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Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting

Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting (AAJFA)

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Afro-Asian J. of Finance and Accounting (83 papers in press)

Regular Issues

  • How debt maturity reacts to the interactions of internal corporate governance mechanisms   Order a copy of this article
    by Hanan Alhussayen, Ridha Shabou, Imed Medhioub 
    Abstract: The two primary internal corporate governance mechanisms, boards of directors and ownership structures, are important for disciplining managers through short-term and long-term debt and, thus, debt maturity. The interactions between these mechanisms tend to define which type of debt is the more effective discipline mechanism. Thus, this study aims to define the impacts of interactions between intensive board monitoring and ownership structures on debt maturity for all non-financial firms listed on the Saudi market from 2008 to 2013. The results reveal that board monitoring intensity encourages Saudi listed firms to apply more long-term debt. Both direct ownership by large shareholders and family-held firms as controlling shareholders strengthen the monitoring functions of the board and encourage Saudi listed firms to apply more long-term debt. In contrast, ultimate owners, who hold indirect ownership of firms, tend to distract the board from applying its monitoring functions effectively.
    Keywords: intensive board monitoring; direct ownership; indirect ownership; family ownership; debt maturity; long-term debt; short-term debt.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2020.10025421
  • Are banks profitable and efficient? A case study of Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammad Ali, Chin-Hong Puah 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of bank-specific factors and macroeconomic environment on bank profitability and management efficiency in Pakistan. The sample data comprised 24 banks over a sample period of 2007-2015. The panel least squares regression with fixed effect model suggests that bank profitability is significantly affected by bank size, credit risk, and bank stability. On the other side, bank efficiency is significantly predicted by liquidity risk, credit risk, and funding risk. The robustness of results was confirmed in the presence of the macroeconomic environment. Overall, this research provides a new insight into bank profitability and efficiency. Additionally, prior studies have neglected the management efficiency as a dependent variable. Therefore, we consider this article as superior, which has laid a foundation for future studies.
    Keywords: banking sector; finance; profitability; management efficiency; macroeconomics; Pakistan.

  • Trade credit in an emerging market: evidence from Kuwaiti firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Yomna Abdulla 
    Abstract: We investigate the trade credit policy in Kuwaiti firms during the period 2011-2016. Specifically, we examine the impact of the decline in oil prices on the level of trade credit and on the relationship between trade credit and firms profitability. The findings show that the decline in oil prices had no significant impact on the level of trade credit or the relationship between trade credit and profitability. We find that cashflow, cash holdings, current assets, short-term debt and size are the main determinants of trade credit. The results also show that the level of trade credit has a negative impact on a firms profitability and is more pronounced in financially unconstrained firms.
    Keywords: trade credit; emerging markets; profitability; accounts payable; working capital management; oil prices.

  • The effect of corporate reputation on firm financial performance: evidence from Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Iman Harymawan, Mohammad Nasih, Salsabiilaa F. P. Herlambang 
    Abstract: This research study examines the effect of corporate reputation on the firms financial performance in Indonesia. This study used a sample of 930 firm-year observations from the firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange from 2013 to 2016 in order to examine how company reputation affects financial performance. The results show that corporate reputation affects financial performance positively. Moreover, the small firm size in Indonesia has a greater corporate reputation effect on financial performance. The implication of this study is important for management as regards the important role that reputation can play on the firms financial performance. Therefore, maintaining a company's reputation is crucial to ensure the growth of the firm's performance. In addition, this study reveals that the effect of corporate reputation effect on financial performance for a smaller firm is greater than for a larger firm.
    Keywords: corporate reputation; financial performance; firm size; emerging country.

  • Bank capital and liquidity creation: evidence from Islamic and conventional MENA banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Ahmad Sahyouni, Man Wang 
    Abstract: This paper estimates the amount of liquidity created by MENA banks over the period 2011-2016, and further investigates the impact of bank capital on liquidity creation, controlling for a set of bank-level and macro variables. The findings conduct that banks created 18.596 trillion US dollars of liquidity, which equals 28.4% of their total assets, and conventional banks create more liquidity than Islamic banks, as do large banks compared with medium and small banks. But, the Islamic banks are the best in terms of liquidity creation per asset. The regression results also show a negative relationship between equity capital and liquidity, which supports the financial fragility crowding-out hypothesis, but only for conventional banks and for large and small size banks. Finally, the study contains some implications for decision makers and regulators in the region.
    Keywords: liquidity creation; bank capital; Islamic banks; conventional banks; MENA.

  • Causal relation and dynamic volatility spillover between commodity market and stock market: empirical evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by Ruchika Kaura, Nawal Kishor, Namita Rajput 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the causal relationship and dynamic volatility spillover effect across commodity market and stock market in India. The study is based on the Nifty index of the National Stock Exchange of India Ltd (NSE) as the representative of Indian stock market and four commodity market indices of the Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd (MCX), namely MCXComdex, MCXAgri, MCXEnergy and MCXMetal, as representative of the Indian commodity market. The study employs the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model to examine the causal relationship between commodity market indices and the stock market index, Nifty. It employs the Dynamic Conditional Correlation (DCC) GARCH model proposed by Engle (2002) to measure the volatility spillover effect and to test the time-varying conditional correlation across commodity market and stock market indices. The findings highlight the existence of strong linkages between commodity market indices and Nifty. In particular, the causal relationship of all commodity market indices towards Nifty is reported. The results of the DCC-GARCH model show that correlation between the commodity market and the stock market is time-varying and highly volatile. Dynamic volatility spillover between the conditional variances of all selected commodity market indices and Nifty is found to be significant, implying that any disturbance in one market leads to the other market becoming more volatile. The findings of this study can be of immense use for portfolio managers to devise appropriate substitution and risk management strategies for the purpose of portfolio optimisation to garner more profits. The knowledge of the cross-market relationship may also be helpful for policy makers and regulators to understand the macroeconomic implications of commodity market shocks on the stock prices and vice-versa.
    Keywords: VAR; DCC-GARCH; causality; dynamic volatility spillover; commodity market; Nifty.

  • The value relevance of research and development expenditures: a comparative analysis of Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and US manufacturers   Order a copy of this article
    by Gee Jung Kwon 
    Abstract: Research and development (R&D) expenditures are generally thought to increase a firms market value. This study examines the nonlinear value relevance of R&D expenditures from 2006 to 2015 for manufacturers listed on capital markets in Korea, USA, Japan, and China. In this regard, the study uses a nonlinear validation method based on an analytical model that adds R&D investment variables to a corporate valuation model. The results indicate that Korean and Japanese firms experience an increase in corporate value when they make R&D expenditures, but if the firms exceed their R&D expenditure limits, corporate value falls. In US and Chinese firms, R&D expenditures prompt a dramatic rise in corporate value when such expenditures are initially set to exceed certain limits, although R&D activities reduce corporate value in their early stages. Such findings have practical relevance for international investment decisions.
    Keywords: research and development; accounting information; corporate value; value relevance; nonlinear value relevance; manufacturer.

  • The long-term performance of post-merger and acquisition: evidence from Indonesias stock market   Order a copy of this article
    by Josua Tarigan, Jacqueline Evania, Devie Devie, Saarce Elsye Hatane 
    Abstract: This study evaluates the long-term share performance of firms over three years after they underwent merger and acquisition (M&A) in the period of 2010-2013. This is happening since researchers failed to find answers in the short-term analysis and began looking for answers through long-term analysis. Most previous studies have been done either in big capital markets (US and UK) or smaller capital markets such as Greece and Malaysia but not Indonesia. Moreover, this study also added the size of the acquirer, the method of payment and the ownership concentration together towards the long-term share performance, which is different from previous studies. The share performance was measured through Cumulative Market Adjusted Abnormal Return (CMAR) and Buy and Hold Abnormal Return (BHAR). The result of this study provides evidence of the presence of negative abnormal returns of the merged and acquiring firms. The result also shows that large size acquirers earned lower loss of abnormal returns than the small size acquirers. Moreover, the results show that cash payments are preferable to the share settlement. The results also reveal that the firms that are owned by families tend to outperform the firms that are not owned by families
    Keywords: merger and acquisition; share performance; Indonesia; cumulative market adjusted abnormal return; buy and hold abnormal return.

  • Owner risk and firm valuation: evidence from Korean business groups   Order a copy of this article
    by Haksoon Kim 
    Abstract: Since Berle and Means (1932) and Jensen and Meckling (1976), numerous empirical studies have been done on corporate governance regarding ownership structure, board characteristics, and monitoring mechanism. However, there is little empirical evidence of the relationship between owner risk and firm valuation. We investigate this relationship using the unique owner risk index score data of Korean business groups. A high score means low owner risk. We find that there is a positive relationship between owner risk index score and firm valuation for Korean business groups. Specifically, the positive relationship is statistically significant in the professionalism and quality or ethical management without group dummy. The positive relationship is statistically significant in the transparency and accountability or ethical management with group dummy. The results suggest that owner risk is an important governance factor affecting firm valuation.
    Keywords: owner risk; firm valuation; corporate governance; business group.

  • Ownership concentration and firm valuation in a typical frontier market   Order a copy of this article
    by Nam Tran, Chi Le 
    Abstract: This study investigates the valuation effect of concentrated ownership in a typical frontier market. Using an extensive sample of Vietnamese publicly listed firms, we find that the valuation effect is inconclusive before combined equity holdings reach a certain threshold, beyond which market valuation increases exponentially with ownership. The latter log-linear effect can be interpreted as a more profound dominance of the monitoring incentives of large shareholders over the potential expropriation of minority shareholders at higher levels of concentration. Our finding reconciles the seemingly conflicting results of previous studies and contributes to understanding corporate governance practices in frontier markets.
    Keywords: ownership concentration; market valuation; piecewise linear regression; frontier markets; Vietnam.

  • Martingale effect of conventional versus Islamic stock indices: evidence from the UAE   Order a copy of this article
    by Hazem Marashdeh, Sania Ashraf 
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the martingale effect of conventional and Shariah equity markets in the United Arab Emirates. The study employs the runs test for randomness, and the Breusch Godfrey LM test and the variance ratio test using daily returns for the period January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2017. The empirical results indicate that the UAEs conventional equity market operated efficiently, while the Shariah equity market lacked randomness during the study period. The existence of stock-market efficiency in the conventional stock price index is considered an essential factor for attracting foreign portfolio investment. Nevertheless, the inefficiency of the Shariah market offers opportunities for well-informed investors to achieve abnormal levels of returns. However, having an inefficient Islamic market index points to the need for Shariah boards to make the market more transparent and ensure information flows are instantaneous. The findings of the study have useful implications not only for investors but also for regulators and policy makers in terms of the need to reduce economic distortions through more effective resource allocation.
    Keywords: martingale; heteroscedasticity; informational efficiency; Breusch Godfrey LM test; variance ratio test.

