through various IoT protocols such as XMPP and MQTT. The suggested protocols have been analysed in the deployed communication channel of the proposed smart helmet for their performance. Further, ubiquitous connectivity is also an important feature of the proposed smart helmet.
Keywords: accident avoidance; two wheelers; smart helmet; sensors; active safety system; IoT.
Fog Based Smart Building IoT Model: Development and Energy Cost Estimation
by Sunil Gupta
Abstract: Due to the expansion and accessibility of the internet of things (IoTs), the user gets interacted to use advanced technology. The development and improvement of fog computing and cloud computing services allow developing the IoT application like smart building. In this paper, an IoT-fog-based prototype is proposed and implemented to check the cost estimation. Fog computing reduces the consumption of energy and latency during communication with the smart building. This prototype aims to develop the system based on real-time energy cost estimation, used further for a real-time billing system. In the proposed prototype, the information (current, voltage, power, and energy) is being collected in two real-time scenarios. One is based on fog-IoT-based system, and the other is a conventional system with the help of two circuits with the same equipment attached to find the energy consumed. In this paper, the analysis of energy consumption shows the advantages in terms of optimisation and cost-saving using the proposed prototype.
Keywords: fog computing; internet of thing; IoT; NodeMCU; smart building; Arduino; energy efficient.
Application of Deep Learning Approach for detecting Brain Tumor in MR Images
by Jyoti Agarwal, Manoj Kumar, Anuj Rani, Sunil Gupta
Abstract: A tumour is an abnormal mass of tissue which consume normal body cells, kill them, and continue to increase in size. For detection of infected tumour area and lesions, magnetic resonance imaging has been used widely in medical field. Image processing and machine learning is also used widely for brain tumour detection and segmentation, but they are not the most appropriate ones, therefore methods involving deep learning are also proposed for the same. In this paper, six traditional machine learning classification algorithms are compared. Afterwards, convolutional neural network is implemented using Keras and TensorFlow in python. Two different CNN based models VGG16 and DenseNet available in Keras trained on imagenet dataset is also used. The dataset contains in total 253 images which were later augmented to train the model better. From results, it was analysed that deep learning algorithms yield better results than the traditional ML classification algorithms.
Keywords: brain tumour; CNN; deep learning; model; pooling; DenseNet; TensorFlow.
Campus Smart Street Lamps Using Internet of Things Technology
by Mengxia Liu
Abstract: Based on the Internet of Things (IoT), this paper analysed the intelligent control of campus street lamps, designed an intelligent system combined with fuzzy control, and tested the system. The test found that the system had good networking and communication capabilities. When the distance was 100 m, the packet loss rate was 6.05%. Compared with the time control and light control systems, the designed system had smaller parameters and better energy-saving performance (63.59%). The results verify the effectiveness of the designed system in intelligent control. And the designed system can be further promoted and applied in the actual campus construction.
Keywords: Internet of Things; IoT; intelligent street lamp system; campus construction; fuzzy control; ZigBee.
Techniques to safeguard the Underground Tunnels against Surface Blast load
by SENTHIL KASILINGAM, Muskaan Sethi, Loizos Pelecanos
Abstract: Due to the growth of underground tunnels, the safety of structures under blast loading is a major threat. Therefore, this paper focused on various techniques such as tunnel burial depth, tunnel shape, tunnel lining materials and varying the location of the blast source to safeguard underground tunnels against blast load using numerical analysis. The behaviour of concrete, reinforcement steel and the soil were incorporated by using the different constitutive model available in ABAQUS v. 2020. The predicted results were compared with the experimental results available in literature and found in close agreement. It is concluded that the layering of soil filling and depth of the burial of the tunnel found to be most important in case of external blast, whereas the stress bearing capacity of the concrete found to be important in case of internal blast. It is also concluded that the circular shape tunnel is one of the best performing tunnels.
Keywords: tunnels; blast load; burial depth; lining materials; tunnel shape; blast location.
The Vibration Control of Magnetorheological Elastomer Damper for Eccentric Workshop
by Changsheng Wang
Abstract: Aiming at the problem of translational and torsional vibration of the eccentric structure under earthquake, the control effect of magnetorheological elastomer damper on translational and torsional vibration of the eccentric workshop structure is studied. Firstly, the mechanical model of magnetorheological elastomer damper and a finite element model of the structure are established. Then, the finite element simulation is utilised to analyse the damping effect of the damper on the structure. The analysis results show that the damping effect of the damper on the translational vibration of the eighth layer of the structure is 43.27%, and the damping effect on the torsional response of the fifth layer is 37.37%. Finally, do a shaking table test. The test results show that when the damper acts, the translational displacement of the top layer of the structure decreases by 34.97%, and the torsional response of the fifth layer of the structure reduces by 41.58%.
