International Journal of Critical Infrastructures (26 papers in press)
Multi-level approach to assessing the resilience of Road Network Infrastructure
by Fabio Borghetti, Boris Petrenj, Paolo Trucco, Veronica Calabrese, Marco Ponti, Giovanna Marchionni
Abstract: A two-step method to assess the resilience of road network infrastructures is developed to support resilience capacity building. The first step exploits the DMCI (dynamic functional modelling of vulnerability and interdependency of critical infrastructure) modelling approach for transportation network characterisation. DMCI reveals the cascading effects under disruption (due to interdependencies), and ranks the road sections according to their criticality (vital node analysis VNA). The second step uses a quantitative coping capacity index (CCI) to assess in more detail the capacity of operators and first responders to cope with an incidental event coordinating all available resources, in order to respond and rapidly recover service operations managing all the relevant interdependencies. The combination of the two levels of analysis offers more comprehensive insights on a transportation network resilience and its intended use is to guide resilience planning within capacity building programs, at both intra- and inter-organisational levels.
Keywords: critical infrastructure; transportation infrastructure; resilience; emergency management; response and recovery; simulation.
A predictor analysis framework for surface radiation budget reprocessing using satellite data
by Resit Unal, Patricia A. Quigley, Paul W. Stackhouse, Stephen J. Cox
Abstract: Equipped with various types of imagers, lasers and radars, dozens of satellites orbit the earth every day collecting and relaying data for weather and atmospheric analysis, communication and navigation applications and planetary studies. NASA?s Global Energy and Water Cycle (GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) shortwave algorithm derives long-term datasets from satellite data for distribution of the sun?s energy to the surface and back to space. This paper presents an analysis framework to describe propagation of input parameter variability to output data results in algorithmic computations, and then quantify the variability in the solution sets. The SRB shortwave algorithm and design of experiments methods are utilized to determine significant input parameters and interactions. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to determine the variability in the output data for each dependent variable varying within their range using Monte Carlo simulation.
Keywords: Surface radiation budget; variability; determinant optimal designs; satellite; quadratic model.
Dynamics of Interdependent Critical Infrastructures - a prioritized distribution model
by Peter Klein
Abstract: Previous research articles about interdependent critical infrastructures developed different mathematical models describing the dynamic direct and indirect interactions of these infrastructures. Many of these models use discrete time steps to show how a reduced operability of one infrastructure C at time t will lead at time t+1 to reductions in all infrastructures to which C distributes its output; and many of them use a standard mode of distribution called proportional. According to a recent result, with this proportional distribution a reduced operability in only one infrastructure will lead to an enduring reduction of all operabilities even after full repairs of all damages. This research replaces this proportional mode by a newly defined prioritized one. It shows that a system with prioritized distribution mode leads in nearly all practical cases to an increased behaviour of the whole system: After repair of all damages all infrastructures will return automatically to full operability.
Keywords: Critical Infrastructure; CI; disruption; proportional/prioritized distribution; opera-bility; intrinsic capacity; perturbation.
Fault Recovery System For Smart Grid Based On Machine Statistical Learning
by Lixing Zhou, Juncheng Peng
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of poor robustness, low-accuracy and long time-consuming when traditional system recovers power grid faults, a fault recovery system based on machine statistical learning is designed. The system framework consists of sensing layer, network layer and application layer. Through the overall framework of the system, the hardware of the system is designed, including data acquisition device block, transmission device, analysis module and display device. In the software part, fault acquisition subroutine, fault location subroutine and fault type identification subroutine are designed to obtain accurate fault data. Finally, machine statistical learning method is used to complete the design of fault recovery subroutine of smart grid, recover the obtained fault data and realize the design of fault recovery system of smart grid. The results show that the robustness, accuracy and time-consuming of the system are improved, and the problems existing in the traditional system are solved.
Keywords: Machine statistical learning; Smart grid; Fault; Recovery system.
