International Journal of Critical Infrastructures (11 papers in press)
An Integrated System Approach to Characterize a Drinking Water Infrastructure System
by Ritsche Anne Kloosterman, Jan Peter Van Der Hoek
Abstract: The object of this article is the drinking water infrastructure (DWI), a critical societal infrastructure. To make effective decisions it is important to characterize and understand the complexity of DWI systems. DWI systems can be seen as a System of Systems, consisting of the social-ecological system and the social-technical system. The social-ecological system determines the location and seize of the water resources, while the social-technical system is about the technical infrastructure. The two systems with different characteristics must align to work effective together in the DWI system. The tension between different lifecycles of the assets and dynamic changes in both systems, the time of change, is important to take into account. The SoPhyTech infra framework was developed based on the two systems and time of change. The advantages of applying the SoPhyTech infra framework is studied in a case comparing two very different DWI systems: Indonesia (Semarang) and the Netherlands (Vitens). The SoPhyTech infra framework was shown to be effective for characterizing a DWI system with different interacting lifecycles in different systems and it is expected that it also can be used to characterize other infrastructure systems.
Keywords: Integrated system approach; drinking water; critical infrastructure; water resources; social-ecological system; social-technical system; technical infrastructure; long life time assets ; long term decisions making.
Risk analysis and Allocation in Public Private Partnership Power transmission line Projects
by Ganesh Kate
Abstract: The aim of this paper is risk analysis for the delivery of Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Power transmission line projects in India and to address their proper risk allocation between the different stakeholders involved. Total of 112 risks was identified based on experts opinion and various literature. An empirical questionnaire survey was designed which divided into five phases over the project life cycle to examine the relative importance of different phases to analyze and allocate risk to different phases and different stakeholders involved in the project. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out, and a total of 45 valid responses were obtained for data analysis. The expected monetary value method (EVM) is employed for risk analysis. From analysis probability and severity of each risk calculated. For risk analysis risk divided into five categories namely low, minor, moderate, major and high. It is found that 65 risks were moderate, 35 were major, 9 were a minor risk, 2 were low risk and 1 was high risk. Then risk allocation is done both phase wise and stakeholder wise. In initial phase risk is 11%, in execution phase risk is 64% in operation and maintenance phase risk is 11% in transfer phase risk is 8% and in ongoing phase, the risk is 6%. In stakeholder wise risk allocation it is found that Government is taking 13% risk, project company is taking 53% risk, lenders are taking 2% risk, Contractors are taking 24% risk, operators are taking 5% risk and other parties like suppliers etc. are taking 3% risk. A key finding from this research is the execution phase of the power transmission line project involve huge risk .i.e 64% and the project company takes maximum risk .i.e 53%. Hence project company should give more focus on critical risk factors of execution phase like Right of Way, Statutory clearances, Land clearance and Forest clearance which carry high risk as we found from the analysis. This research study enables private players in power sectors to better understand how risks should be assessed and allocated for PPP power projects in India. It also assists in risk response planning and control for future PPP power transmission projects in India.
Keywords: Keywords: Public-private partnerships (PPP); Risk analysis; Risk allocation.
RISK ASSESSMENT OF COMMONLY TRANSPORTED CHEMICALS IN THE PORT OF HOUSTON
by Ayberk Karakavuz, Berna Eren Tokgoz, Victor Zaloom, Alberto Marquez
Abstract: Handling a wide variety of chemicals in ports increases public safety and environmental concerns. This requires successful risk management to prevent harm to the public and the environment from chemical-related incidents. Minimizing risk in port environments is imperative for authorities to ensure continuous and safe port operations. In this study, commonly transported chemicals have been identified in the Port of Houston, and each chemical has been assessed to establish an overall risk score based on its public safety and environmental health effects in case of exposure. Subsequently, a risk score has been determined using toxicity, behavior and transportation amounts of chemicals, and congestion and visibility in the port at the time of an incident. A practical risk assessment framework has been presented to evaluate and prioritize chemicals based on their risk scores to assist government authorities, first responders, port workers, and emergency planners in their decision-making processes.
Keywords: ports; chemical transportation; risk assessment; port accidents.