  • Investigation of stock return volatility using Shannon entropy: evidence from ASEAN stock markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Xuan Vinh Vo, Thi Tuan Anh Tran 
    Abstract: This study assesses stock market volatility in ASEAN countries. We use Shannon entropy as an alternative measure to traditional measure of stock return volatility. We use daily stock price data of national stock market indices of ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) for the period from August 2001 to December 2016. The results show that the returns series of Vietnam VNINDEX is the most volatile stock index, followed by Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. The study also suggests that entropy is an important alternative to the traditional measure of stock return volatility. The study offers important implications for risk management and portfolio theory.
    Keywords: volatility of stock returns; standard deviation; entropy; Shannon entropy; probability density function.

  • Corporate governance, transparency and performance: empirical evidence from UAE   Order a copy of this article
    by Mostafa Kamal Hassan, Cristina Florio, Bassam Abu Abbas 
    Abstract: This paper uses both the agency theory and the legitimacy theory to provide a complementary framework that links different patterns of disclosures (i.e. transparency) to corporate performance for a sample of 116 United Arab Emirates (UAE) listed firms between years 2008-2016. It investigates the relationship between corporate disclosures (i.e. transparency), organisational commitment to law, a set of governance mechanisms (namely, board size, CEO decision-making power, and foreign ownership) and corporate performance, while controlling for corporate specific characteristics such as size, type, age and leverage. The empirical results show that transparency indices have a puzzling pattern across different performance measures namely return on assets, asset turnover and organisational growth. For the non-financial sector, the results shows a positive significant association with return on assets and asset use, and a significant negative association with organisational growth. For the financial sector, the results show no association between transparency and performance measured by return on assets and asset use, and a negative association with organisational growth. The findings are important to regulators, investors, and researchers aiming at developing new policies that establish better regulatory infrastructure that increases investors confidence. The paper is one of very few studies that examine the association between corporate transparency and corporate performance in an emerging market economy, such as the UAE.
    Keywords: transparency; governance; performance; disclosure indexes; emerging economies.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2020.10022386
  • Different levels of family ownership and dividend payout in the presence of growth opportunities   Order a copy of this article
    by Irene Wei Kiong Ting, Qian Long Kweh, Norazlin Ahmad, Neshaleni S. Paramanantham 
    Abstract: This study examines the family ownership, growth opportunities, and dividend payout of a sample consisting of 200 of the largest publicly listed companies in Malaysia from 20112016. Three main results emerge after controlling for firm and board characteristics as well as industry and year effects in various robustness checks. First, despite their positive impacts on dividend payout, family firms exhibit a lower dividend payout relative to net income. Second, growth opportunities increase the positive impacts of family ownership on dividend payout. A positive association between growth opportunities and dividend payout is also found. Third, the moderating effect of growth opportunities on the relationship between family ownership and dividend payout is present only in firms with family shareholdings, particularly those with high and medium ownership. These findings indicate varying dividend payout in the presence of growth opportunities for the different levels of family ownership.
    Keywords: dividend payout; family ownership; growth opportunities; moderating effect.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10037035
  • Stock market efficiency: the Pakistan Stock Exchange merger   Order a copy of this article
    by Asad Ali, Saqib Sharif 
    Abstract: This study examines the valuation, liquidity, volatility, and efficiency before and after the integration of Islamabad Stock Exchange (ISE) and Lahore Stock Exchange (LSE) with Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) to form the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX). The firm-level daily data is analysed to determine the effects of regulatory change. Based on regression analyses, results indicate mixed evidence for different market measures following the integration of domestic bourses. However, the post-integration period in Pakistan is fraught with political turmoil and weak economic indicators. Thus any improvement that is hypothesised following the merger is offset by poor economic and political factors.
    Keywords: stock exchange merger; valuation; liquidity; volatility; market efficiency; financial regulation; Pakistan Stock Exchange; demutualisation.

  • Herding behaviour and trading volume: evidence from Amman Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Buthiena Kharabsheh, Mohammad AL-Gharaibeh, Suleiman Almasri 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the presence of herding behaviour in Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). Specifically, it aims to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between herding behaviour, trading volume and market liquidity levels. Using a free float share index consisting of 100 companies, the present study employs the approach developed by Chang et al. (2000). It presents an analysis of herding in relation to trading volume and liquidity relationships performed by OLS, VAR estimation and Granger causality tests. Results of daily data analysis for the period 2006 to 2017 indicate strong evidence of herding behaviour in ASE, particularly during the crisis period. The results also proved that there is a strong correlation between herding and trading volume in both directions, and intensification of herding in periods of medium or high market liquidity, but no evidence of herding at low liquidity levels.
    Keywords: herding; behavioural finance; trading volume; liquidity; Jordan; financial crisis; granger causality tests; Amman Stock Exchange; free float index.

  • Bank growth, competition and small business financing in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Cosmas Asogwa 
    Abstract: The level of bank growth, asset concentration, and competition in Nigerias banking sector have significantly increased following a series of banking reforms, thus raising concern about these reforms effects on the efficiency of banks credit distribution. In this study, we use ex post-facto and difference-in-difference designs to examine how competition among high-growth banks has affected the banks provision of assets to small business borrowers in Nigeria. The study used a bi-sample structure through a judgmental technique that examined 126 and 96 firm-years. Thus, we focused on the period between 2001 and 2017, which enabled us to test both pre- and post-bank growth-competition Boone model effects. When we controlled for firm, market, and macroeconomic influences, we found evidence that in both the pre- and post-bank-growth eras, competition significantly increased small business loans. This finding is consistent with the competition-stability hypothesis, which considers competition as a non-credit constraining factor. A unit increase in the Boone competition indicator resulted in over a 3% credit supply to micro-credit users. However, when we used concentration ratio (CR6) as a structural measure, we found that pre-mega structure competition yields negative effects but that the post-growth effect on credit supply remains positive. Macroeconomic factors such as gross domestic product, money supply, inflation, and capital market indices yield a very significant effect on credit supply as huge banks compete with each other. Thus, policymakers should not ignore the variables in competition-monetary transmission policies in Nigeria.
    Keywords: bank competition; small business; competition: lending: growth: MegaBank: Boone competition indicator.

  • The equity market returns and volatility spillover from the US and Japanese markets to Asian frontier markets   Order a copy of this article
    by T.H.I. Ngan Nguyen, T.H.I. Kieu H.O.A. Phan, Nirav Parikh 
    Abstract: This paper examines the magnitude of return and volatility spillovers from the US and Japan to Asian frontier equity markets (Sri Lanka and Vietnam). The US and Japan shocks are exogenous variables in the ARMA-GARCH-M model. The study indicates that the day effect occurs in Sri Lankan at pre- and post-crisis (2008). Secondly, the return contagion from Japan impacts Vietnam before, during and after the 2008 crisis. This contagion from the US influences Vietnam during and after the crisis with higher magnitudes than Japan. Thirdly, the return spillover from the US impacts Sri Lanka before and during the crisis, while this spillover from Japan to Sri Lanka occurs after the crisis. Finally, the volatility spillover from the US and Japan does not impact the Vietnamese market during the three periods. The volatility contagion from Japan influences Sri Lanka in the crisis, with no volatility spillover from the US to Sri Lanka through three periods.
    Keywords: return spillover; volatility spillovers; frontier markets; contagion effects; ARMA-GARCH-M.

  • Home bias and return chasing by foreign portfolio investors: evidence from selected Sub-Saharan Africa markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Rihanat Idowu Abdulkadir 
    Abstract: This paper examines home bias and return chasing by foreign investors in selected Sub-Saharan African markets. Using a pooled mean group estimation on data drawn from five countries, the study did not find conclusive evidence to suggest that foreign investors exhibit home bias in the long run when they adjust their investment in line with past flows. Return chasing is not seen as the first order of business and is prioritised only in the long run, after foreign investors have gained knowledge of the market. Results show that foreign investors value countries with stable economies and invest more in the sampled markets with higher returns from industrialised markets. Policy makers should intensify efforts to make these markets more attractive for foreign investors, maintain good economic conditions and then monitor developments in industrialised markets. This approach will assist them in reacting to variations or reversals in portfolio flows resulting from occurrences in such markets.
    Keywords: home bias; return chasing; foreign portfolio investment; pooled mean group; stock market.

  • Does accounting quality predict corporate cash holdings?   Order a copy of this article
    by Rajesh Pathak, Ranajee Ranajee, Ranjan Das Gupta 
    Abstract: This study empirically examines the role of better accounting quality as a substitute for corporate cash holdings. The paper builds on the premise that if information asymmetry and agency concerns are the justifications for increased corporate cash holdings, better accounting quality, by alleviating these concerns, can enable companies to accumulate less cash, circumventing liquidity concerns. The study uses data for Indian firms during the years 200616 and employs a host of panel models to test the relationship amid the set of idiosyncratic controls and robustness tests. It reports that firms with high discretionary accruals hold high levels of cash, implying poor earnings quality leading to cash accumulation by average Indian firms. Results are highly consistent for alternate measures of accounting quality and cash holdings and are robust to controls of the antecedents of cash holdings and endogeneity issues. Furthermore, analysis of group-affiliated firms compared with their counterparts, for accounting quality and cash holding connect, reveals that while group affiliates suffer from poor earnings quality compared to non-affiliates, it does not have bearings on their cash holdings, a fact that can be attributed to the easy access of group affiliates to internal capital markets. The results imply that managers of Indian firms, on average, should focus on maintaining better accounting quality to alleviate the need to accumulate cash as a means of avoiding fundraising constraints when needed.
    Keywords: accounting quality; cash holdings; accruals; business groups.

  • Determinants of corporate governance disclosures of Islamic banks in Sudan: implications for Shariah governance   Order a copy of this article
    by Saed Sulub, Zalailah Salleh, Hafiza Aishah Hashim 
    Abstract: The paper examines the association between the effectiveness of governance bodies in Islamic banks and Corporate Governance Disclosure (CGD) in a sample of Sudanese banks. We analysed the content of annual reports and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression model with pooled effects. Consistent with previous studies in Islamic banks, the findings of this paper revealed low levels of CGD in Islamic banks of Sudan, which is only 39%, on average. The findings showed that Islamic banks with SSB members who hold advanced qualifications provided more information on CGD than their counterparts. However, we found that banks with SSB members who sit on more than one board tend to have lower CGD. In addition, we found that Islamic banks that have an established Audit Committee (AC), Internal Audit Function (IAF) and low levels of governmental ownership have higher CGD levels.These results are robust to alternative empirical models. Our study adds to the ongoing debate of Shariah governance in Islamic banks. In particular, while we support that IAF may play a significant role in Shariah governance as recommended by the regulators of the Islamic banking industry, our evidence shows that SSB multiple directorships, ceteris paribus, are not advantageous for Islamic banks.
    Keywords: corporate governance; disclosure; Islamic banks; Shariah governance; Sudan.