Study On Rheological Properties Of Eva Modified Asphalt Based On Fractional Derivative Theory
by Rui-duo LI, Ying-zhi XIA, Yan ZHANG, Hui Li
Abstract: Based on the fractional derivative theory, the integral transformation of fractional-derivative Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative operator was carried out, and the relation between fractional-derivative operator and power function empirical creep equation was established. EVA was used as additives to prepare modified asphalt with content of EVA modifier varying from 0 to 9% in increments of 3% by weight of asphalt. Dynamic frequency sweep tests were conducted out on EVA modified asphalt using dynamic shear rheometer at 30, 40, 50, and 60?. Complex shear modulus increased with the increase of EVA content and loading frequency but decreased with the increase of test temperature. The results indicated that the EVA modified asphalt reduced thermal sensitivity and increased resistance to permanent at high temperatures. Also, the complex modulus of equation based on fractional derivative theory was used to represent the rheological behaviors of the EVA modified asphalt and the parameters were determined.
Keywords: Fractional derivative; power function empirical creep equation; EVA modified asphalt;dynamic shear rheological tests;frequency sweep;high temperature stability.
Force Analysis Of Variable Cross-Section Continuous Box Girder Bridge
by Jian-hua ZHANG
Abstract: This paper adopts finite element method to carry out simulation analysis for variable cross-section reinforced concrete continuous box girder bridge, the finite element model of bridge is established. According to the force characteristics of the bridge during operation, the working condition combination was calculated, the stress and deformation of variable cross-section reinforced concrete continuous box girder bridge are analyzed, the law of stress and deformation distribution is given. The results show that, the maximum stress of the bridge generally occurs at the continuous beam span middle section or support, sometimes the stress value at the vehicle load point is also large, these positions with large stress values should be considered in the design of box girder. The vertical displacement of bridge is small, removing settlement of end support, the maximum vertical displacement of bridge span middle section is 15mm, the bridge design scheme is safe, reliable and economical.
Keywords: Continuous box girder; Bridge; Finite element method; Simulation model; Analysis path.
Force Analysis of Arch Rib of Half-Through Irregular CFST Tied Arch Bridge during Construction Stage
by Jianning Li, Lusong Yu, Ziqi Li, Wei Lu
Abstract: Because unique styling of Arch rib for irregular CFST tied arch bridge,makes big difference compered to ordinary arch bridge in arch rib force,Therefore,ordinary construction methods are difficult directly to adopt,To solve this problem,taking a new irregular CFST tied arch bridge as the research object, the force of the Arch Rib during construction stage is analyzed and studied.The analysis results show that the tensile stress of concrete of the arch rib exceeds the design strength,Give a new construction method that segmented pouring and segmented suspender tension,and 3 schemes are given,selected the best to guide the site construction,Measurement data during construction stage shows that the maximum stress of concrete is less than design value,This method can better solves above problem,In addition,measured data and analysis result show a good agreement,and measured data all are less than calculated value,the force and geometric linear in service stage all meet the design requirements,The proposed method can be used as a good reference for similar bridge construction in the future.
Keywords: Concrete Filled Steel Tube; Irregular; Tied Arch Bridge; Arch Rib; Force Analysis.
Resistance To Chloride Ion Corrosion In Concrete Structure Added With Special Protection In Road And Bridge Engineering
by Guizhen Wang
Abstract: Through accelerated chloride corrosion test of the concrete structure in the road and bridge engineering, the chloride ion concentrations at different depths of the concrete added with special protection and without special projection at different corrosion times in the road and bridge engineering are tested, and the effects of special protection on the diffusion coefficient of chloride ion and chloride ion concentration on the surface of the concrete in the road and bridge engineering are studied. The test results show that: The special protection in the road and bridge engineering can reduce the diffusion coefficient of the chloride ions in the concrete by 31.3% and lower the chloride ion concentration on the surface of the concrete by 22.67%. The special protection in the road and bridge engineering can improve the service life the concrete structure in the environment of chloride ion corrosion to a relatively large extent.
Keywords: Concrete Structure; Chloride Ion; Special Protection; Performance Test.
Three-dimensional Finite Element Simulation Model Of Aluminum Beam With Lamination Defects Based On Two-dimensional Fourier Transform
by De-biao Zhao, Yong-yan Wang
Abstract: In order to solve the problems of low detection accuracy and poor modeling effect of traditional methods in establishing the model for aluminum beam with lamination defects, a 3D finite element simulation model for aluminum beam with lamination defects based on 2D Fourier transform is proposed in this paper. In this model, 2D Fourier transform method is used to obtain the full-wave-field signal of aluminum beam structure, and the spatial position wavenumber change curve of the full-wave-field signal in frequency domain
Keywords: 3D finite element; simulation model; lamination defect; aluminum beam; 3D point cloud map; 3D image boundary contour.