Keywords: eccentric workshop; magnetorheological elastomer damper; mechanics model; shaking table test; damping effect.
Critical Infrastructures: A Comparison of Definitions
by Kim Smith, Ian Wilson
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to identify common characteristics of critical infrastructure that is informed by national, standards and academic sources. A fundamental understanding of the interconnectivity and dependencies and interdependencies that exist within critical infrastructure is essential to ensure international protection. In working towards an international definition of critical infrastructure there will need to be cooperation and collaboration between nations. The paper determines, through analysis, the foundation of critical infrastructure and its complexity given national and international links to support collective understanding. The paper highlights the potential harm that can be caused if critical infrastructure links are not fully understood. A definition of critical infrastructure is proposed, and future work suggested.
Keywords: critical infrastructure; dependencies; interdependencies; complexity; vulnerabilities; infrastructure characteristics.
A Comparative Framework for Cyber Threat Modelling: Case of Healthcare and Industrial Control Systems
by Mobolarinwa Balogun, Hayretdin Bahsi, Omer F. Keskin, Unal Tatar
Abstract: Cyberattacks target organisations and cause property loss, disruption of operation, and for healthcare facilities, even loss of life. With the advent of the internet of things (IoT) devices, the attack surface has extended significantly. Organisations need a cyber threat modelling approach to assess their network from the attackers perspective to safeguard their assets better. In this study, a framework was developed to compare cyber threat modelling of various IoT networks by focusing on the capabilities of the threat actors in the light of various factors, such as accessibility, stealth, technical ability, and time. The developed framework is applied to two different networks: SCADA and healthcare IoT infrastructure for demonstration. The results suggest that it is possible to cause a physical impact in IoT-based healthcare systems by using less sophisticated cyberattacks.
Keywords: cyberattack; SCADA; internet of things; IoT; threat modelling; attack trees; attack sophistication; healthcare.
A Systematic Mapping on Cascading Effects in Critical Infrastructures
by Beatriz Toscano, André Fernandes, Miguel Mira Da Silva, Flávia Santoro
Abstract: Critical infrastructures (CIs) are crucial assets for society and the economy, since they are responsible for supplying essential goods and services. Currently, and increasingly, CIs depend on each other. This interdependency among CIs makes them vulnerable to cascading disasters on a large scale, which can have a huge impact. The interconnection among CIs makes that a failure in a CI can affect another CI(s), generating so-called cascading effects. Cascading effects on CIs make a research area worthy of study and investigation and have considerable interest in terms of resilience and risk management. This paper aims to provide, through a systematic mapping study, an overview of the existing literature on cascading effects in critical infrastructures, detailing the work performed in this domain. In addition, the paper also identifies the approaches that are being taken in the context of cascade effects in critical infrastructures. We also discuss the relationship between cascade effects and infrastructures interdependencies.
Keywords: systematic mapping; cascading effects; interdependency; critical infrastructures.
Master Planning Frame for Road Infrastructure Projects: Decision Making Model for Private Investments
by Norayr Badasyan, Andreas Wibowo, Ansgar Bendiek
Abstract: This paper develops a project management framework that master plans private investments in road infrastructure by providing the primary mechanisms for monetarising social benefits under different public-private partnership payment mechanisms. Its novelty lies in providing a platform for decision-makers to compare various private investment alternatives by assessing the possible impacts of the payment mechanisms on the relevant projects social benefits and economic results. The paper uses a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods. It determines the main social effects of the relevant projects under a social welfare framework and develops formulas that enable decision-makers to compare the impact of various payment mechanisms on the added social value. This paper demonstrates that the social outcomes of projects can vary considerably, depending on the chosen payment mechanism. The proposed framework will facilitate the stakeholders to develop projects with a broader spectrum of possible analyses to correlate payment mechanisms and social welfare.
Keywords: public-private partnership; PPP; infrastructure management; infrastructure economics; economic net present value; project management; road sector.
