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Interdisciplinary Environmental Review (4 papers in press)
Review of chemical and bromatological characteristics of organic fraction of municipal solid waste for anaerobic digestion and calculating theoretical methane yield by Tanmay Khambekar, Sandip Mali Abstract: The percentage of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) varies in the range of 32% to 56% globally. Anaerobic digestion of OFMSW is used for volarisation and energy recovery. The characteristics of the OFMSW contribute to the process of anaerobic digestion. The study presents the chemical and bromatological characteristics of OFMSW reported by the researchers. The variation in the characteristics is discussed with respect to anaerobic digestion. The study concludes that the variation in the characteristics of OFMSW is the function of the constituents in it. The constituents forming OFMSW are related to the various factors including demography, geography and cultural habits of the area. The theoretical methane yield is calculated by elemental composition and bromatological characteristics and is found to vary in the range of 111.82 to 349.79 and 157.14 to 692.51 ml of CH4/g of VS respectively. The selection of pre-treatment method on the basis of the characteristics is also discussed. Keywords: municipal solid waste; characteristics; anaerobic digestion; methane yield. DOI: 10.1504/IER.2021.10040583
Adoption of Telecommuting and its Impact on Traffic Congestion, Energy Consumption and Emission levels in India by Mohd Tariq Jamal, Nawab Ali Khan Abstract: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of telecommuting on congestion, energy consumption, and greenhouse gases emission in India and empirically test it. After a comprehensive review of available literature, data was collected from 56 employees working as telecommuters through semi-structured, face-to-face and in-depth exploratory interviews. The study found that the adoption of telecommuting will lead to a reduction in congestions, energy consumption, and greenhouse gases emission in India; and it will also result in other societal benefits. The findings of this study suggest that telecommuting could be implemented as a tool to curb traffic congestions and its adverse effects on the environment and it can also be used as a transport demand management strategy in India. Telecommuting could also be used as a talent attraction and retention tool. It will also lead to a reduction in road accidents and boost traffic safety as well as women safety in India. The study contributes empirically to the existing scarce literature focusing on environmental as well as societal benefits of adopting telecommuting in India. Keywords: telecommuting; congestion; energy consumption; societal benefits; emissions; India. DOI: 10.1504/IER.2021.10040748
Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions by Hind Lebdaoui, Maroua El Asri, Youssef Chetioui Abstract: This paper empirically examines the relationships between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, inward foreign direct investment and economic growth in Morocco between 1970 and 2018. The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is assessed, and the autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) bound and vector error correction method (VECM) are used to examine the posited relationships in an emerging market, where authorities give more importance to economic growth than environmental concerns. Our results suggest the existence of an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth. Furthermore, the VECM-based Granger causality illustrates the existence of a bi-directional causality between CO2 emissions and economic growth in the long-run, and a uni-directional causality from CO2 emissions to FDI in the short run. In spite of the gradual switch toward a green economy, further attention is to be directed to alternative sources such as wind, solar, and hydropower in order to maintain a sustainable growth. Keywords: ARDL model; carbon dioxide emission; economic growth; fossil energy consumption; inward FDI; emerging market. DOI: 10.1504/IER.2021.10041078
OPTIMIZING SPACE ALLOCATION FOR BLACKTIP REEF SHARK CONSERVATION IN PULAU PAYAR, MALAYSIA by Zahayu Md Yusof, Masnita Misiran, Hasimah Sapiri, Syaza Azzimi, Nor Shafarah Sharizal, Farah Aqilah Anuar Abstract: Malaysia is among the countries that are heavily exploiting sharks for its fins import activity and consumptions. A proposed countermeasure to combat this activity is by introducing a specific space for the breeding and conserving available sharks in one of the dedicated Marine Park in Pulau Payar. A space allocation problem in Pulau Payar for blacktip reef sharks is constructed together with its identified constraints. The findings suggest an optimal area of 1,000 metres in length and 500 metres in width is sufficient and can accommodate 291 numbers of blacktip reef sharks in this vicinity. This areas security is hoped to educate and heighten peoples appreciation of the marine lives and their growing importance to be protected. Keywords: shark conservation; linear programming; optimisation; Malaysia. DOI: 10.1504/IER.2021.10041478