  • Performance of conventional banks versus Islamic banks: evidence from Indonesia   Order a copy of this article
    by Nevi Danila, Yousef Shahwan 
    Abstract: A sound banking system is crucial for the stability of the economy. This paper investigates the determinants of bank performance from the bank-specific and macroeconomic perspective. A fixed-effects model is used to analyse panel data on conventional and Islamic banks from 2010 to 2016. The data reveals that of the top ten private and non-government owned banks, the Islamic bank ranks as the number one performing bank. Macroeconomic variables are the only variables to have an impact on bank performance for both conventional and Islamic banks. While bank-specific variables do not influence performance, operating efficiency was shown to have an impact on Islamic banks.
    Keywords: Islamic banks; CAMEL; financial performance index.

  • Dividend policy and stock price: evidence from Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Dinh Bao Ngoc, Nguyen Chi Cuong 
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of dividend policy on the stock price in Vietnam. Firstly, in order to quantify the immediate effects of dividend policy, 1738 observations of dividend-related events from 403 listed companies during the period 2008 to 2015 are chosen and the event study methodology is used to estimate abnormal returns around the announcement date and the ex-dividend date. Secondly, in order to quantify the long-run impact of dividend policy, panel data derived from 108 listed companies (809 observations) is analysed by using Fixed Effect Model (FEM) and Random Effect Model (REM). Our results show that the effect of dividend announcement on the stock price is positive around the announcement date. For the long-term impact, the results indicate a significantly negative relationship between payout ratio (PAYOUT), dividend per share (DPS) and stock price volatility, and a positive relationship between dividend yield (DY) and stock price volatility of the companies.
    Keywords: dividend policy; announcement date; ex-dividend date; stock price; event study.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10039197
  • IAS-24 related party disclosure compliance and corporate governance: evidence from an emerging market   Order a copy of this article
    by Ben Agyei-Mensah 
    Abstract: This paper aims to measure the extent of related party transactions disclosure and investigates their determinants in 110 selected firms in Ghana. An index was manually constructed for related party transactions disclosure in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) (IAS 24) using company financial statements. Empirical results show high mean compliance level of 63% of related party transactions disclosure in Ghana. Furthermore, the multiple regression analysis (OLS) shows that related party transactions disclosure has significant relationships with block-holders ownership and presence of independent audit committee. This one of the few studies conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Keywords: corporate governance; mandatory disclosure; IAS 24; related party transactions; Ghana.

  • The effect of cash flow information asymmetry criteria on conservatism in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Mahdi Salehi, Horta Azimidarmian 
    Abstract: The current study aims to investigate the effect of cash flow information asymmetry on conditional and unconditional accounting conservatism of the listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we attempt to explore the determinant factors on these associations. The financial information of 143 firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange for the period of 2012 to 2016 is used. In order to assess conditional conservatism, Basus (1997) model has been used, and to evaluate the relationship between conditional asymmetry and cash flow information asymmetry control variables of lifecycle have been added to Basu's model. The results indicate that there is no relationship between conditional conservatism and cash flow information asymmetry as well as firm lifecycle variables, which are used to assess unconditional conservatism, and cash flow information asymmetry. Furthermore, we find no allocative factor on the relationship between accounting conservatism and cash flow information asymmetry.
    Keywords: conditional conservatism; unconditional conservatism; firm lifecycle; information asymmetry; cash flow resulting from operating activities.

  • Directors' interests, family control and firm performance: evidence from Hong Kong listed firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Ben K.F. Wong, Raymond Wong, Annie H.C. Ko, Raymond Kwong 
    Abstract: Whether adoption of revised CG (corporate governance) rules and best practices in 2005 has had significant impact on firm performance in Hong Kong is examined through multiple regression models. A conceptual framework is developed and performance is measured on the basis of a comprehensive CGI (corporate governance index) in the post-2005 period. The main findings suggest that CGI has a significantly positive relationship with firm performance and family factors have a relationship with firm performance in some situations. Moreover, there is a changing point at which family ownership (<=23%) or directors interests (<=18.4%) have a significantly positive relationship with firm performance. This study also examines the effect of three family control measures on firm value under five different corporate governance conditions. When the percentage of the number of outside directors on the board is comparatively high, the family control and the family ownership are significantly related to firm value. For board size, the family control and family head are significantly related to firm value when the board has 11 members or less. For firm age, the family control is significantly related to firm value for younger firms. For top five salaries, all family control measures are significantly related to firm value when the five highest salaries are comparatively low. Companies need to increase spending to enhance governance performance (i.e. CGI). It is necessary to boost confidence of the public in information disclosed by companies. Besides, international investors and regulators can refer to results of sample firms which have ADRs listed in the United States. Most Hong Kong listed companies are family controlled but their willingness to reform corporate governance is expected to increase when they see the benefits discussed in this study.
    Keywords: corporate governance; corporate governance index; family control; directors’ interests; firm performance.

  • Impact of audit committee attributes on financial reporting quality and timeliness: an empirical study   Order a copy of this article
    by Ben Agyei-Mensah 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of audit committee attributes on financial reporting quality and timeliness of listed firms in Ghana. The study uses 90 firm-year observations for the period 2013-2015 for firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange. A descriptive analysis was performed to provide the background statistics of the variables examined. This was followed by a regression analysis, which forms the main data analysis. The descriptive statistics indicate that over the four years, the mean value of financial reporting quality is 42% and timeliness of financial reporting is 86 days. The regression analysis results indicate that; financial reporting quality has a statistically positive relationship with audit committee financial expertise and size; audit report lag has a statistically negative relationship with audit committee financial expertise and audit committee independence. This study is one of the few to measure the influence of audit committee characteristics on financial reporting quality and timeliness in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: corporate governance; audit committee; Ghana; financial reporting quality; timeliness of reporting.

  • Loan loss provisions, earnings management, capital management, and signalling: the case of Vietnamese banks   Order a copy of this article
    by Tu Le, Liem Nguyen, Son Tran 
    Abstract: This study examines loan loss provision (LLP) behaviours of Vietnamese banks between 2006 and 2015. Overall, the findings show that earnings management is positively related to LLP regardless of the restructuring period, suggesting that LLPs can be used by Vietnamese banks as a mechanism for aggressive earnings management. In addition, there appears no capital management before the restructuring period. However, the findings indicate that Vietnamese banks used capital management with LLP during the restructuring period. Furthermore, the positive relation between LLP and future earnings during the restructuring period suggests that investors may view an abnormal increase in LLP as a signal of loan quality, which may precede an improvement in banks performance. The findings also emphasise that GDP is positively related to LLP, thus supporting the countercyclical view that Vietnamese banks may have the forward-looking assessment of credit risk by maintaining a higher level of provisions as a buffer against credit losses in anticipation of the economic downturn. Lastly, the findings demonstrate that LLP is positively associated with bank inefficiency, credit growth, bank size, and lending specialisation. State-owned commercial banks are found to reserve a greater level of provisions compared with privately owned commercial banks. Based on the research findings, we offer several implications for bank supervisors, policy-makers, and bank managers.
    Keywords: loan loss provisions; earnings management; capital management; signalling; Vietnam.

  • Fiscal budget deficit and the emerging capital markets in West African countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Samson Edo 
    Abstract: This study investigates development of capital markets in West African countries, within the period 2000-2017, with the main purpose of determining the role of fiscal budget deficit. Investigation is done by building a panel model, showing the relationship between capital market and fiscal budget deficit. The model is estimated, using methodology that includes panel unit root test, panel co-integration test, and the generalised method of moments (GMM). The results reveal that the capital markets are dynamic, and significantly influenced by fiscal budget deficit. The deficit exerts a significant positive impact on market capitalisation, and stocks traded, with the impact on stocks traded superseding that of market capitalisation. The impact of deficit is complemented, at different levels, by returns on investment, exchange rate, financial openness, and money supply. The major implication of these findings is high vulnerability of the markets to a switch in fiscal policy, from deficit budgeting to surplus budgeting, which may lead to decline in level of capitalisation and trading. In view of this, attention needs to be focused on enhancing the positive role of financial openness, and returns on investment, which are considered, in theory, to be strong drivers of capital market development. Appreciable level of financial openness, and appropriate returns on investment, are important in attracting investors to the market. This may be achieved through deeper economic reforms, and tax reduction, that would allow market forces to operate, and attract investors.
    Keywords: fiscal budget deficit; capital markets; developing countries.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10040949
  • Sensitivity of Indian government bonds to macroeconomic and non-macroeconomic factors: a quantile regression approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Muhammadriyaj Faniband 
    Abstract: This paper introduces a new dataset of Clearing Corporation of India Limiteds Broad Total Return Index (BTRI) and Liquid Total Return Index (LTRI). The paper examines the impact of macroeconomic and non-macroeconomic factors on BTRI and LTRI during monthly period from January 2010 to December 2018 by using quantile regression methodology. The results show that the GDP has positive and significant impact on BTRI and LTRI for the upper quantiles. CPI shows positive impact on both BTRI and LTRI. Both BTRI and LTRI are influenced by IR and there is inverse relationship between them. ER also significantly affects both BTRI and LTRI. The EPUI has negative and significant impact on BTRI and LTRI for the intermediate and upper quantiles. No clear relationship is found between BTRI and Nifty, whereas Nifty has significant impact on LTRI. BTRI is not affected by VIX but LTRI is affected for the intermediate quantiles.
    Keywords: government bonds; macroeconomic factors; non-macroeconomic factors; broad total return index; liquid total return index; quantile regression.

  • Modelling the recovery of Indian banks under prompt corrective action framework: TOPSIS methodology   Order a copy of this article
    by K.C. Arora, L. Ramani 
    Abstract: The current study empirically investigates the comparative financial health of each of the 12 Indian banks under the Prompt Corrective Action (PCA) framework considering multiple triggers of PCA framework collectively. A model for predicting the recovery of these banks from PCA has been proposed based on three different multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM), one being the TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution) proposed by Hwang and Yoon (1981) to rank the set of alternatives. It has been hypothesised that higher the rank, the faster could be the recovery of a bank out of PCA framework based on multiple trigger values of these banks for three to four years from the date of the revised PCA framework. The results have got amply validated with the action of the Indian banking regulator (RBI) to declare some of the banks out of PCA framework immediately after the declaration of financial results of the banks for Quarter 3 of the Financial Year 2019. The approach and methods employed are novel and have important managerial implications for the banks and the regulator to gauge the quantum of risk of a bank under PCA framework and compare it with that of other similar banks.
    Keywords: prompt corrective action; Reserve Bank of India; CRAR; CET1; NNPA; leverage ratio; weighted average deviation index; TOPSIS methodology.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10035963
  • How does price informativeness affect the sensitivity of investment-to-stock price in Vietnamese listed firms?   Order a copy of this article
    by Quynh Trang Phan, Poomthan Rangkakulnuwat 
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the stock market and firm investment from a price informativeness perspective. Using an unbalanced panel dataset of Vietnamese listed firms from 2007 to 2017, the results show that stock market valuation is positively related to firm investment in both static and dynamic models. Moreover, the investment of firms with a higher level of price informativeness is likely less sensitive to their stock prices than that of firms with a lower level of price informativeness. In addition, the development of financial markets plays an important role in determining investment and investment-to-stock-price sensitivity. The regression results also show that the role of price informativeness in the investment-to-stock price relationship is not much different among groups of firms with high- and low-quality auditors, as well as those with small and large firms.
    Keywords: firm investment; stock market valuation; price informativeness; emerging markets.