Grid-connected control method for new energy inverter based on single chip micyoco
by Ming-fei Qu, Nan Chen, Yong-qi Liu
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of the output oscillation of the new energy power system when switching the inverter mode and affecting the stability of the new energy power system, this paper proposes a grid-connected control method for new energy inverter based on single chip micyoco. The block diagram of the seamless switch control of the inverter and the mathematical model of the LCL filter are established, and the relationship between the inductance of the power grid, the filter capacitance and the inductance of the rectifying side is determined. Through the operation of two modes of island grid-connected and island grid-connected voltage regulation, the seamless switching control of the new energy inverter is realized. The experimental results show that this method can effectively suppress the transient shock caused by the switching of grid-connection mode and improve the stability of the new energy power generation system.
Keywords: Single chip micyoco; new energy; inverter; grid-connected control.
Research on Open Cut Blasting Technology of Reservoir Diversion Tunnel
by Jinshan Luo
Abstract: In order to study the rock mass failure rule of open-cut blasting in diversion tunnel of reservoir. Taking the Qianping reservoir project as an example, through blasting test and vibration detection, field observation, statistical analysis and numerical simulation, the blasting technology of open cut diversion tunnel of reservoir is studied. Finite element method software ANSYS was used to establish the finite element calculation model of open cut diversion tunnel of Qianping reservoir, the rock blasting process is simulated by using the dynamic analysis module LS-DYNA in ANSYS. The simulation results are compared with the test results, determining the optimal design scheme for open cut blasting of diversion tunnel, the research results are of guiding value to similar projects.
Keywords: Reservoir; Diversion tunnel; Blasting technology; Finite element method; Simulation model.
A Decision Support Tool for optimal configuration of Critical Infrastructures
by Andrea Tortorelli, Roberto Germanà, Alessandro Giuseppi, Vincenzo Suraci, Andrea Fiaschetti, Andrea Andreani, Francesco Delli Priscoli
Abstract: The objective of the present work is to present a Decision Support System (DSS) aimed at suggesting to a Critical Infrastructure (CI) operator the optimal configuration in terms of deployed security functionalities. The optimization framework adopted by the proposed DSS uses a Genetic Algorithm (GA) for exploring the solution space and exploits an extended version of the Open Source Security Testing Methodology Manual (OSSTMM) for evaluating the security level of given configurations. Such security evaluation allows to provide CI operator with a holistic insight on the system security level, also by exploiting the knowledge stored in vulnerability databases such as the Common Vulnerability Exposure (CVE). The performance of three different implementations of the adopted GA are evaluated in realistic operational scenarios and the solutions are validated from a security point of view.
Keywords: Critical Infrastructures; Cyber-physical security; Decision Support Systems; Genetic Algorithms.
Performance and Impact Analysis of Key Structural Parameters of Hot In-place Recycling Equipments Using on Hot-air Circulated Asphalt Road
by Zhiyong He, Youyang Xia
Abstract: In the paper, a three-dimensional model of heating temperature field distribution of hot in-place recycled road is established. Combining fluid temperature analysis and non-steady-state structural thermal analysis, the finite element method is adopted to calculate how each layer of temperature field distribution of roads changes with the diameter size of air vents, the height of the ventilation center from the ground, the wind speed of hot air circulation, and the distributed rows of air vents. The results show that each layer of temperature field distribution of roads is more even and the heating efficiency is the highest when the rows of heating air vents are 5, the diameter size of air vents is 30 mm, the height of the ventilation center from the ground is 170mm, and the speed of hot air circulation is between 3m/s and 4m/s.
Keywords: Finite element; hot air circulation,road heating; structural parameters; temperature field.