Developing Community Disaster Resilience through Preparedness
by Malik Khalfan, Sam Whittaker, Ifran Ulhaq
Abstract: Disasters have the potential to cause great devastation, such as significant human, material and environmental loss. The frequency and magnitude of natural disasters have increased over time, which has resulted in an increase in damages and fatalities. Due to the increase in disaster frequency and impacts, there has been a shift in focus from disaster recovery and response to disaster prevention. Disaster management provides a systematic framework that aims to reduce disaster impacts and provide prompt and effective recovery, assistance and guidelines. Preventative disaster management is essential in reducing and eliminating community disaster risk exposure. This paper conducts a comparative analysis of three past events including the 2011 Queensland Floods, the Harrietville Community Emergency Management Plan and the Christchurch and Japan Earthquakes. By combining the existing literature, secondary qualitative data analysis, a conceptual model of disaster management has been developed. This model aims to present new ideas and concepts to improve the community resilience capabilities. The main findings of this research include; the development of a revised conceptual model; identification of effective methodologies for developing community resilience; the potential implementation of social media as a preparedness strategy; discussion on need to create community empowerment and a shared responsibility amongst all agencies regarding disaster preparedness.
Keywords: Disaster Resilience; Disaster Preparedness.
A case study of Elphinstone Road Foot-Over-Bridge (FOB) Stampede in Mumbai
by Sanjeev Kadam, Prabir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
Abstract: Planning or implementation delays of critical infrastructure (CI) projects resulted in misfortunes such as accidents, stampedes or deaths. In this descriptive case study, an incidence of the stampede at the suburban train station in Mumbai has discussed. An endeavour has been made to examine underlying causes which instigate direct causes reinforced by contributing causes. Indian Army was being roped in for constructing additional foot-over-bridge (FOB) after the stampede. This case features the earnestness of appropriate and timely development of associated infrastructure in and around suburban stations in Mumbai proportionate to abundant passengers commuting. Post stampede reports from newspapers, televisions channels and the internet have largely used to build this case. Pre and post cause analysis discussion on Elphinstone Road FOB stampede case is an eye-opener to justify sustainable emergency management and associated infrastructure development in Mumbai.
Keywords: Associated infrastructure; Critical infrastructure; Elphinstone Road; Emergency; Evacuation; FOB; Mumbai; Railway; Stampede; Suburban train;.
Assessing the Cyber-Security of The IEC 60870-5-104 Protocol in SCADA System
by Qais Qassim
Abstract: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system is the heart of almost every critical infrastructure system, whereby SCADAis generally employed in order to control and to monitor both the physical and industrial processes within these systems. It is, thus, of vital importance that any vulnerabilities of SCADA system to be identified and mitigated so as to prevent unplanned incidents, malicious activities, and cyber-attacks. The IEC 60870-5-104 refers to an international standard applied for tele-control in electrical engineering and power SCADA systems, which appears to be a major principal protocol in electrical power system automation. In fact, major industrial control vendors employ this protocol to monitor and to manage power utility devices. Nonetheless, IEC 60870-5-104suffers from a number of design and implementation weaknesses in terms of security aspects. As such, this study briefly presents this protocol and summarizes its security vulnerabilities. Furthermore, it highlights the potential cyber-attacks based on the identified vulnerabilities. Additionally, the paper depicts several possible countermeasures to tighten the security of the SCADA systems.
Keywords: SCADA; Power System; IEC 60870; Cyber Attack; Security Vulnerabilities; Encryption; Authentication.
Integral Approach to Assessing the Criticality of Railway Infrastructure Elements
by David Rehak, Simona Slivkova, Radim Pittner, Zdenek Dvorak
Abstract: In the last ten years, considerable attention has been paid to analysing and assessing the criticality of railway infrastructure elements. Publications on the subject mostly assess elements only from a certain point of view, such as purpose, reliability or risk. This leads to only a partial assessment of criticality without continuous correlation, which may result some critical elements of the system being omitted. The article introduces the Railway Infrastructure Criticality Assessment Tool (RICA Tool), which was created to evaluate the criticality of railway infrastructure elements in all aspects. The integral approach of the tool lies in comprehensively assessing the technical and process factors of rail transport. The criticality of railway infrastructure elements is therefore assessed not only in terms of the relevance and resilience of elements but also their interdependence, substitutability, risk and impact.
Keywords: Railway infrastructure; Criticality assessment; Integral approach; RICA tool; Technical and process factors.