  • Market anomalies and investor behaviour   Order a copy of this article
    by Aditya Sharma, Arya Kumar, Arun Vaish 
    Abstract: Market anomalies can be seen as a probable hint of market inefficiency and a reflection of behavioral influence in stock markets. However, the research on market anomalies is continuously striving to establish investor behaviour as the root cause. The paper contributes to this ongoing research by investigating the existence of market anomalies and further exploring these anomalies to find their sources in an emerging market such as India. The paper uses the methodology developed by Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) for calculating anomaly related excess returns and DW decomposition technique to break these excess returns into fundamental and behavioral components. These excess returns are also tested for risk as a probable source by adjusting them for CAPM and Fama French risk factors. The results rejected the notion that risk is the only source of such anomalies and on decomposition it was evident that these anomalies have multiple sources falling under both behavioral and fundamental classifications. The paper leaves scope for using higher frequency data to test these anomalies. The paper is among a select few that examines the presence as well as sources of these market anomalies in an emerging market such as India. The paper further contributes to the existing literature by showcasing the evidence of market inefficiency and at the same time pointing towards a certain influence of investor behaviour in Indian equity markets.
    Keywords: stock price movement; momentum effect; investor behaviour; under- and over-reaction.

  • The effect of financial repression policy on bank liquidity risk: evidence from the Central Bank of Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Seyed Ehsan Hosseinidoust, Armin Saatian 
    Abstract: This study investigates the long-run effect of financial repression policy on the liquidity risk in the Iranian banking sector during 2006 and 2018. In this research, financial repression, in the other words, the central bank's interventionist monetary policies, have been assessed based on the endogenous money view using four indicators: the real interest rate, the legal reserve ratio, the unofficial exchange rate, as well as the bank credit to GDP ratio, which can show the financial depth of an economy. The results show that imposing more restrictions on the legal reserve ratio has reduced the liquidity risk. Also, the Iranian banking system has reduced the liquidity risk through two mechanisms. Firstly, through the allocation of financial resources and bank credits to profit-making companies which are conducted under the banks' control, which these investments generally include non-productive sectors of the economy, and secondly, through inflationary taxes that appear as an increase in the exchange rate and devaluing the domestic currency. Also, the findings for the interest rate ceiling policy show that the more the real interest rate increases, the more the liquidity risk decreases. Although the financial repression policies in the Iranian banking system have generally reduced the liquidity risk, the bank losses have been passed on through hidden taxes to depositors and domestic money holders, which illustrates the need for structural reforms in the Iranian banking system.
    Keywords: financial repression; liquidity risk; endogenous money; real interest rate; credit to GDP ratio; exchange rate; legal reserve ratio.

  • Earnings deviation of interim and annual accounts: pre- and post-MASB 26   Order a copy of this article
    by Saidatunur Fauzi Saidin, Mazrah Malek, Phua Liang Kee 
    Abstract: This study is to examine whether the use of the discrete method may enhance the quality of interim financial accounts. It examines whether the magnitude and occurrence of earnings deviation post-MASB 26 is significantly lower than pre-MASB 26. Data is based on listed companies on Bursa Malaysia for two years before and after the introduction of MASB 26 in 2002. The t-test shows that the magnitude of earnings deviation pre-MASB 26 is significantly higher as compared with post-MASB 26. Sub-sample analyses also showed that the magnitude of both overstated and understated companies is significantly higher pre-MASB 26. However, Pearson chi-square shows that the occurrence of earnings deviation has increased post-MASB 26, which was contributed by the increase in occurrence of understated quarterly earnings. This study provides evidence that the use of the discrete method might enhance the quality of interim reporting. Although alternative methods of accounting provide different benefits and drawbacks, this study highlights the need for regulators to consider the objective of financial reporting in formulating the accounting standards.
    Keywords: discrete method; earnings quality; integral method; interim reporting; quarterly accounts.

  • Adjusting the consumption-based capital asset pricing model by the estimate bid-ask spreads based on daily highest and lowest prices in Iran   Order a copy of this article
    by Sedighe Alizadeh, Mohammad Nabi Shahiki Tash, Reza Roshan 
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate a capital asset pricing model (CAPM) based on consumption within the capital market in Iran, which is adjusted using transaction costs and liquidity risk. The study is carried out on twenty portfolios, formed on the basis of liquidity criteria using seasonal data from 2009 to 2018. In other words, this approach is applied to analyze the target pricing model through transaction costs proxy and evaluation of the portfolios. Exploiting the proposed bid-ask spread estimator as the transaction costs proxy shows that liquidity-adjusted CCAPM explains a bigger portion of cross-sectional return changes compared to the traditional CCAPM model. In addition, the results show that disregarding transaction costs and liquidity risk may lead to an inaccurate estimate of the expected return.
    Keywords: traditional CCAPM; liquidity-adjusted CCAPM; liquidity risk; bid-ask spread.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10036970
  • Asset pricing models: evidence from the Indian equity market   Order a copy of this article
    by Kapil Choudhary, Parveen Kumar, Sakshi Mehta 
    Abstract: The asset pricing model has been a core area of research in finance owing to its applicability in corporate finance and security analysis. The present study attempted to evaluate the three popular asset pricing models, viz. the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), the Fama-French three-factor model, and the Fama-French five-factor model, in the Indian equity market for the period from January 2009 to November 2018. The study also examined the role of the size, profitability, value, investment, and market factors in explaining the average equity returns in the Indian equity market. The empirical results reveal the inferior performance of a single market factor in describing the variations in average stock returns in comparison with the Fama-French three-factor model and the Fama-French five-factor model. Further, the size and value factors added to CAPM yield a vital melioration in explaining the variation in average returns of sample stocks.
    Keywords: capital asset pricing model; Fama-French three-factor model; Fama-French five-factor model; size effect; value effect.

  • Audit review and audit outcome of tax auditors in Thailand: moderating effects of professional skepticism and audit experience   Order a copy of this article
    by Kornchai Phornlaphatrachakorn 
    Abstract: This study aims at examining the relationships between audit review and audit outcome of tax auditors in Thailand through moderating effects of professional skepticism and audit experience. In this study, 195 tax auditors in Thailand are the samples of the study. Both structural equation model and multiple regression analysis are applied to test the research relationships. The results indicate that audit review positively affects audit efficiency and audit effectiveness, but it has no effect on audit quality and audit outcome. Both audit efficiency and audit effectiveness have a positive influence on audit quality and audit outcome, but audit quality does not relate to audit outcome. Also, professional skepticism is a moderator of the relationship between audit review and audit efficiency, and audit experience has a moderating effect on the relationships between audit efficiency and audit outcome and between audit effectiveness and audit outcome. Thus, audit review plays an important role in directly determining both audit efficiency and audit effectiveness and indirectly explaining audit outcome. Accordingly, auditors should pay attention to studying, understanding and learning characteristics, qualifications and applications of audit review and use them as an excellent audit practice to increase audit efficiency, audit effectiveness, and audit outcome.
    Keywords: audit review; audit efficiency; audit effectiveness; audit quality; audit outcome; professional skepticism; audit experience; tax auditor.

  • Impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions on short-term gain to shareholders of target firms in India-effect of the mode of payment and industry relatedness.   Order a copy of this article
    by Manoj Panda, Mayank Joshipura 
    Abstract: We examine the effect of announcements of cross-border mergers and acquisitions on short-term gain to shareholders of target firms in India. Using event study, we analyse 137 listed target firms taken from Bloomberg in post-financial crisis era from 2009 to 2019. Our analysis does shows short-term gains on acquisition of Indian firms, with the gains being high in and around the event day. Moreover, the return is positive both for pre- and post-event day windows, though the pre-event day window return is higher compared with post-event day window. Notably, the return for the shareholders on an acquisition announcement is higher for cash payment, compared with other payment modes. Further, the wealth effect for acquisitions in the related industry is higher compared with the acquisitions in unrelated industries. We have done multivariate analysis with the cumulative average abnormal return as the dependent variable, and mode of payment and industry relatedness as independent variables. The analysis shows a higher return for acquisitions in the related industry with cash payment. The findings of this research by and large concur with earlier studies, and are useful for foreign investors to appreciate the market behavior in acquisitions of Indian firms post 2009.
    Keywords: cross-border; mergers and acquisitions; event study; market efficiency.

  • The role of assets components in firm valuation   Order a copy of this article
    by Gee Jung Kwon 
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of the asset components on firm value in listed Korean stock markets during the period of 2000-2015. This paper extends conventional studies on firm valuation by including asset components such as current assets, non-current assets, quick current assets, inventory assets, tangible assets, intangible assets, investment assets, and other non-current assets in Ohlson's (1995) model. Analytical results show that all these asset components have a significantly positive impact on firm value. However, performance variables such as net income, operating income, and operating cash flows are negatively associated with business value at the 1% significance level. The results of this study show that the asset component on the balance sheet has a more positive effect on the increase in corporate value than the profitability and performance variables on the income statement and the cash flow statement. The empirical evidence of this study suggests that asset components should be regarded as major corporate value related variables in the Korean stock market. This study also suggests that intangible assets are the most important factors among accounting information that should be considered in evaluating firm value. The findings of this study suggest the possibility of a new discussion about the value relevant factors in the asset components of Korean stock markets.
    Keywords: firm valuation; assets components; current assets; noncurrent assets; quick current assets; inventory assets; tangible assets; intangible assets; investment assets; other noncurrent assets.

  • Social performance reporting in the Indian banking sector: exploring linkage with financial performance   Order a copy of this article
    by Parul Munjal, P. Malarvizhi, Deergha Sharma 
    Abstract: The research aims to analyse the social performance of the Indian banking sector and examine its relationship with the financial performance. Secondary data has been collected for a five year period (2013-14 to 2017-18) on a sample of 54 banks operating in India. Content analysis was applied to extract information about social performance disclosed by sample banks to help to construct disclosure score index. Hierarchical multiple regression was applied to analyse the relationship between social and financial performance while controlling for the effects of size, financial leverage, and capital intensity. Our results indicate that there exists a significant positive relationship between social and financial performance of banks operating in India. These results lend support to the stakeholder theory, the good management theory, and the motivational theory. Our findings provide insights into the role of bank managers, policy makers and regulators to integrate social performance into core banking operations, and to frame more concrete social policies leading to enhanced financial performance.
    Keywords: social performance; financial performance; banking; content analysis; hierarchical multiple regression.

