Interdisciplinary Environmental Review (6 papers in press)
National Policy and the Limits to Popular Dissent: The Case of the F-35
by Charles Simpson
Abstract: The F-35 fighter/bomber is the world's most expensive military program. While operationally questionable, it excels in "political engineering": the allocation of contracts and lobbying to achieve congressional support. While Vermont's business and congressional delegation advocate basing the planes at Burlington's International Airport, opponents have protested this with demonstrations, law suits, a referendum, and resolutions by three city councils. They principally cite the noise impacts on the housing supply and on children's cognitive development. This study, based on participant observation, explores why the movement has not prevailed, arguing it is because protest has been framed in terms of local consequences rather than including a critique of related national policy: American Exceptionalism, a military-based economy, and reliance on nuclear weapons.
Keywords: F-35s; military-industrial complex; local democracy; grassroots movements; American exceptionalism.
Water quality and perception of use in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
by Oyekanmi Babatimehin, Adebayo Eludoyin, Opeyemi Ekundayo, Namsifon Ekwere
Abstract: Water is required in both satisfactory supply and quality but studies have shown significant distrusts by potential users in many communities in developing countries. The study therefore examined water quality and perception of users in a university community in southwest Nigeria, with the view of investigating causes of distrusts in water quality despite efforts made at making water potable for use in the university. Data used were chemistry of water samples selected locations in the University and responses of students at halls of residence and a key informant at the water treatment section. Results showed that water supplied for domestic purpose in the halls of residence was characterized by 7.3 - 8.4 pH, and contained higher than safe limits for some heavy metals (cobalt and lead). Also, although the concentrations of water samples were within the acceptable limits at the point of distribution, the concentrations of the heavy metals were raised at the halls of residence. Varied concentrations of the investigated chemical ions across the halls indicated contamination through the distribution channels and/or the storage tanks in the halls. About 58.3% of the students perceived that the water supplied by the University Water system is not suitable for drinking. The study concluded that possible contamination by distribution channels and storage facilities may have undermined the efficiency of the water treatment facilities at the water treatment plant of the University, and this has influenced the distrust of the water quality by users.
Keywords: Water quality; Perception on water quality and use; University community.
Greening for Sustainability: Green UAE A Classic Example
by RAVINDRA SAXENA, B. Rajesh Kumar
Abstract: Sustainability or Sustainable Development is not a mantra or a magic band which can give you instant results. It is a long process, a never ending journey, it is a philosophy, orientation, mind-set, behavior, attitude, promise or commitment towards environment protection, resource utilization and global welfare. Although many people feel that global warming is a natural phenomenon full of unpredictable uncertainties and predictable dangers, but this should not be considered as an excuse for not thinking about possible dangers and not taking actions to face those uncertainities for future welfare. Most of the industrialized nations are into the environmental evolution since last three decades or more and have already taken lot of initiatives to reduce pollution and ensuring societys long term welfare to pass it on from one generation to other. For saving the planet earth and making it as a green place to live and breathe for the next generations to come, many developed countries have already made many policies and legislative structures to ensure the sustainable development. Most of the studies relating to sustainability, green philosophy, green environment, sustainable consumption; and Governments initiatives and policies for sustainable development are done in developed countries but such studies are still missing in the context of developing countries like United Arab Emirates. This paper attempts to fill this gap and focuses upon the Governments initiatives and future plans for sustainable development in this part of the globe, the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
Keywords: Sustainability; Green Environment; Sustainable Development; Sustainable Consumption; Global Warming; Green Companies; United Arab Emirates; UAE.
Poverty and environmental degradation Nexus in Rwanda: Any Empirical evidence
by Gerard Bikorimana, Shengmin SUN
Abstract: The purpose of the present paper is empirically to investigate the nexus between poverty and environmental degradation with a focus on deforestation in Rwanda. To acknowledge the association between them, the cointegration techniques which include unit root test, Johansen cointegration test, and Vector error correction model have applied. The study obtained the used data from the World Development indicator of the World Bank and African Development Bank which covers the period of 1980 to 2016. The findings suggest that there is a long-run relationship between the variables of concern models. The empirical result finds out that in the short run, the predictor variables will change so that the short- run disequilibrium fault is rectified in every period for restoring both Household final consumption expenditure per capita (HFEXPC) proxies of poverty and net forest depletion (NFD) proxies of deforestation to its long-run equilibrium. The study finds evidence of the existence of a bi-directional Granger causal association between poverty and environmental degradation in Rwanda. Thus, the study recommends the government to take effective measures besides exploring the environmental allegation of investment in poverty lessening plans and suitable shapes of a policy aiming at accomplishing poverty lessening and maintainable environmental administration. Whereas poverty reduction is positively hard to be settled on a short period, the uninterrupted environmental consciousness scheme aiming the poor is an alternate but ideally to be integrated into poverty reduction programs
Keywords: Poverty; Environmental degradation; cointegration; Granger causality test; Rwanda.
Weekday Trip Patterns of Students in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
by Tina Iloabanafor, Moses Olawole, Adebayo Eludoyin
Abstract: The study examined the movement pattern of students in a typical weekday in Obafemi Awolowo University in Nigeria; the factors that influence the choice of where students live and the distance from their residence to the nearest transport facility; as well as assessed the students perception on the influence of the availability of transport infrastructures on the choice of residential location. Data used were obtained from Obafemi Awolowo University Annual Report publication, administration of questionnaire and interview. The questionnaire is designed to include both closed and open-ended questions which were used to solicit for relevant information on the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents; travel characteristics and movement pattern; perception on the availability of transport infrastructures as well as factors that determine the decision to reside off-campus. The study used a multistage sampling procedure. Results showed that two main types of movement patterns were observed and these can be interpreted as either unidirectional (89.8%) or bidirectional (10.2%) movements. An average student spends between N 31 and N 175; and between 15 and 30 minutes, daily from their residence to the University. Gender, amount paid on house rent, family house ownership, and source of income were the main factors determining choice of residential location among students (t = -7.02, p<0.05). The study ranked proximity to bus stops and/or junctions, quick and easy access to motorcycles and buses, and nearness to park or garage as the first three important factors that influence accommodation location choices among the off-campus resident students. The study concluded that transport infrastructures influenced the residential location decisions among offcampus resident students in the study area.
Keywords: Off-campus residents; Mobility patterns; Trip patterns; Higher Education.
Implementation of green manufacturing concepts: A case study of tea manufacturing industry in Sri Lanka
by Madhawee Jayarathne, Jayasena Dissanayake, Asankha Pallegedara
Abstract: The objective of this study is to identify the potential implementation of green manufacturing concepts on medium scale tea industries in Sri Lanka. Five medium scale tea factories located in southern province were selected as the sample and case study approach was followed. The data were collected through regular factory observations and secondary sources including published reports and documents of the companies. Material and Energy Flow diagram was used as the main tool for the analysis. The results reveals that there are significant environmental issues such as large scale raw material wastage, and high level of energy, water consumption and harmful emissions. This study suggests that energy consumption can be reduced by introducing new equipment, methods and systems such as installing variable speed motors, power factor correction capacitors, variable frequency drivers, replacing Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) with compact fluorescents, implementing well-planned production schedules, and fixing net metering system and solar panels.
Keywords: Green manufacturing; SMEs; energy consumption; water consumption; tea industry; Sri Lanka; material and energy flow diagram; fermentation process.