International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology (66 papers in press)
Influence of hydrodynamic cavitation pretreatment on coal flotation
by Hua Han, Huai-fa Wang, An Liu
Abstract: The flotation of fine coal particles has been a long-standing challenge in coal processing industry. In this study, the influence of hydrodynamic cavitation pretreatment (HCP) on coal flotation was investigated. A special HCP experiment system was designed for the conditioning of pulp based on the cavitation phenomenon through a venturi tube. Flotation results indicate that, compared with the conventional flotation method, HCP increases combustible recovery of concentrate by about 5%, besides, 50% collector dosage or 25% frother dosage can be saved with HCP
under the same combustible recovery of concentrate. Meanwhile, HCP enhances the flotation rate constant by 9.41%. The sieving analysis of flotation products reveals that HCP flotation has a better response for fine coal particles relative to that of coarse coal particles. The bubble observation tests confirm the existence of micro-nano bubbles generated by HCP and the selective generation of micro-nano bubbles on the surface of coal. In addition, HCP leads to an obvious improvement of dispersion of collector. The aggregation of fine coal particles caused by HCP is another important contribution for the coal flotation. [Received: May 18, 2019; Accepted: March 28, 2020]
Keywords: coal flotation; hydrodynamic cavitation pretreatment; HCP; fine particles; micro-nano bubbles; collector dispersion; aggregation.
Visualisation and investigation of water retention in tight oil reservoir via real sandstone micro-models
by Yafei Liu, Yuhan Shi, Haien Yang, Tianjiang Wu, Xiong Liu, Shun Liu, Desheng Zhou
Abstract: Hydraulic fracturing is considered as an effective approach for the development of tight oil reservoirs. Unlike conventional reservoirs, after a large volume injection of the fracturing fluid, the flowback rate in tight oil reservoirs is considerably lower whereas the underlying mechanism explaining water retention remains unclear. Therefore, in this work, to investigate the water retention mechanism, fracturing fluid injection and particularly oil production process were emulated within real tight rock chips. Displacement and water retention events were directly visualised and captured using a microscope. As a result, the discrepancy between temporary and permanent residence of water inside the pore space was clarified. Additionally, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanning was incorporated to study the pore-scale fluid flow behaviours. Results show that a large portion of water was retained in smaller pores and water retention rate is positively correlated with oil recovery
implying invaded water replaced the oil and resided in the pore space therefore
increasing the mobile oil in the formation as oil flowing back. This work proposed an interpretation of water retention mechanism in tight oil reservoir after hydraulic fracturing and provided an insight to optimise the development and production of tight oil reservoirs. [Received: January 20, 2020; Accepted: April 23, 2020]
Keywords: hydraulic fracturing; water retention; tight oil reservoir.
Significance of Washability on Heat Altered Coal from Jharia and Raniganj Coalfields, India
by Mamta Sharma, Trisrota Bhowmick, Vivek Mishra
Abstract: The present investigation was aimed to characterise the natural cokecoal (NCC) or heat-altered coal products through washability, technological property and petrography. NCC of Permian age from Jharia and Raniganj coal basins, India were subjected to beneficiate and the microscopy was performed on the different specific gravity fractions. The yield of washed coals and contents of macerals showed many variations in both the case studies due to the influence of igneous intrusion. However, we can use both NCC products in the different industrial application such as metallurgy, carbon artefact, power plant, fluidised bed combustion (FBC) and for blending purpose despite of their mutual differences. [Received: August 14, 2019; Accepted: April 23, 2020]
Keywords: float-sink; heat altered coal; petrography; igneous activity; Indian coal; India.
Practical method for air sampling and analysis of some natural gas odorant
by Rezvan Zendehdel, Faezeh Abass Gohari, Behjat Jafari Tehrani, Zohre Amini, Majid Mahdian Dehkordi, Hakime Nouri Parkestani, Seyed Mohammad Sadat
Abstract: In this study, a method was presented for sampling and analysis of co-exposure to gas odorants such as methyl ethyl sulphide (MES), dimethyl sulphide (DMS) and tert-butyl mercaptane (TBM). An impregnated fibre glass with mercuric acetate was used for air sampling of odorants. In this study, odorant assessment was optimised with respect to the mercuric acetate, type of solution for odorant releasing and type of solvent for liquid-liquid extraction. Air sampling simulation was provided by standard preparation in tedlar bag. Odorants were analysed by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry. Odorants released from 7% impregnated filters by 20% hydrochloric acid. MES, DMS and TBM were extracted by dichloroethane. Inter-day and intra-day coefficients variation was found to be lower than 11 by the recovery higher than 94%. According to the results of the recent study, a practical and reliable method was presented for air sampling and analysis of DMS, MES and TBM. [Received 08 October 2019; Accepted 23 April 2020]
Keywords: gas odorant; air sampling; method development.