  • The effect of corporate governance, dividend policy and informativeness of risk disclosure on the firm value: Egyptian evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Tariq Ismail, Mohamed El-Deeb 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of corporate governance, dividend policy and the risk disclosure level on firm value and in turn, explore the main drivers of implementing corporate governance mechanisms, declaring dividend and risk disclosure within the annual reports of the Egyptian listed companies. A risk disclosure index was constructed to measure the level of the risk disclosure. Structure equation modelling has been employed to test the hypotheses using a sample of the most active 30 companies that are listed on the Egyptian Stock Exchange Market (EGX30). The findings suggest that (i) the board independence and board size have insignificant effect on the firm value, while CEO duality shows a significant positive impact on the firm value, and (ii) risk disclosure level allows investors to better predict future earnings growth. Furthermore, dividend policy and risk disclosure informativeness affect significantly the firms ability to raise money and its value in a positive direction. Hence, this contributes to the literature of emerging markets by providing evidence in Egypt that may highlight the magnitude of corporate governance mechanisms, risk disclosure informativeness and dividend policy and their impact on the firm value.
    Keywords: corporate governance; dividend policy; risk disclosure level; firm value; EGX30; Egypt.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10039250
  • The effect of audit committee on audit opinion through earnings management as mediation variable   Order a copy of this article
    by Fany Lim, Devie Devie, Juniarti Yunie 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine the mediating effect of earnings management in the influence of the audit committee on audit opinion. The research samples are listed companies in the IDX in the sectors of infrastructure, utilities, and transportation for the period 2011-2017. These industrial sectors were selected because they obtained many qualified audit opinions in the study period compared with other sectors. This study adds control variables, namely firm size and leverage. We measure audit committee using two approaches, the first is the total score of each component of audit committees including size, independence, expertise, and meeting, and the second is the partial score of each attribute of the audit committee. The results show that the audit committee influences the audit opinion and there is a negative significant influence of earnings management and audit opinion. However, this study fails to prove the mediating effect of earnings management in the relationship of the audit committee and audit opinion.
    Keywords: audit committee; earnings management; audit opinion.

  • Rational speculative bubbles in the stock market: the case of Amman Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Usama Fendi, Bassam Mohammad Maali, Muhannad Ahmad Atmeh 
    Abstract: This paper aims at inspecting the existence of a rational speculative bubble in Amman Stock Exchange Market (ASE) along two sample periods. The first period was from 2004 to 2009, and the second one was from 2010 to 2018. The paper compares the two periods using different statistical tools in order to diagnose any probable bubbles based on the historical performance of the ASE index. The paper uses three different quantitative approaches to analyse the returns for ASE index over the selected sample periods. The first approach is descriptive statistics, the second one is the explosiveness test approach, and the third one is the duration dependence test approach. The paper found evidence for the existence of a rational speculative bubble in ASE returns for the first sample period inspected and based on the three different approaches. This paper represents a contribution toward establishing an effective early warning system for predicting and mitigating financial crises started from stock markets. This paper is the first paper, up to the authors' knowledge, that implements such advanced statistical and econometrical approaches to examine the existence of a speculative bubble in ASE. It represents a good extension to the existing contribution for monitoring the investment environment in Jordan, and it enhances the healthy business environment in general.
    Keywords: rational speculative bubble; explosiveness test; duration dependence test; Amman Stock Exchange.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10035096
  • The mitigation of the agency problem by using corporate governance in emerging markets: evidence from Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by Duy Thanh Nguyen, Thanh Hai Huyen Truong 
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of ownership structure and board characteristics on firm performance in Vietnam. Obtaining a sample of 300 non-financial companies listed on Ho Chi Minh Stock Exchange (HOSE) and Ha Noi Stock Exchange (HNX) from 2014 to 2018, the paper reveals the positive impact of foreign and CEO ownership on firm performance, whereas state ownership, board independence, board gender diversity, and CEO duality yield negative impact owing to various institutional factors. This paper also addresses some limitations in terms of statistical models in the previous papers, providing more valid and reliable findings. Consequently, several implications are proposed for company management and regulatory authorities.
    Keywords: board composition; ownership structure; firm performance; agency problem; emerging markets.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10041024
  • Performance, persistence and explanation of value premium: evidence from the Indian stock market   Order a copy of this article
    by Vanita Tripathi, Priti Aggarwal 
    Abstract: This paper comprehensively examines the performance and persistence of value effect in the Indian stock market over the 18 years from March 1999 to March 2017. Using six valuation measures for five holding periods and three sub-periods, we found that value strategy is present in the Indian stock market and is persistent during different sub-periods. Further, the paper attempts to uncover the factors that explain value-based returns. In this paper, we inspected alternative sources of value effect recommended by the literature. The empirical results suggest that the majority of the value premium is explained by the firms size, value, liquidity, information asymmetry and institutional ownership factors. The study, therefore, confirms that rational sources explain the value effect in the Indian stock market. The study has important implications for market efficiency, regulators, retail investors and portfolio managers.
    Keywords: value effect; value investing strategy; CAPM; Fama-French three factor model.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10034694
  • Default prediction for audited and unaudited private firms under economic and financial stress: evidence from Zimbabwe   Order a copy of this article
    by Frank Ranganai Matenda, Mabutho Sibanda, Eriyoti Chikodza, Victor Gumbo 
    Abstract: This study seeks to separately predict default probability for audited and unaudited Zimbabwean privately-owned firms under distressed economic and financial conditions using stepwise logit models based on different amalgamations of firm and loan characteristics, financial ratios and macroeconomic variables. The research paper's main intention is to identify and interpret the predictors of default probability for audited and unaudited Zimbabwean private firms. For pertinence and effectiveness reasons, the study applies two unique real-world data sets of defaulted and non-defaulted loan accounts for audited and unaudited private firms gathered from a major anonymous Zimbabwean commercial bank over the observation period from 2010 to 2018. The findings of this study indicate that under economic and financial stress, accounting information is imperative in differentiating defaulted and non-defaulted Zimbabwean private firms, and the predictive capacity of the private firm default models is augmented by including macroeconomic factors. Moreover, the study reveals that the drivers of default risk for audited and unaudited Zimbabwean private firms are dissimilar. As a recommendation, accounting information and macroeconomic variables must be incorporated when predicting default probability for private firms under downturn conditions. Furthermore, from a risk management perspective, it is crucial to separately design models for and examine drivers of default probability for audited and unaudited private firms.
    Keywords: default probability; audited and unaudited private firms; economic and financial stress; developing economy; predictor variables; stepwise logit models.

  • Extreme value volatility estimators and realised volatility of stock prices in Amman Stock Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Dima Alrabadi 
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare between extreme value volatility estimators and other realised volatility estimators in the Amman Stock exchange (ASE) over the period from 2012 to 2016. The dataset consists of daily opening, highest, lowest and closing stock prices for a sample of 100 companies listed in ASE, including 1236 trading days. The methodology of the study is based on relative efficiency proxies between extreme value volatility estimators. The results of the study show that extreme value volatility estimators are more efficient than other realised volatility estimators. In addition, the Garman-Klass estimator is a more efficient volatility estimator than the Parkinson and Rogers-Satchell volatility estimators.
    Keywords: extreme value volatility estimators; realised volatility; high-frequency data; Parkinson volatility estimator; Garman-Klass volatility estimator; Rogers-Satchell volatility estimator; Amman Stock Exchange.

  • A longitudinal investigation of IFRS-8 implementation: evidence from Qatar   Order a copy of this article
    by Ghassan H. Mardini, Amneh Alkurdi, Ahmed Hassan Ahmed 
    Abstract: The main objective of the current study is to investigate the Segmental Information Reporting (SIR) of Qatari listed firms covering the period from 2009 to 2018. The sample comprises all companies listed on the Qatar Stock Exchange (QSE) at the end of 2009. A disclosure index was developed to determine the extent of SIR amongst the sample companies. The study used a longitudinal empirical analysis approach; a year-by-year analysis. The findings revealed a gradual upsurge and awareness of the requirements of IFRS-8 from year to year. Moreover, the reported results suggest that the post-implementation review of IFRS-8 has had a large and positive impact on SIR disclosures since 2014. This research should provide substantive insights for regulators and standard-setters in identifying best practices and spreading awareness of SIR, which in turn should allow SIR practices to become more standardised, making them easier to monitor and govern. Our study provides a longitudinal examination of segmental reporting practices in a developing country, such as Qatar, which permits direct examination of the progress made regarding the implementation and extent of SIR.
    Keywords: IFRS-8; segmental reporting; post-implementation review; IASB; emerging markets.

  • The mediating effect of financial reporting quality on corporate governance effectiveness and cost of debt   Order a copy of this article
    by Muneer Amrah, HafizaAishah Hashim, Lutfi Hassen Ali Al-Ttaffi 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effect of financial reporting quality on corporate governance effectiveness and cost of debt by considering the business environment in the Sultanate of Oman. This study uses a panel dataset that consists of multiple observations of the same economic units. Each element has two subscripts: the group identifier, i (68 companies listed on the Muscat Securities Market), and the within-group index, t, which denotes the time (years 2012 to 2018). The regression is based on the random effects model, which, according to the Hausman and the Breusch-Pagan LM tests, is an appropriate model for this study. The empirical results that were obtained by applying a four-step approach show that companies with more effective corporate governance and higher quality of financial reporting obtain the optimum cost of debt. The study also reveals that financial reporting quality partially mediates the relationship between corporate governance effectiveness and cost of debt. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the association between corporate governance effectiveness, financial reporting quality and cost of debt in the setting of Oman. It is among a limited number of studies that provide evidence for the mediating effect of financial reporting quality on the role of corporate governance effectiveness and cost of debt. The study findings have potential implications for all users of financial reports because they indicate that financial reporting quality has a central role in evaluating firm performance and in eliminating information asymmetry, and therefore can reduce the cost of financing.
    Keywords: cost of debt; corporate governance; financial reporting quality; mediation effect; Oman.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10040612
  • Market reaction to the annual cash dividend changes in Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Sana Tauseef 
    Abstract: This study examines the investors response to the announcement of cash dividend changes made by firms listed on Pakistan Stock Exchange. It also investigates the factors contributing to the investors behaviour surrounding the annual dividend announcements over the years 2011 to 2017. Results of event study analysis show that investors respond negatively to the announcement of dividend decrease; however, there is no evidence of positive investor response following dividend increase. The regression results show that the stocks abnormal returns earned on and after the announcement of dividends are positively impacted by dividend change and dividend yield. Our findings contribute to the literature on market inefficiency through providing a partial support for the signalling hypothesis and have significant implications for investors and firm managers.
    Keywords: dividend change; abnormal return; panel data; event study; Pakistan.