Truss Construction Of Green Fabricated Steel Structure Based On Bim Intelligent Technology
by Jianhong Xu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of stability and deformation in the truss construction of green fabricated steel structure assisted by common technology, this paper proposes a truss construction method of green fabricated steel structure based on BIM intelligent technology, which firstly analyzes BIM intelligent technology, then designs truss construction of green fabricated steel structure based on BIM intelligent technology, and finally makes truss stress test and truss deformation test. The results show that this method has better strain and deformation compared with the common technology. The maximum displacement and the maximum stress of the truss designed based on BIM Technology are 4.04mm and - 38.7mpa, which meet the requirements of stability and strength, and can ensure the safety in the construction process. This method is more conducive to ensure the rationality and scientificity of truss construction, thus improving the overall quality of green fabricated building.
Keywords: BIM intelligent technology; Green fabricated building; Steel structure; Truss construction.
Transport network resilience: a mapping and sensitivity analysis strategy to improve the decision-making process during extreme weather events.
by Beatriz Martinez Pastor, Maria Nogal, Alan O'Connor, Rui Teixeira
Abstract: This paper aims to move forward in the understanding of resilience by improving the quality of available information during the decision-making process. A dynamic methodology together with a bounded travel time cost function is used to quantify the transport resilience, and an analysis of the main parameters is performed by a mapping of possible scenarios and a sensitivity analysis. Due to the complexity of the model, a recent methodology for the sensitivity analysis is presented, this approach is a bi-phase sensitivity analysis, whit a combination of a local and a global method. This allows an early detection of the parameters that will have a larger impact in the network performance when the hazard occurs, and together with the mapping strategy makes possible to select the best ways to increase the resilience of the transport network at any stages of the process, i.e. before during and after the damaging event.
Keywords: Resilience; transport network; decision-making; vulnerability; critical infrastructures; extreme weather; mapping; sensitivity analysis; Latin hypercube.
The Application Of Bim Technology In The Research On Seismic Performance Of Shear Wall Structure Of Prefabricated Residential Buildings
by Jianwei Chen, Hongwei Ren
Abstract: In order to overcome the problem that the seismic analysis of shear wall is not comprehensive enough and the method efficiency is low, this paper proposes a new method to study the seismic performance of prefabricated shear wall structure. This method selects the technical problems in the construction process of a project for detailed analysis, including the construction process of shear wall structure of prefabricated residential buildings, vertical components and other processes. At the same time, BIM Technology is applied to the prefabricated residential buildings, and Tekla software is used to model the project, and the model is imported into Naviswork for the simulation analysis of four-dimensional construction. The experimental results show that the proposed method can comprehensively analyze the seismic performance of shear wall structure and carry out seismic design according to the requirements of different construction projects.
Keywords: BIM technology; prefabricated residential building; shear wall structure; seismic performance.
Research on Fault Location Method for Low-Voltage Active Distribution Network Based On Correlation Of Main Frequency Components
by YanJing Wang, Daohong Lin, Hongyan Liu, Xinshu Wan, Wangcheng Zhu, Qiang Wu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of poor fault tolerance and low fault recognition rate in traditional fault location methods for power grid, a new method of fault location for low-voltage active distribution network based on correlation of main frequency components is proposed in this paper. This method uses Prony algorithm to extract the main frequency components of distribution network, introduces hierarchical algorithm to construct the fault location model of low-voltage active distribution network, and combines intelligent algorithm to realize the research of fault location method for low-voltage active distribution network based on the correlation of main frequency components. The experimental results show that the fault tolerance rate of the proposed method based on the correlation of main frequency components is over 76% and the fault recognition rate is over 60%, which is obviously higher than other methods. It proves that the proposed method has better fault location performance.
Keywords: Main frequency components; Correlation; Low-voltage active power; Distribution Network; Fault; Location.
Seismic Isolation of Data Centers for Business Continuity
by M.Fevzi Esen
Abstract: Economic losses of earthquakes raised many questions regarding the adequacy of the current seismic design criteria and seismic isolation in data centers. Some organizations have accommodated new explicit seismic isolation applications in their business continuity and disaster recovery plans. These applications aim acceptable damage levels that correspond acceptable business interruption for data centers in case of an earthquake. In this study, we aim to discuss the importance of seismic isolation technologies which can be implemented for data centers against seismic disasters within business continuity and disaster recovery planning context. We conduct a literature review to provide a clearer aspect on seismic isolation applications for data centers. We conclude that GSA, ASCE and Uptime Institute provide internationally recognized standards which make raised floors a good option for data centers. These standards provide technical documentation for service functioning with high levels of availability during an outage.