Oil-soluble organic polymer driven from aloe vera as drag reducing agent for crude oil flow in pipelines
by Wafaa K. Mahmood, Samar S. Hussein, Wafaa A. Kadhim, Hayder A. Abdulbari
Abstract: In the present work, an organic, oil-soluble drag-reducing agent (DRA) is introduced and experimentally tested. The new additive is driven from Aloe Vera mucilage extracted directly from the Aloe Vera plant. Polymer grafting process was implemented to change the solubility of the new additives from water-soluble to oil-soluble. Drag reduction solutions are prepared by mixing certain additives concentrations (200 to 600 wppm) with the crude oil. Each solution was rheologically tested to examine the effect of the additives on the viscosity and viscoelastic properties of the crude oil. The drag reduction performance was examined using a closed-loop liquid circulation system specially designed and fabricated for the present work. The experimental results showed that the viscosity of the solutions decreases when the concentration of the additives increases without affecting the crude oil entity (Newtonian behaviour) with noticeable dramatic changes in the viscoelastic properties. A maximum drag reduction percentage of 82% was achieved with an additive concentration of 600 wppm. Finally, the resistance of the new
additives to mechanical shear forces was high and increased exponentially with the concentration. [Received: 05 December 2019; Accepted: 18 May 2020]
Keywords: drag reduction; crude oil; polymer; aloe vera; rheology; viscoelasticity.
Evolution of Future World Coal Consumption: Insights from a Distribution Dynamics Approach
by Xunpeng Shi, Tsun Se Cheong, Victor Jing Li
Abstract: Global efforts in limiting coal consumption will be undermined if new major coal users emerge, however, very few studies have been conducted on the emergence of prospective coal users. The objective of this paper is thus to investigate how likely some developing countries will emerge to be significant coal users. The distribution dynamics approach is adopted to examine the evolution and transitional dynamics of coal consumption. Ergodic distributions and mobility probability plots are constructed for each grouping so as to provide detailed information on the current pattern and future development. Our study finds that some low-income and lower middle-income economies may increase their coal consumption in the future if coal remains to be a cheap energy source, while the countries in other income groups have entirely different behaviours. The findings suggest that global policy coordination focusing on the prospective coal users should be adopted.
Keywords: Coal consumption; growth potential; distribution dynamics; mobility probability plots.
A Multi-index-classified Early Warning Method for Spontaneous Combustion of Coal under Air Leakage Blocking
by Hu Wen, Yin Liu, Jun Guo, Yongfei Jin, Xuezhao Zheng
Abstract: Judging development trends in coal spontaneous combustion accurately has long been a global problem. Once a spontaneous combustion phenomenon is found, the coal temperature tends to reach or exceed the critical temperature. To address this problem, the coal spontaneous combustion characteristic parameter testing device is used to simulate the air reduction environment after the coal low temperature oxidation reaches the critical temperature, and long-flame coal was tested. CO and C2H4 were selected as index gases, and the Graham (G), CO/CO2 and 100
Keywords: coal spontaneous combustion (CSC); air volume reduction; fire trend determination; classification warning; spontaneous combustion index.
A robust multi-objective optimisation model for natural gas supply chain design under uncertainty: a case study
by Rozita Daghigh, Mir Saman Pishvaee
Abstract: The appropriate design of a complex natural gas supply chain becomes a critical issue for both academics and practitioners. To deal with the design of complicated natural gas supply chain, a mixed integer nonlinear programming model is developed in this paper. Two conflicting objectives including the minimisation of the total cost and the maximum unfulfilled demands are considered subject to technical and logical pipeline and compressor constraints. Since a number of critical parameters are tainted with imprecision in the proposed model, a robust possibilistic programming approach is applied to handle the inherent uncertainty. A natural gas network in Iran is used as a case study to verify and validate the developed model.
Keywords: natural gas supply chain; NGSC; multi-objective; robust optimisation; uncertainty.
A Review of Onshore and Offshore Pipeline Construction and Decommissioning Cost in the United States Part 1. Specifications, Cost Estimation and Onshore Construction
by Mark J. Kaiser
Abstract: The cost to construct and decommission oil and gas pipelines in the United States varies widely between onshore and offshore regions as well as within each area, depending on numerous factors. The purpose of this review is to evaluate publicly available data sources for onshore and offshore pipeline installation and decommissioning activities in the United States. The activities and processes involved, factors that impact cost, cost statistics and limitations of analysis are presented for onshore and offshore pipeline installation and decommissioning. Similarities and differences between processes and the tradeoffs involved in design and construction are described to better understand the cost differences that arise between projects. In Part 1 of a two-part review, an overview of pipeline manufacturing and API 5L specifications introduce relevant terminology and basic pipeline requirements, and a description of cost estimation procedures, normalization, and data sources provides the evaluation framework. A description of U.S. onshore pipeline construction cost data and analysis concludes the paper.