  • Influencing factors for internal audit effectiveness in the Indian context   Order a copy of this article
    by Prem Lal Joshi, Govindan Marthandan 
    Abstract: In this study, an attempt is made to document and provide empirical evidence on the critical determinants of internal audit (IA) effectiveness in Indian Nifty500 companies. IA effectiveness is arguably a result of the interplay among different factors that may have an immense effect but have not been thoroughly investigated in the Indian context. As a part of the research methodology, a proportionate stratified sampling technique based on Security Board of Indias (SEBI) criteria is used to select companies for data collection. The survey was conducted between January and April, 2020 and a total of 71 responses were received out of which 64 questionnaires were complete and used for the final analysis. The response rate was 28.2%. Non-response bias and common method bias (CMB) were non-existent in the survey responses. Factor analysis and multiple regression are used. The results of the model show that (a) the interaction between internal auditor and audit committee, (b) risk-based planning and guidelines and (c) the moderating role of management support with big data analytics are the critical determinants for IA effectiveness in the Indian context. The implications are that sound awareness in the listed companies on how IA effectiveness may be measured and what are the critical determinants that may potentially influence this effectiveness in the changing business and technological environment, are important for policy decision purposes.
    Keywords: internal audit effectiveness; audit committee; risk-based planning; big data and analytics; management support; critical determinants; moderating role.

  • Effect of financial derivatives on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria   Order a copy of this article
    by Chinedu John Uchechukwu, Regina G. Okafor 
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of financial derivatives on the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. The study adopted derivative financial assets and derivative financial liabilities as independent variables, while earnings quality and sensitivity to market risk were adopted as dependent variables (measures of bank performance). The Generalised Least Squares (GLS) panel regression analysis was employed to estimate the hypotheses formulated. Derivative financial assets were found to have a positive effect on earnings quality and a negative effect on sensitivity to market risk. On the other hand, derivative financial liabilities were found to have a negative effect on earnings quality and a positive effect on sensitivity to market risk. The study concluded that derivative financial assets tend to improve the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria and reduce their financial risk exposures than derivative financial liabilities.
    Keywords: financial derivatives; risk management; hedging; Nigerian commercial banks; sensitivity to market risk; earnings quality.

  • The effect of credit rating announcements on stock returns of banks in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Silky Kushwah, C.A. Manav Vigg 
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of credit rating changes (downgrade) by CRISIL on the stock returns of the commercial banks of India. The event study methodology is used to examine this effect (Choy et al. 2006). The study investigates the effect of downgrading announcements on bank stock prices using various windows surrounding the downgrade announcement date for a period from 2015 to 2020. It applies both average abnormal returns (AAR) and cumulative abnormal returns (CAR) for the analysis. The study reports that the bank returns are significantly negative during the pre-downgrade announcement period. Interestingly, the returns are negative again on the downgrade announcement day. Conversely, the bank returns turn insignificantly positive during the post-downgrade announcement period. The study concludes that downgrades do not have negative wealth impact on the stock returns of banks after the announcement by credit rating agencies. It may be because the regulators tightly supervise the banking sector in India. Eventually, it results in early awareness of investors regarding the financial position of the banks and it doesn't come as a shock to them. The study has a direct implication for short term investors who rely highly on the announcements by rating agencies to make buy/sell decision. These investors may use the current findings to make investment decisions by understanding the nature of volatility during such downgrade events. Moreover, the study will also help the regulators and banks to better understand the impact of such rating changes on stock returns.
    Keywords: event study; market efficiency; average abnormal return; cumulative abnormal return; banks; credit rating.

  • Idiosyncratic volatility and average stock returns: evidence from Sri Lanka   Order a copy of this article
    by Kasun Perera, Tharindu Ediriwickrama 
    Abstract: Conventionally, it is believed that the idiosyncratic volatility should not be priced at market equilibrium as it can be eliminated through diversification. Despite the presence of inconsistent empirical evidence on idiosyncratic volatility, the current study aims to investigate the presence of idiosyncratic volatility from a frontier market such as Sri Lanka. Employing the Fama and French Five-factor Model, together with the Exponential Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (EGARCH), the conditional idiosyncratic volatility of individual stocks of non-financial firms listed on the Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE) was estimated. This study reveals the presence of idiosyncratic volatility of stocks in Sri Lanka. The results further indicate that, though the idiosyncratic volatility of stocks is useful in explaining the average stock returns, it is still questionable as to why there is a demand in the market for small stocks with high idiosyncratic volatility since the critical weaknesses in asset pricing models are mostly coupled with the small stocks.
    Keywords: CSE; EGARCH; five-factor asset pricing model; frontier market; idiosyncratic volatility; Sri Lanka.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10036579
  • Impact of institutional quality on firms debt maturity in developing nations   Order a copy of this article
    by Bolaji Tunde Matemilola, A.N. Bany-Ariffin, Gbemisola Adeoye 
    Abstract: This article investigates the impacts of institutional quality on debt maturity using 3885 listed firms from 22 developing nations. This study specifies the dynamic panel models and applies the two-step system generalised method of moments estimation that reduces the reverse-causality problem. The findings reveal that the average institutional quality index has positive impacts on debt maturity in developing nations. Furthermore, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption have positive impacts on debt maturity, separately. Moreover, institutional quality has positive impacts on debt maturity of listed firms in developing nations where legal enforcement quality is high, but it has negative impacts on the debt maturity of firms in developing nations where legal enforcement quality is low. The overall findings suggest that strong institutional quality and legal enforcement reduce bankruptcy costs; these encourage lenders to provide firms debt capital with long-term maturity.
    Keywords: debt maturity; institutional quality; legal enforcement; system-GMM; developing nations.

  • Activity-based costing adoption: definitions, influences and consequences   Order a copy of this article
    by Abdulrahman Aljabr 
    Abstract: Using appropriate definitions of activity-based costing (ABC) adoption and non-adoption is important in order to obtain accurate findings from research on the influences on and outcomes of ABC adoption. Hence, this research aims to examine empirically the appropriateness of various definitions of ABC adoption and non-adoption, and then examine the influences on and the outcomes of ABC adoption using the empirically-identified appropriate definitions. Data were collected from Saudi manufacturing business-units via a questionnaire survey strategy. The results indicated that only one definition of ABC adoption and one definition of ABC non-adoption are appropriate, and that ABC adopters do not significantly differ from non-adopters regarding any of the influences on and consequences of ABC adoption. This research contributes to the ABC adoption research by attempting to identify empirically-appropriate definitions of ABC adoption and non-adoption, and then testing the determinants and consequences of ABC adoption using these definitions.
    Keywords: activity-based costing; ABC adoption definition; ABC non-adoption definition; influences on ABC adoption; consequences of ABC adoption.

  • How COVID-19 pandemic and oil prices drive the Saudi sectors over investment horizons: a wavelet sector-based view   Order a copy of this article
    by Chaker Aloui, Sharif Arshian, Noshaba Aziz 
    Abstract: The Saudi economy has been severely shackled by the combined shocks inherent to the sharp fall of prices of oil as well as the tremendous propagation of the newly infectious disease (COVID-19). In this study, the focus is given to the assessment of COVID-19 impact on the leading Saudi industrial sectors over the investors investment horizons. We are resorted to three variants of the wavelet methods to achieve the study objective. The main advantage of the wavelet is to isolate the effect of oil price shocks and to account for the Saudi investors perceptions of the uncertainty inherent in response to the COVID-19 propagation in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, we check the robustness of our results using the non-linear ARDL (NARDL) model, which is restricted to timescales. Our findings reveal a varying pattern of oil and COVID-19 over timescales and frequency bands across sectors. When isolating the oil impact, the COVID-19 effect is relatively low as compared to oil. These results are also supported by the NARDL outcomes. The results of our study propose operational implications for portfolio managers and policy makers and also pave the way for new research avenues.
    Keywords: Saudi market; industrial sectors; COVID-19; wavelets; NARDL model.

  • Adherence level to materiality in stand-alone GRI sustainability reporting in Arab nations: does listing status matter?   Order a copy of this article
    by Krayyem Al-Hajaya 
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is twofold: firstly, to show the status quo of stand-alone sustainability reporting and the level of adherence to materiality according to the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) classification in Arab nations between 2014 and 2018; and secondly, to identify the impact of firms listing status on the level of adherence to materiality in stand-alone GRI sustainability reporting. Based on data derived from the GRI Sustainability Disclosure Database, corporate websites and other commercial websites, binary and multinomial logistic regressions are performed to ascertain whether firms listing status might affect their level of adherence to materiality in GRI sustainability reporting, controlling for size, sector and organisation type. The findings of the study support its initial proposition that listed firms in the Arab region have greater motives to perform better than unlisted companies in adhering to advanced levels of materiality in GRI sustainability reporting, and thereby enhance their international comparability, accountability and transparency on sustainability issues. As Arab nations, generally, are facing severe economic, environmental and social challenges, this study may shed light on sustainable development issues in this region and motivate policy-makers to encourage companies to voluntarily disclose their material contributions toward green economy and sustainable development activities. There is currently no investigation into the impact of firms listing status, as a proxy for the corporate burden of agency and political costs, on the level of compliance with materiality in GRI stand-alone sustainability reporting. Thus, the current study is an attempt to fill this gap in the literature.
    Keywords: CSR; GRI; Arab nations; stand-alone sustainability reporting; GRI adherence level.

  • Drivers of shareholder value: evidence from an emerging market   Order a copy of this article
    by Samuel Buertey 
    Abstract: In the ever-competitive capital market, value creation is vital to a firms ability to attract and maintain investment funds. To this end, it is important that the factors that drive shareholder value are identified and consistently emphasised. Drawing from the shareholder theory, this paper attempts to identify factors that strongly drive shareholder value of non-financial firms listed on the Ghana Stock Exchange during the period 2007 to 2017. A fixed-effect regression model is used in the study to estimate the relationship between various drivers identified in the extant literature and shareholder returns. The empirical result shows fixed capital investment, earnings per share, and return on equity are the main drivers of shareholder value among the sampled firms. They have a statistically significant and positive effect on shareholder value. Sales growth, operating margin, and free cash flow are not significantly associated with shareholder value. The study control for interest expenses, firm size, and age. This study is the first to examine the main drivers of shareholder returns on the GSE. In relevance, the study provides both managers and investors with useful signals about the factors that matter most in shareholder value creation, especially from the perspective of an emerging market.
    Keywords: shareholder value; value drivers; Ghana Stock Exchange; shareholder theory; market value added.

  • Determinants of gold futures trading volume: a study of Thailand Futures Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Woradee Jongadsayakul 
    Abstract: This research shows a positive impact of one-day-lagged volume of 50 Baht Gold Futures on current volumes of gold futures. There is evidence of a bidirectional causality between 50 Baht and 10 Baht Gold Futures trading volumes. The 50 Baht and 10 Baht Gold Futures trading volumes are useful in forecasting Gold Online Futures trading volume. The response of gold futures trading volume to its own shock and 50 Baht Gold Futures trading volume shock vanishes within 5 days. The variability of gold futures volume is caused not only by its own innovations but also by 50 Baht Gold Futures trading volume shock. Therefore, it is significant to promote trading activity in 50 Baht Gold Futures market. Moreover, special care should be taken when there is a negative exogeneous shock to 50 Baht Gold Futures trading volume due to its contribution to the variability in trading volume of each gold derivatives contract.
    Keywords: derivatives market; gold; risk management; Thailand Futures Exchange; trading volume.