Keywords: information technologies; data centers; seismic isolation; business continuity.
Research on Hierarchical Response Recovery Method of Distribution Network Fault Based on Topology Analysis
by Yu Liang, Qiuyuan Zheng, Qiang Wu, Lianhang Fang, Wangcheng Zhu, Zhiwei Cai
Abstract: In order to overcome the problems of long recovery time and high response delay in traditional fault recovery methods for distribution networks, a novel hierarchical response recovery method for distribution network fault based on topological analysis is proposed in this paper. This method simplifies the structure of complex distribution network, removes the non-concerned nodes in the connection relationship of distribution network, and uses the search method to analyze the distribution network topology, and traverses the distribution network topology nodes through the breadth-first search algorithm. By Membrane computing algorithm is used to restore the hierarchical fault response of distribution network. The experimental results show that the proposed method takes less than 0.8 s to recover from faults and has a shorter recovery time. The response delay is always less than 0.3 ms, and the response delay is low, so it is practical.
Keywords: Topology analysis; Distribution network faults; Hierarchical response recovery; Search method; Membrane computing algorithm.
Prediction of COVID-19 Spread in World using Pandemic Dataset with Application of Auto ARIMA and SIR Models
by SUNIL GUPTA
Abstract: COVID-19 has now become worlds highly infectious disease because of the high transmission capability of the coronavirus. This virus has also deeply impacted the global economy. The world situation need the better predication analysis for prevention and decision making. The aim of this analysis is to use Auto-ARIMA model to predict the spread of coronavirus in the world in the next 100 days. We also determine when new confirmed cases, death cases and recovery of COVID-19 would stabilize in top most five affected countries. The results obtained from Auto-ARIMA are then compared with those obtained by applying Susceptible Infected Removed (SIR) model.
Keywords: COVID-19; Prediction; Auto ARIMA; SIR Model.
Study on the seismic behavior of upper masonry floor with variable stiffness for multi-story brick structures with bottom-frame based on finite element simulation
by Canbin Yin, Hongyu Deng, Zhonghao Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Baitao Sun, Peiyu Ying
Abstract: The upper masonry layers of the multi-story brick structures with bottom-frame were usually destroyed seriously in the actual earthquake. But it is not clear that whether the design method of equal rigidity in vertical direction of upper masonry layer is reasonable. In this paper, four contrastive models of bottom frame structures were established though ABAQUS, and the different design methods of variable vertical stiffness were used for the upper masonry layers. The seismic response results show that the upper masonry layers especially the transitional layer is severely damaged when the design method of equal rigidity in vertical direction is used. According to the principle that the stiffness of the floor in proportion to its seismic force, when the upper masonry layer uses the design method of variable stiffness along vertical direction, which can lead to uniform failure of each layer. The seismic performance of the whole structure is improved greatly.
Keywords: bottom frame structure; variable vertical stiffness; elastic-plastic time-history analysis; seismic behaviour.
Quantitative Assessment of Critical Infrastructures Degree of Dependency on Information and Communications Technology
by Victor Kulugh, Uche M. Mbanaso, Habiba Musa, Gilbert I.O. Aimufua, Emmanuel S. Dandaura
Abstract: This paper presents a computational model for the quantification of critical infrastructure (CI) degree of dependency on ICT. Traditional CIs that support modern society in providing uninterruptable vital services are increasingly ICT dependent. To build the needed bulwark against cyber threats, there is the need to assess their dependency on ICT since ICT infrastructure comes with vulnerabilities that amplify cyber risk. Consequently, the proposed computational model for the quantification of CI degree of dependency on ICT is a function of ICT metrics and indicators based on mathematical constructs. The outcome is ICT dependency index (IDI), and ICT dependency quadrant (IDQ), which compare, rank, and visualise the IDI of sectors and organisations. The findings show that no one sector can be chosen arbitrarily as the most critical ICT dependent. The model is particularly useful for developing countries to uniformly assess CIs degree of dependency on ICT as opposed to uninformed valuation.
Keywords: critical infrastructure; critical systems; critical national information infrastructure; ICT dependency.