Keywords: benchmarking; cost statistics; offshore vs. onshore; pipeline construction; pipeline decommissioning.
A Review of Onshore and Offshore Pipeline Construction and Decommissioning Cost in the United States Part 2. Offshore and Deepwater Decommissioning Cost Algorithms
by Mark J. Kaiser
Abstract: In the second part of this two-part review on the cost to construct and decommission oil and gas pipelines in the United States, summary data of offshore pipeline construction and decommissioning cost are described, along with hypothetical pipeline decommissioning cost algorithms for the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. Similarities and differences between design and construction tradeoffs are described to better understand the cost differences that arise between projects. Significant temporal impacts enter cost statistics due to inflation, market conditions, regulatory and technology changes, and spatial impacts arise due to differences in geologic conditions, infrastructure, and terrain. Most factors are unobservable and not available for evaluation, but there are many similarities in processes and infrastructure that allow normalized cost to serve as a useful first-order benchmark.
Keywords: benchmarking; cost statistics; offshore vs. onshore; pipeline construction; pipeline decommissioning.
Analysis of dependence structure among investor sentiment, policy uncertainty and international oil prices
by Mobeen Ur Rehman, Seema Narayan
Abstract: The behavioral aspect of finance and economics has an embedded importance in the literature. This paper provides an evidence of the interrelationship of international oil prices with economic policy uncertainty, consumer sentiments and US investor sentiment proxies. To test the underlying dependence structure, we employ time invariant and time- varying copula methods due to dynamic return patterns of our sampled indices. Our analysis reveals an underlying relationship of investor sentiments and economic policy uncertainty with international oil prices not only during normal periods but also in the periods of financial turmoil. Results of our nonlinear causality highlight potential of bidirectional spillover between oil prices and investor sentiment indices across all quantiles. This helps in understanding the that a volatile international oil market may have significant impact on investor sentiments and economic policy uncertainty and vice versa.
Keywords: Investor sentiment; economic uncertainty; oil prices; dependence structure.
Effects of n-butanol/ calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blend injection on the combustion characteristics of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Engine
by Gowtham M, Prakash Ramakrishnan
Abstract: The present experiment work implements the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) technique in analysing the combustion, performance and emissions (regulated and unregulated) characteristics of diesel engine. A high reactivity calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blend (B20) is directly injected inside the cylinder and a low reactivity n-butanol fuel is injected in three different ratios (10, 20 and 30% by vol basis) into the inlet manifold section using electronic control unit. This study reveals that the brake thermal efficiency increased by 4.32%, oxides of nitrogen, smoke, acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, hexanaldehyde, are reduced 19.31%, 8.82%, 12.19%, 11.71% and 37.02%, respectively compared to diesel at full load condition. The carbon monoxide, hydro carbons, formaldehyde, crotanaldehyde are increased by 15.23%, 20.87%, 15%, and 13.23% compared with neat diesel fuel. The cylinder pressure and heat release rate are increased by 18%, 29.15% with n-butanol 30% injection due to the advanced start of combustion, high cylinder temperature, and better mixture formation. The brake specific fuel consumption, propanaldehyde, ethanol, acrolein and benzene emission are found to be increased during all load conditions.
Keywords: Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester; n-butanol; diesel engine; ECU; combustion; performance; regulated emission; Unregulated emission.
A comparative analysis and rapid performance prediction of polymer flooding process by coupling reservoir simulation with neural networks.
by Negar Zarepakzad, Emre Artun, Ismail Durgut
Abstract: Accelerated technological progresses offer massive amounts of data, prompting decision making for any asset to be more complicated and challenging than before. Data-driven modelling has gained popularity among petroleum engineering professionals by turning big data into valuable insights that introduces fast and reliable decision making. In this study, a viscosifying polymer flooding performance-forecasting tool is developed using an artificial neural network-based data-driven model. A wide variety of reservoir and operational scenarios are generated to inclusively cover possible conditions of the process. Each scenario goes through no injection, water-only flooding, polymer followed by waterflooding and polymer-only flooding schemes. Neural network models were trained with three representative performance indicators derived from simulator outputs; efficiency, water-cut and recovery factor. Practicality of the tool in assessing probabilistic and deterministic predictions is demonstrated with a real polymer-flooding case of Daqing Oil Field. [Received: April 15, 2020; Accepted: June 26, 2020]
Keywords: reservoir simulation; chemical enhanced oil recovery; polymer flooding; artificial neural networks; ANNs; data-driven modelling; screening model.