Force Analysis and Research on Bridge Inverted Siphon Project in Operating Period
by Dongyu Ji, Guo-yan ZHOU
Abstract: When the inverted siphon straddles deep ravines, in order to reduce construction difficulties, the bridge inverted siphon is often used to reduce the pressure head in the inverted siphon, shorten the pipe and reduce the water head loss. In order to study the stress and deformation distribution of the inverted siphon bridge project. The finite element method is used to analyze the force of the bridge inverted siphon in operating period, the finite element model of bridge inverted siphon structure is established according to the actual engineering conditions. Considering the stress characteristics of inverted siphon structure in operation, the load of the structure is combined in different working conditions, the distribution of stress and deformation of inverted siphon is analyzed. The results show that, the inverted siphon stress changes with the change of internal water pressure, the effect of internal water pressure on stress is greater, this indicates that the pressure in the pipe is an important load for the thin-walled structure of large diameter steel pipe. The stress values of the inner and outer pipe are quite different, and the stress value of the inner of the pipe is larger than that outer of pipe. The arch of the bridge appears large stress near the middle pier, which exceeds its design value, this is mainly due to local stress concentration.
Keywords: Inverted siphon; Operating period; Finite element method; Simulation model; Stress distribution.
Information Technology Governance and Cybersecurity at the Board Level
by Abdalmuttaleb M.A. Musleh Al-Sartawi
Abstract: Security breaches are very costly in the United States, followed very closely by the Middle East. Shareholders and investors demand that their firms mitigate all kinds of risks, and it is the responsibility of the BOD to gain and maintain their confidence. In view of this scenario, MENA companies need to protect their data, while the BODs need to embed a culture of cybersecurity in the firm. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between Information Technology Governance (ITG) and the level of cybersecurity by MENA listed firms. The study used a checklist to collect data from a sample of 94 firms listed in the financial stock markets of the MENA countries for the year ended 2018. The study found that there is a significant and direct relationship between ITG and the level of a firms cybersecurity. This indicates the importance of appointing board members with IT knowledge and experience. This leads to better decisions taken by the BODs when faced with cyber-threats and challenges. In addition, IT expertise on the BODs can be important to understand what the Heads of IT are doing on the inside and, thus being knowledgeable enough to challenge their actions.
Keywords: Cyber Risk; Cybersecurity; Information Technology Governance; Board of Directors; MENA Countries.
A New Hybrid Reliability Allocation Method, Based on Developed ME-OWA Method, Birnbaum Importance Measure and Fuzzy DEMATEL Technique.
by Ali Noroozian, Ali Sayyah
Abstract: Reliability allocation is an important subject in designing products and systems. Maximal entropy ordered weighted averaging approach (ME-OWA) based on DEMATEL allocation method has been developed to cover some of the problems of the subject. However, there are some unexplained critical issues in measurement scale, weights of the allocation factors, considering relations between components, and respecting predicted failure rates that considering them in the mentioned method can result in a more comprehensive reliability allocation scheme in covering the problems. Moreover, the reliability importance of system components, and the fuzziness in DEMATEL method data are not considered in the ME-OWA based DEMATEL allocation method. To address these issues in this paper, a new hybrid approach is proposed which is based on new ME-OWA weights, Birnbaum importance measure, and Fuzzy DEMATEL technique. The results of implementing the new hybrid method on a fighter aircraft's digital flight control computer indicate several benefits of the new developed scheme in considering the stated concerns
Keywords: Reliability allocation;Developed ME-OWA method;Birnbaum importance measure;Fuzzy DEMATEL method.
Effect of Organizational Culture on ICT Project Success in Public Higher Learning Institutions in Nigeria.
by Adewale Adekiya, Oscar Barnades
Abstract: Evidence has shown that most projects in developing countries fail at an alarming rate probably due to lack of consideration for critical success factors that are needed in the project management process. In this study, organizational culture is highlighted as one of these factors and its effect on the success of Information Communication Technology infrastructure in three Higher Educational Institutions in Nigeria, was examined. By making use of the cross-sectional survey, research data were elicited from 63 employees/project managers who are deemed as stakeholders to this infrastructure. From the analysis that was conducted, it was discovered based on the perception of these respondents that the ICT infrastructures in these institutions meet and surpasses expectations. Put in another way, these infrastructures may be classified as a success. Additionally, a positive relationship was uncovered between organizational culture and project success which means that project success may be improved by concentrating on manipulating the culture that prevails in an organizational environment. Having this in mind, recommendations were made for organizations to view culture as a veritable tool for enhancing project success.
Keywords: Organizational Culture; ICT; Project Success; Public Higher Learning Institutions.