CPW-Fed Printed Patch Antenna for 5G-IoT Infrastructure Development
by KAUSHAL MUKHERJEE, Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay, Sahadev Roy
Abstract: Antennas with a high gain, good radiation efficiency, and an omnidirectional radiation pattern over a wide bandwidth will be able to solve some of the issues of existing communication networks. In this work a comparative analysis of different types of 5G antenna along with their performance improvements techniques are discussed. In this study we also proposed a simple planar printed antenna which is also offered high gain and desired radiation efficiencies. The proposed work is different in that, despite being a planar printed antenna, the antenna achieves a wider bandwidth of 4.5 GHz, peak gain of 11.6 dB, radiation efficiency of 92%, VSWR of 1.2, and SAR of 1.42 W/Kg for 1 g of tissue by utilising a U-shape of slot over the radiating patch structure and also useful for 5G-IoT-based Infrastructure developments as a replacement for multi-layer antennas.
Keywords: 5G network; CPW-fed; single layer; printed patch antenna; data infrastructure development; internet of things; IoT; millimetre wave band; mmW.
Success Factors and Lessons Learned during the Implementation of a Cooperative Space for Critical Infrastructures
by Luciano Morabito, Benoit Robert
Abstract: It is largely documented that the exchange of information among critical infrastructures (CIs) is crucial to strategies involving the identification of their interdependencies and increasing their resilience. Based on the experience of the Centre Risque & Performance, Polytechnique Montr
Keywords: collaboration; cooperation; critical infrastructures; domino effects; information sharing; integrated risk management; interdependencies; large organisations; knowledge; social constructivism.
Fault location of high voltage overhead transmission line based on ACO-ENN algorithm.
by Guangxin Zhang, Qi Zhang, Jun Ma, Gang Liu, Dong Sun, Zimeng Zhang
Abstract: Aiming at solving the problems of poor positioning accuracy and long time in traditional methods, a fault location of high voltage overhead transmission line based on ACO-ENN algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, self-coding neural network is used to reduce dimension of transmission line signal data. Secondly, the relationship between fault distance and natural frequency is obtained by main frequency extraction method. Finally, ACO-ENN algorithm is used to construct the hidden interlayer weight matrix to obtain the fault location error function of the transmission line, and the fault location result of the high voltage overhead transmission line is obtained under the condition of the minimum error function. The results show that the mean square error of the proposed method is less than 187 m, and when the fault distance of the high voltage overhead transmission line is 300 km, the fault location time of the proposed method is only 0.43 s.
Keywords: ACO-ENN algorithm; high voltage overhead; transmission line; fault location; main frequency extraction; self-coding neural network; error function.
new A construction schedule management method of large-scale construction project based on BIM model
by Sheng Yin
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long response time and small
number of manageable indicators existing in traditional construction project
schedule management methods, a new construction schedule management
method based on BIM model is designed in this paper. The construction
progress data acquisition and decoding module circuit is set to complete the
construction progress data acquisition, and the K-means algorithm is used to
preprocess the construction progress data. Decompose the construction project
progress, divide the large-scale construction project into different progress
management levels by WBS analysis method, establish functional information
module, import the construction project progress data into BIM model, and
realise the BIM information function management of the method. The
experimental results show that the proposed method has low response time and
multiple schedule management indicators, and the shortest response time of the
proposed method is only 1.1 s.
Keywords: management pheromone; management rules; definition residue;
new Maritime Cyber-Insurance: The Norwegian Case
by Ulrik Franke, Even Langfeldt Friberg, Hayretdin Bahsi
Abstract: Major cyber incidents such as the Maersk case have demonstrated
that the lack of cyber security can induce huge operational losses in
the maritime sector. Cyber-insurance is an instrument of risk transfer,
enabling organisations to insure themselves against financial losses caused
by cyber incidents and get access to incident management services. This
paper provides an empirical study of the use of cyber-insurance in the
Norwegian maritime sector, with a particular emphasis on the effects of
the General Data Protection Regulation and the Directive on Security of
Network and Information Systems. Norway constitutes a significant case
as a country having a highly mature IT infrastructure and well-developed
maritime industry. Interviews were conducted with supplier- and demand-side
maritime actors. Findings point to a widespread lack of knowledge about
cyber-insurance. Furthermore, neither GDPR nor NIS were found to be
significant drivers of cyber-insurance uptake among maritime organisations.