  • Impact of cash conversion cycle on financial performance: an empirical study of listed companies in Botswana   Order a copy of this article
    by C.R. Sathyamoorthi, Christian Mbekomize, Lame Bakwenabatsile 
    Abstract: The study examines the impact of cash conversion cycle on the financial performance of selected listed companies in Botswana Stock Exchange for the period 2012-2018. Financial statements of the listed companies are used as the main source of data. Return on assets and return on equity are used as the dependent variable to measure financial performance. The data is analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and a multiple regression analysis to measure the impact of cash conversion cycle on profitability. Correlation analysis reveals a non-significant negative relationship between cash conversion cycle and profitability, whereas the control variables of size and debt exhibit a significant negative relationship with firm profitability. The regression results show that cash conversion cycle has an insignificant positive effect on return on assets, but has a significant impact on return on equity. Both size and debt have a significant impact on return on assets and return on equity. The findings highlight the need for the firms to focus on policies and strategies that will reduce the length of cash conversion cycle by minimizing the inventory turnover period and accounts receivable collection days, while negotiating for extension of accounts payable payment days. This will enhance profitability and firm value.
    Keywords: cash conversion cycle; return on assets; return on equity; profitability; Botswana.

  • The relationship between tax revenue and economic growth: an empirical study in Vietnam   Order a copy of this article
    by My-Linh Thi Nguyen, Nga Phan Thi Hang, Toan Ngoc Bui, Hoai Thu Ho, Tung Duy Thai 
    Abstract: This paper focuses on examining the impact of tax revenue on economic growth in Vietnam. In particular, tax revenue is measured through tax revenue ratio or the Governments total tax revenue to GDP. The research data were collected on a yearly basis in the period 1990-2019. Through the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model, the paper has achieved great success when finding the positive impact of tax revenue (TAX) on economic growth in Vietnam; however, this impact is negative in the long term. Conversely, economic growth has a positive impact on tax revenue with one lag and three lags. In addition, economic growth in Vietnam is affected by domestic savings (SAV), trade openness (OP), Government spending (GOV), and domestic investment (CAP); meanwhile, tax revenue is affected by domestic savings (SAV), trade openness (OP), and Government spending (GOV). The paper is the first empirical evidence in Vietnam for the relationship between tax revenue and economic growth. Therefore, the research results have important implications for the Government of Vietnam to have a basis to administer tax policies in order to stimulate economic growth in a sustainable way.
    Keywords: economic growth; tax policy; tax revenue; Vietnam.

  • Do earnings quality models affect different excess cash holdings models?   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Yassin, Saja Al-Kasasbeh 
    Abstract: With the increased levels of cost of external financing in Jordan, excess cash holdings are the dominant feature for industrial companies listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE). This study provides empirical evidence on the information asymmetry problem by examining the impact of earnings quality on the excess cash holdings. The results should help investors and creditors in evaluating the transparency and confidence of financial reporting to enhance decision-making and minimise default risk. The study employed three different models for earnings quality and two different models for excess cash holdings. By using panel data, the study found that firms with poor earnings quality tend to accumulate excess cash holdings to be isolated from information asymmetry problem.
    Keywords: earnings quality; excess cash holdings; information asymmetry; Amman Stock Exchange; Jordan.

  • Seasonality in Gulf Cooperation Council stock markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Turki Alshammari 
    Abstract: This study strives to model the seasonality and the cyclicality of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) stock markets returns. The study documents that the stock markets of Kuwait, Bahrain, the Emirates, and Oman all show weekday seasonality, but the effect of that seasonality on stock returns is trifling, especially after considering the transaction cost. Besides, all GCC stock markets, except the Saudi market, show monthly seasonality. Furthermore, all GCC stock markets returns exhibit cyclicality. The results are robust to the employed econometric method. These results could be ascribed to country-specific investors attitudes that might be employed to frame distinct investment strategies
    Keywords: GCC; seasonality; cyclicality; Box-Jenkins; stock returns; market efficiency.

  • Mean reversals and stock market overreactions: further evidence from India   Order a copy of this article
    by T.G. Saji 
    Abstract: This research investigates the price reversals and stock market overreactions in the Indian stock market over the period 2008-2016. Our test procedures follow the US evidence offered by De Bondt and Thaler (1985, 1987) and Zarowin (1990). Fama's decomposition and Jensen's alpha measures that compute excess returns from the monthly price data on Nifty-included stocks of the National Stock Exchange (NSE) provide the primary inputs for our search process. Consistent with the US evidence, the study finds that the prior losers outperform prior winners in the subsequent one to two years of portfolio formation. The research finds convergences in investor overreactions to price trends prevailing in upside and downside market conditions in India.
    Keywords: overreactions; winner-loser effects; CAPM Beta; excess returns.

  • Evaluating the sources of productivity of insurance firms in Arab Gulf Countries and Jordan: Malmquist Productivity Index   Order a copy of this article
    by Abderrazak Bakhouche, Eman Zabalawi, Mohamed Lotfi Boulkeroua 
    Abstract: In recent years, the adoption of technological advances in finance may have impacted the efficiency and productivity of financial institutions, through lower transaction costs and reduced information asymmetries. This paper employs the Malmquist productivity index to measure productivity and identify its main drivers for 98 conventional and Sharia-compliant insurance firms operating in the GCC and Jordan over the period from 2009 to 2017. The results show that insurance firms in the countries under study experienced productivity progress, primarily brought about by technological change. The study reveals the existence of a scope to enhance productivity by exploring both pure and scale efficiencies, with the continuous integration of advanced technology
    Keywords: insurance; productivity; Malmquist productivity index; efficiency change; technological change; takaful; GCC; Jordan;.

  • Sentiment and stock returns: aggregate and cross-sectional analysis from Pakistan   Order a copy of this article
    by Sana Tauseef, Hira Suman 
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of investor sentiment on aggregate stock market returns and on a cross-section of stock returns for the emerging market of Pakistan. We constructed an investor sentiment index using principal component analysis based on seven proxies: advances-to-decline ratio, share turnover rate, money flow index, relative strength index, price-to-earnings ratio, dividend premium and interest rate. Results of vector auto-regression suggest that one-month lagged sentiment index is a strong predictor of itself and aggregate stock market return with a positive sign, showing persistence and providing evidence of herd behaviour. Our two-dimensional sorts of stock returns indicate disproportionate effect of sentiment on the stock returns as suggested in literature on developed markets; however, the time series regressions of arbitrage portfolios fail to confirm the significance of these cross-sectional patterns.
    Keywords: investor sentiment; stock returns; arbitrage portfolios; emerging market; Pakistan.

  • Earnings management and ownership type in microfinance institutions: international evidence   Order a copy of this article
    by Naima Lassoued 
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether earnings management in MFIs is motivated by opportunistic behaviour and whether ownership structure could explain this practice. This study is conducted on a sample of 581 MFIs observed over the 2007 to 2015 period. It tests the effect of discretionary provision for loan impairment on future profitability by distinguishing different types of MFIs ownership. The results show that earnings management in MFIs tends to be opportunistic rather than efficient. The type of earnings management differs depending on ownership structure. Indeed, while cooperatives tend more to choose opportunistic earnings management, privately-owned MFIs manage their earnings efficiently. Furthermore, we found inconsistent evidence about earnings management in NGOs.
    Keywords: microfinance institutions; provision for loan impairment; emerging economies; earnings managment; ownership type.

  • Financial reporting quality of private and public banks in India   Order a copy of this article
    by Vijyapu Prasanna Kumar, Sujata Kar 
    Abstract: The present study compares the earnings management practices amongst the Indian private and public sector banks using the second digit test, one of the primary Benford law tests. The sample consists of data on five variables: interest income, other income, interest expenses, deposits, and loans and advances from 14 private and 17 public sector banks from Q1 2005 to Q4 2018. Deposit turns out to be the most misreported financial figure for the private banks whereas public sector banks misrepresented loans and advances the most. Overall, the public sector banks seem to be more into rounding up behaviour compared with the private banks. We also explored possible linkages between financial manipulations and a CEOs tenure approaching its completion, and observed evidence in support of this argument.
    Keywords: rounding up behaviour; Benford’s law; earnings management; second digit test; mean absolute deviation.
    DOI: 10.1504/AAJFA.2021.10039619
  • Banking sector intermediation and economic growth: new evidence from CEMAC countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Pierre Axel Louembe, Man Wang, Dilesha Nawadali Rathnayake 
    Abstract: An abundant body of literature explores the impact of finance on economic growth. However, only a few studies examine this link for developing economies. This paper investigates the banking intermediation-growth nexus with respect to the Central African Economic and Monetary Community (CEMAC). Making use of two panel estimation techniques, we examine the positive influence of banking sector intermediation on long-run growth over the studied period (1990-2016). Despite finding a negative association between financial development proxies and growth, our results suggest that the banking system in CEMAC still performs its main function of pooling and allocating financial resources. The latter is evidenced by the positive association between credit proxies (domestic credit to the private sector and bank credit to bank deposits) and growth/fixed capital formation.
    Keywords: financial intermediation; financial development; banking sector; CEMAC; economic growth; panel estimation.

  • Trade credit forecasting: empirical analysis using a ratio targeting approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Shame Mugova, Nicola Cucari 
    Abstract: This study employs a panel data model that uses trade credit's own recent history to predict trade credit levels. Companies set a predetermined target for trade payables and re-balance trade credit towards the desired level. A predictive model of trade credit is developed to predict the levels of trade payables and receivables. Previous forecasting techniques do not incorporate the targeting aspect and long period historical data. A target ratio should be set for trade payables and trade receivables to total assets. For instance, total assets in year two contain an amount which was part of total assets in year one. Trade credit is debt finance which is maintained at a certain ratio to total assets. In this paper, we make use of panel data from 230 non-financial South African listed firms from 2001 to 2013. Firms use trade credit targeting to pursue growth opportunities and their size affects their access to capital. Trade credits recent history can be used to predict target trade credit levels. The paper makes an original contribution by developing a model to predict the level of trade credit.
    Keywords: trade credit; forecasting; historical data; South Africa.

  • Branch banking variability and rural banks' performance: a GMM approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Haruna Maama, Emmanuel Okofo-Dartey 
    Abstract: The study employed the resource-based view theory to investigate the impact of the number of branches and city branches on the financial performance of rural banks in Ghana. The study used 492 annual reports of 76 rural banks in Ghana for the analysis. Both return on capital employed (ROCE) and loan recovery rate (LRR) were used as proxies for financial performance. A dynamic model based on Generalised Methods of Moment (GMM) was developed for the regression analysis. The evidence showed that the number of branches of rural banks has a positive impact on their ROCE but negatively impacts their LRR. Consistent with the resource-based view theory, the study further found that the establishment of rural banks in cities has a positive impact on their ROCE. It is concluded that the number and location of branches of rural banks have an impact on their financial performance. The results imply that the rural banks are better off establishing most of their branches in the cities. Nonetheless, it is recommended that rural banks should not concentrate more on the cities but also in the rural areas since evidence also showed that the number of branches positively impacts on their profitability. The study contributes to the body of knowledge by advancing the current sphere of descriptive studies on this subject matter. This study will perhaps help firms to empirically test the relationship between branch variability and the performance of banks.
    Keywords: branch banking; rural banks; resource-based view theory; profitability; Ghana.