A comparative study of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow rectangular footing subjected to eccentrically-inclined loads
by Sujata Gupta, Anupam Mital
Abstract: This study is presented for model tests conducted to calculate the ultimate bearing capacity (UBC) of eccentrically-inclined loaded rectangular foundation on sand. Various parameters were investigated in this study included depth of embedment (Df ? B), eccentricity (e / B) and the angle of inclination of applied loads (?). In the present study, the reduction factor is calculated as the ratio of UBC of rectangular footing subjected to eccentric and inclined load at any embedment depth to the UBC of the same footing under similar conditions but subjected to axial centric load. The reduction factor was compared with those based on the previous bearing capacity studies in this area. This comparison appears to be reasonably well. Furthermore, numerical analysis on the prototype footing was directed using commercial finite element method based software PLAXIS 3D to authenticate the test results. A very close agreement was found between experimental and numerical analysis.
Keywords: eccentric loading; load inclination; geogrid; rectangular footing; ultimate bearing capacity; UBC; reduction factor; PLAXIS 3D.
Calculation And Analysis Of Gully-Buried Prestressed Inverted Siphon Structure
by Dong-yu JI, Xiao MI
Abstract: Inverted siphon is a kind of cross-channel building, in order to study the stress distribution law of the buried prestressed inverted siphon structure. The force and deformation characteristics of Xinanpu inverted siphon are analysed by finite element software. In the establishment of finite element calculation model, the arrangement of inverted siphon prestressed reinforcement and the setting of pier are considered. A separate reinforcement calculation model is used to simulate the effect of prestressed reinforcement by applying initial strain, the boundary condition of inverted siphon structure is simulated by the fixed constraint between inverted siphon and pier. By numerical simulation analysis of inverted siphon structure, the cloud maps of stress and displacement and path charts of inverted siphon under various cases are given, then the results are analysed to check the safety performance of inverted siphon, the research results provide a theoretical basis for construction organisation design.
Keywords: Gully-buried inverted siphon; loss of prestress; structure design; numerical simulation; simulation analysis.
Parameter Modification Method For 3D Simulation Model of Green Building Based On Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization
by Xiao Liu
Abstract: In order to overcome the problem of large error rate and long time-consuming in the traditional parameter modification method for 3D simulation model of building, an adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithm is introduced to design a parameter correction method for 3D simulation model of green building. The 3D simulation model of the target green building is established. The simulation analysis of building energy consumption was carried out by using the software Ecotect in BIM, and determine the key parameter variables that have great influence on energy consumption output. According to the key parameter variables, the model parameter is constructed to correct the objective function, and the function is solved by using the adaptive particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to realize the automatic parameters correction of the 3D simulation model of the green building. Experimental results show that the error rate of the method is small, time-consuming and reliable.
Keywords: Adaptive particle swarm optimization; Green building; 3D simulation model; Parameter modification; BIM; Sensitivity.
Comparative analysis of Fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making methods in maintenance prioritization of infrastructure assets
by Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Farham Shahrivar, Chun-Qing Li
Abstract: The maintenance prioritisation of infrastructure assets is conventionally evaluated by calculating the risk an asset can pose to the owner organisation in terms of agreed criteria. Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods are utilised to prioritise asset maintenance. Using fuzzy theory which is developed to deal with vagueness in human thinking is believed to release more accurate criteria weights and consequently alternative performance values in a qualitative multi-criteria decision-making evaluation. This paper presents an empirical application and comparison of four compensatory MCDM methods including technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS), complex proportional assessment (COPRAS), weighted sum model (WSM), and weighted product model (WPM) in a fuzzy environment to prioritise irrigation asset maintenance. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method is used, also in a fuzzy environment, to obtain the criteria weights. Seven evaluation criteria and six irrigation channels from different areas in Northern Victoria, Australia, are considered as the case study data. Results of the MCDM methods are analysed and their reliability, simplicity, and applicability with pros and cons are evaluated. Finally, the most straightforward and at the same time reliable method for similar practical applications is suggested.
Keywords: Infrastructure maintenance prioritization; Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) Methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP); Weighted Sum Model (WSM); Weighted Product Model (WPM); COmplex PRoportion.