Keywords: security; risk; policy; regulation; cyber-insurance; information
The dynamic and secure storage of enterprise financial data based on cloud platform
by Li Zhang
Abstract: n order to overcome the problems of poor data security, low integrity and long storage time of traditional methods, this paper proposes a dynamic and secure storage method of enterprise financial data based on cloud platform. Firstly, the absolute correlation degree of the data in the financial database is calculated by using the grey correlation analysis method, and the data mining and clustering are carried out according to the results of the absolute correlation degree calculation. Then, the DES algorithm is used to encrypt the clustering results of financial data and remove redundant data. Finally, according to the cloud platform access time length, access frequency and the relationship between enterprise financial datasets to achieve data dynamic security storage. Experimental results show that this method can encrypt all data, the average integrity of the storage results is 9.7, the average storage time is 0.51 s, and the practical application effect is good.
Keywords: cloud platform; corporate financial data; dynamic security storage; absolute correlation degree; DES algorithm.
Intelligent Agent for Hurricane Emergency Identification and Text Information Extraction from Streaming Social Media Big Data
by Jingwei Huang, Wael Khallouli, Ghaith Rabadi, Mamadou Seck
Abstract: This paper presents our research on leveraging social media big data and AI to support hurricane disaster emergency response. The current practice of hurricane emergency response for rescue highly relies on emergency call centres. The more recent Hurricane Harvey event reveals the limitations of the current systems. We use Hurricane Harvey and the associated Houston flooding as the motivating scenario to conduct research and develop a prototype as a proof-of-concept of using an intelligent agent as a complementary role to support emergency centres in hurricane emergency response. This intelligent agent is used to collect real-time streaming tweets during a natural disaster, to identify tweets requesting rescue, to extract key information such as address and associated geocode, and to visualise the extracted information in an interactive map in decision supports. Our experiment shows promising outcomes and the potential application of the research in support of hurricane emergency response.
Keywords: big data; social media; twitter; tweets; information extraction; emergency response; natural disaster; hurricane; hurricane Harvey; flooding.
Political Protests and its Impacts on Interdependent Infrastructure Systems
by Yousaf Ali, Jehangir Khan, Muhammad Sabir
Abstract: Political uncertainty and protests can influence any economy in many ways. Despite abundant scholarly literature on the economic impacts of political protests, not a single study investigated the impacts of such unlikely events on the entire economy using various sectors of the economy. The current work applies the inoperability input-output model (IIM) and dynamic inoperability input-output model (DIIM) to study the economic impacts of political protests in Pakistan from 14 August 2014 to 17 December 2014. The study calculates each sectors inoperability levels and economic losses using input-output tables for 25 sectors of the Pakistan economy. The study ranks all sectors based on their inoperability levels and economic losses and also provides the recovery period for each sector from the protests. The findings indicate that sectors having strong linkages with the manufacturing sector bear the highest economic losses. The research is helpful for the authorities to develop preventive measurements and recovery plans to minimise the economic losses in case of such unlikely events.
Keywords: protests; economic shock; inoperability input-output model; IIM; dynamic inoperability input-output; DIIM; disaster management; Pakistan.
Maritime Cyber-Insurance: The Norwegian Case
by Hayretdin Bahsi, Ulrik Franke, Even Langfeldt Friberg
Abstract: Major cyber incidents such as the Maersk case have demonstrated that the lack of cyber security can induce huge operational losses in the maritime sector. Cyber-insurance is an instrument of risk transfer, enabling organisations to insure themselves against financial losses caused by cyber incidents and get access to incident management services. This paper provides an empirical study of the use of cyber-insurance in the Norwegian maritime sector, with a particular emphasis on the effects of the General Data Protection Regulation and the Directive on Security of Network and Information Systems. Norway constitutes a significant case as a country having a highly mature IT infrastructure and well-developed maritime industry. Interviews were conducted with supplier- and demand-side maritime actors. Findings point to a widespread lack of knowledge about cyber-insurance. Furthermore, neither GDPR nor NIS were found to be significant drivers of cyber-insurance uptake among maritime organisations.
Keywords: security; risk; policy; regulation; cyber-insurance; information sharing.
Research on safety risk assessment model of prefabricated concrete building construction
by Jianfei Guo
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of low safety level and low failure rate of concrete construction safety risk assessment model, a safety risk assessment model of pre-fabricated concrete construction is proposed. The hierarchical structure and FMEA analysis method are used to establish the safety risk assessment model of pre-fabricated concrete building construction. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment method is applied to solve the safety risk assessment model of pre-fabricated concrete construction, and the combination weight of the model can be obtained, which can be used for inversion according to the results of factor analysis to form the weight vector assessment of construction safety risk. The experimental results show that the safety level of the safety risk assessment model for pre-fabricated concrete building construction is up to 0.92, and the highest failure rate of assessment model is 0.3.