  • Modelling the real exchange rate misalignment in the presence of outliers for developing countries   Order a copy of this article
    by Ridha Ettbib, Mansour Eddaly 
    Abstract: Persistent real exchange rate misalignment is sometimes explained by the presence of a nonlinear adjustment process towards the long-run equilibrium. However, although the nonlinearity may be a feature for some real exchange rates, outliers and nonlinearity may be easily confused. The main purpose of this paper is to make the distinction between nonlinearity and outliers using robust estimation methods of maximum likelihood. Also, the nature of the real exchange rate misalignment is specified, based on the value of fundamentals, for a sample of African countries during the period from 1960 to 2015. According to the robust estimation procedures, the results of linearity tests are particularly interesting. Indeed, the apparent nonlinearity is significantly reduced when considering outliers, especially for South Africa, Ghana, Madagascar and Morocco. We can conclude that the source of the nonlinearity of the real exchange misalignment rate for the countries already mentioned is the existence of outliers in the considered series.
    Keywords: real exchange rate; outliers; smooth transition autoregressive; robust estimation.

  • Volatility dynamics of Tunisian stock market before and during COVID-19 outbreak: Evidence from the GARCH family model   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohamed Fakhfekh, Ahmed Jeribi, Marwa Ben Salem 
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to choose the appropriate GARCH model to analyse the volatility dynamics of Tunisian sectorial stock market indices during the COVID-19 outbreak period. We explore the optimal conditional heteroskedasticity model with regards to goodness-of-fit to these sectorial indices. In particular, we propose four models (EGARCH, FIGARCH, FIEGARCH, and TGARCH) to measure asymmetric and persistence volatility. Our findings point to three interesting results. First, following the COVID-19 outbreak, volatility is more persistent in all series. Second, the results show that building construction materials, construction and food and beverage sector returns volatilities have insignificant asymmetric effect, while consumer service, financials and distribution, industrials, basic materials and banks sector return volatilities have relatively high positive and significant asymmetric effect compared with those during the pre-COVID period. Finally, the findings show that financial services, automobiles and parts, insurance and TUNINDEX 20 sectors have insignificant leverage effect. Our results can thus be useful to investors when accounting for future volatility and implementing hedging strategies under COVID-19 crisis.
    Keywords: Tunisian sectorial stock market indices; GARCH models; COVID-19 outbreak.

  • Women participation in corporate boards: quantile regression approach   Order a copy of this article
    by Akshita Arora, Tarun Kumar Soni 
    Abstract: Our study unfolds the stylised facts on women directorship in corporate boards for Indian listed companies. We analyse women directorships across different sectors, firm age groups, different categories of board sizes and year-wise, and then investigate the impact of women directors on firm performance using panel fixed effects and pooled quantile regression approach. The panel data framework has been structured for a dataset of 442 companies for the time period 2013-2019. The women engagement in boardroom has advanced from a meagre 5% in 2013 to 14% in 2019 after the introduction of gender-based quotas in India. The empirical results substantiate that the impact of women directors on firm performance is weak. From the policy perspective, it is evident that amendments in the regulatory framework in board composition have led to more participation of women in leadership positions. However, it is suggested that further reforms are needed for encouraging women directors to act independently and foster more diversity in Indian boardrooms.
    Keywords: women directors; firm performance; independent directors; corporate boards; ordinary least squares; quantile regression.

  • Loan loss provision practices during economic crises: evidence from banks listed on the Damascus Securities Exchange   Order a copy of this article
    by Layla Ashoor, Linda Ismaiel, Zeina Al-ahmad 
    Abstract: This study aims to examine loan loss provision (LLP) practices exercised by banks listed on the Damascus Securities Exchange during the Syrian crisis, the incentives behind such practices, and whether those practices differ between Islamic and conventional banks. A sample of 11 conventional and three Islamic banks was used during the period 2011-2018. Applying a random effect panel data model revealed that banks engaged in income smoothing activities to decrease their income when their earnings were high but not to increase their income when their earnings were low. In addition, banks that reported losses in the previous year engaged in fewer income-decreasing activities than banks that reported a profit; however, no evidence was detected of their engagement in income-increasing activities. As per the use of LLP to manage regulatory capital or to signal future value, the findings did not support such practices. Moreover, Islamic banks do not appear to exercise different LLP practices or to have different incentives to manipulate LLP compared with conventional banks.
    Keywords: discretionary loan loss provision; income smoothing; capital management; signalling; Islamic banks; conventional banks; economic crisis.

  • Factors affecting CEO compensation: an empirical investigation from emerging markets   Order a copy of this article
    by Gehan Mousa 
    Abstract: This study examines determinants of the CEO compensation using a sample of 1044 firm-year observations from six emerging markets covering the period from 2015-2018. The study has employed a backward regression analysis to examine the effect of some governance structure variables and firm attributes on the total cash of CEO compensation. The findings of the study show that governance structure variables such as, blockholder ownership and CEO duality have a significant effect on total cash of CEO compensation while, board size and board independence are insignificant factors. Companies with blockholder ownership pay more CEO compensation, suggesting that blockholder ownership is not a good governance mechanism to monitor corporate boards decisions. Furthermore, companies with CEO duality tend to pay more compensation. This result suggests that the presence of the CEO in corporate boards reduces the efficiency of the board in monitoring managerial decisions, such as CEO compensation, which agrees with the agency view. Finally, firm performance and firm size are influential factors in determining the CEO compensation. The results report that board independence and board size variables as governance mechanisms are not effective in monitoring CEO compensation. Shareholders should avoid CEO duality in their business to pay less CEO compensation. The study contributes to the limited studies on determinants of the CEO compensation in emerging markets.
    Keywords: CEO compensation; board features; financial performance; governance structure.

  • Internecine interrelations among liquidity risk, market risk and credit risk in the Indian banking system   Order a copy of this article
    by Satya Krishna Sharma, Girish Jain, Pratap Biswal 
    Abstract: Events such as the 2008 financial crisis have highlighted the need to consider the complicated interrelations between liquidity risk, credit risk, and market risk for better and integrated financial risk management of banks, This work uses autoregression with distributed lag, considering demonetisation as a dummy variable, to study these interrelationships in the context of the Indian banking system. It is found that liquidity deficit and credit risk have a tendency to exacerbate each other irrespective of demonetisation. The work finds that funding the liquidity deficit faced by the banks increases interest rate volatility. Indications of debt rollover to alleviate proxies and indicators credit risk are there too. All in all, the work shows that demonetisation had reduced liquidity problems but increased credit risk issues.
    Keywords: liquidity risk; credit risk; market risk; interest rate risk; demonetisation; systemic risk.

  • Predictive ability of operating cash flow and earnings on future cash flow of NSE-listed firms   Order a copy of this article
    by Mwila Mulenga, Meena Bhatia 
    Abstract: The study examines the predictive ability of current operating cash flow and earnings on the future operating cash flow of the National Stock Exchange -100 listed firms in India. It is a 15 years (2001 to 2015) study and has 1120 firm-year observations. The Ordinary Least Square method is used to improve the accuracy fixed-effect model and a Random effect model are used. Evidence suggests that the current operating cash flows explain future cash flow better than current earnings, which contrasts with the Financial Accounting Standards Board assertion (FASB, Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No.1 1978) and International Accounting Standards Board (IASB,1989). Current operating cash flow's predictive ability on future cash flow is more powerful in profit-making firms than the loss-making firms and for all industries. Further, the disaggregated earnings model significantly enhances predictive ability. These findings will enable the users of financial statements to understand the role of current operating cash flow and earnings in predicting future operating cash flows.
    Keywords: operating cash flow; earnings; predictive ability; accruals; loss-making firms; profit-making firms; disaggregated earnings.

  • Cross-border merger impact on wealth of acquirers: evidence from an emerging nation   Order a copy of this article
    by Sweta Agarwal, Anubhav Jain 
    Abstract: The paper tries to assess the impact of cross-border mergers and acquisitions announcements on the Indian acquiring firm's shareholder wealth. A total of 110 CBMA deals announced by Indian acquirers between 2013-2018 comprise the data set. Value effects were determined using event study methodology. The study reveals positive abnormal returns on the announcement day consistent with other similar Indian studies. It also reports higher positive wealth effects in post-announcement windows compared with pre-announcement windows. The results highlight increasing informational efficiency in Indian stock markets and shrinkage of wealth-creating windows in CBMA deals for an acquiring firm's shareholders.
    Keywords: cross-border mergers and acquisitions; abnormal returns; event study methodology; emerging economy.

  • The moderating effect of audit quality on the relationship between information asymmetry and earnings management: Evidence from Jordan   Order a copy of this article
    by Mohammed Makhlouf, Mohammed Soda, Yazan Oroud, Abdulhadi Ramadan 
    Abstract: This study examined how the relationship between information asymmetry and earnings management was affected by audit quality as an example of emerging markets, using a sample of Jordanian industrial firms listed on the Amman stock exchange from 2015 to 2019. The fixed effect model is used to examine the study hypotheses. The findings indicate that information asymmetry positively affected earnings management. Moreover, the results revealed that audit quality negatively affected the relationship between information asymmetry and earnings management, meaning that audit quality can reduce the level of information asymmetry and mitigate earnings management. This study will contribute to corporate governance and auditing literature among Jordanian firms by providing beneficial information for regulators, investors and other stakeholders about how audit quality can restrict information asymmetry and reduce earnings management. This study will be of value to firms seeking to reduce earnings management and enhance financial reporting quality by decreasing information asymmetry.
    Keywords: audit quality; earnings management; information asymmetry; Jordan.

  • Use of Information sources, annual reports and other corporate announcements: the case of large and small investors of India   Order a copy of this article
    by Meena Bhatia 
    Abstract: This study investigates the perceptions towards corporate annual reports, its sections, information sources, and other announcements used for equity investing by large and small individual investors, and studies the differences in perceptions between the two groups. The data gathered from 276 completed surveys is analysed using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney tests. The findings show that, in comparison with developed markets and other developing markets, Indian investors (both large and small) rely more on personal knowledge of the firm and analysis of the company in relation to annual reports. Investors find annual reports too long, and large investors reported that there is a delay in publishing them. The financial statements are the most important and understandable section. Announcements on stock exchanges are deemed the most crucial because they are related to their choices. There is no prior research on this feature of Indian investors in the literature.
    Keywords: corporate reports; emerging markets; investment decisions; Ind AS; investors; financial statements; India; announcements.