Keywords: pre-fabricated concrete building; construction safety risk; risk assessment; assessment model.
A construction schedule management method of large-scale construction project based on BIM model
by Sheng Yin
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long response time and small number of manageable indicators existing in traditional construction project schedule management methods, a new construction schedule management method based on BIM model is designed in this paper. The construction progress data acquisition and decoding module circuit is set to complete the construction progress data acquisition, and the K-means algorithm is used to preprocess the construction progress data. Decompose the construction project progress, divide the large-scale construction project into different progress management levels by WBS analysis method, establish functional information module, import the construction project progress data into BIM model, and realise the BIM information function management of the method. The experimental results show that the proposed method has low response time and multiple schedule management indicators, and the shortest response time of the proposed method is only 1.1 s.
Keywords: management pheromone; management rules; definition residue; BIM model.
CLOSING THE GAP: FINANCIAL CLOSURE IN PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP MARKETS
by Alex Nduhura, Thekiso Molokwane, Muhiya Tshombe Lukamba, Innocent Nuwagaba, Francis Can
Abstract: The paper analyses the context of financial closure in public private partnerships markets. Existing studies indicate that the success rate of projects that move to the financial closure is limited and stands at less than 50%. To improve the financial closure rates, this study aimed at establishing process for, factors and challenges associated with financial closure for public private partnerships. Based on a review of existing literature, this paper identifies the factors responsible for the high failure rate of financial closure and provides recommendations, necessary for improving the success rate of financial closure. The outcome of this study is important since it makes an invaluable and original contribution to the PPP body of knowledge, since the paper provides a range of issues and activities that must be considered to improve the success rate for financial closure is historically rated as too long and with low chance of success.
Keywords: financial closure; public private partnerships; PPPs; infrastructure.
Utilizing the Fuzzy Analytic Network Process Technique to Prioritize Safety Challenges in Construction Projects
by Pouyakian Mostafa, Ali Akbar Shafikhani, Amir Abbas Najafi, Behrouz Afshar-Nadjafi, Amir Kavousi
Abstract: This study aims to identify and rank the obstacles to implementing a safety program in the Iranian construction industry. The obstacles were identified through literature review and interviews with experts in the Iranian construction industry. Because of the complex structure of the relationships between the obstacles and their mutual effects, the fuzzy analysis network Process method was used to model them. Obstacles to safety implementation were identified and ranked using the proposed model. Fourteen obstacles were identified in the three organisational, contractors, and systems dimensions. The most critical obstacles include tight project schedules, resource constraints, fierce competition between contractors to reduce time and cost. This study showed that the Iranian construction industry, despite its advantages, faces obstacles in the successful implementation of safety programs. It seems that the identified obstacles can be removed by modelling the safety program in project scheduling. However, more studies are needed in this area.
Keywords: safety; accidents; construction; analytic network process; ANP; fuzzy evaluation.
Simulation-based seismic risk and robustness assessment of aging bridge networks
by Tian Lu, Luca Capacci, Mattia Anghileri, Silvia Bianchi, Luo Dong, Fabio Biondini
Abstract: Civil infrastructure systems are prone to environmental deterioration processes that gradually reduce their mechanical properties and their capability to sustain severe natural hazards, such as earthquakes. The rate of occurrence of major seismic events, the time-variant seismic vulnerability of single bridges, and the indirect economic losses due to traffic flow redistribution related to the closure of key routes within the highway network are affected by uncertainties to be addressed by modelling their constitutive parameters as random variables and processes. This paper presents an integrated simulation-based methodology to estimate the user cost-based risk and system robustness of spatially-distributed bridge networks subjected to prescribed deterioration and regional seismic hazard scenarios. Life-cycle seismic risk metrics are evaluated in terms of bridges failure rates and exceedance rates of indirect monetary losses based on free-flow traffic analysis and user cost assessment. The lifetime system robustness is also evaluated based on appropriate probabilistic performance indicators.
Keywords: multi-hazard risk; structural robustness; Monte Carlo simulation; MCS; aging bridge networks; seismic hazard; fragility curves; user cost.