Russias geo-energy interests and secessionist conflicts in Central Asia: Karakalpakstan and Gorno-Badakhshan
by Jose Antonio Pena-Ramos
Abstract: The break-up of the Soviet Union heralded a highly unstable decade of decline for Russia, while also generating numerous conflicts in the post-Soviet space. Russia regained influence at global and, chiefly, regional level from 2000, with the coming to power of Vladimir Putin and the rise in the price of hydrocarbons. Energy policy arguably played an essential role in this situation. Central Asia, the scenario of two secessionist conflicts at present, is crucial to Russian geo-energy interests. This article examines and discusses the impact of these conflicts on Russias geo-energy interests, in particular since Putin came to power. Our conclusion is that, in a context of Russian dominance of the post-Soviet space and direct Russian intervention in secessionist conflicts in the South Caucasus and Eastern Europe in defence of its geo-energy interests, the two post-Soviet secessionist conflicts in Central Asia (Karakalpakstan and Gorno-Badakhshan) have greatly benefited Russian geo-energy interests.
Keywords: secessionist conflicts; Central Asia; energy policy; hydrocarbons; geo-energy interests; Russia; Uzbekistan; Karakalpakstan; Tajikistan; Gorno-Badakhshan.
Modeling of coal flotation responses based on operational conditions by random forest
by Xiangning Bu, Amir Taghizadeh Vahed, Sina Ghassa, Saeed Chelgani
Abstract: Coal consumption is one of the critical factors in the economy of China. Flotation separation of coal from its inorganic part (ash) can reduce environmental problems of coal consumption and improve its combustion. This investigation was used random forest (RF) as an advanced machine learning method to rank flotation operations by variable importance measurement and predict flotation responses based on operational parameters. Fifty flotation experiments were designed, and performed based on various flotation conditions and by different variables (collector dosage, frother dosage, air flowrate, pulp density, and impeller speed). Statistical assessments indicated that there is a significant negative correlation between yield and ash content. Experiments indicated that in the optimum conditions, yield and ash content would be 80 and 9%, respectively. Variable importance measurement by RF showed that frother has the highest effectiveness on yield. Outcomes of modeling released that RF can accurately be used for ranking flotation parameters, and generating models within complex systems in mineral processing.
Keywords: Coal; Flotation; Advanced machine learning; Random forest; Yield.
Interpretation of Displacement Fields Around Hydraulic Fracture Tip Using Digital Image Correlation Method
by Jingnan Dong, Mian Chen, Musharraf Zaman
Abstract: Hydraulic fracture is of crucial importance in the enhancement of unconventional oil and gas production. A small-scale hydraulic fracture device based on double cantilever beam theory is used to induce Mode I hydraulic fracture. Using digital image correlation method, an experimental technic is developed to identify the full-field displacement of the 2-dimensional hydraulic fracture tip. Conclusion shows that the crack tip position extracted from the non-linear fitting conforms well to the optical microscope observation. The sizes and the morphologies of the process zone near the hydraulic fracture tip are different in various materials.
Keywords: hydraulic fracture tip; digital image correlation; full-field displacement; Williams’ series; process zone.
Does Crude Oil Price Respond to US Oil and Gas Industry Value Chain Economics
by Chamil W. Senarathne, Wei Jianguo
Abstract: This paper examines whether the crude oil price responds to industry value chain economics (i.e. economic return on capital employed) in the oil and gas industry of the United States. Fama-French five-factor regression shows that the variations in profitability of firms (risk factor) is unrelated to equity risk premium in the oil and gas industry as the risk of industry value chain operation could be diversified away by appropriately managing the activities in the value chain operation and the size risk factor becomes idiosyncratic in the industry. The EVA in the industry value chain operation is negatively and significantly related to crude oil price and this asymmetric relationship is caused by the cost implications of value chain operation. Reinvestment of dividend increases the expectations of capital providers about their value of investments (i.e. enhancement of capital appreciation). This is because the firms will have to make sufficient investments (i.e. capital and avenue expenditure) to ensure long-term growth of the firms which will eventually increase the price of crude oil due to cost escalations on capacity expansion. The negative association between industry production of crude oil (IPD- mining) and crude oil price indicates that, when the value chain economics are increased, the firms will have the opportunity to increase the operating (i.e. production) capacity by reinvesting the dividends in equity. The Granger-causality test reveals that the EVA has a significant causal effect on oil price and the policy uncertainty significantly Granger cause EVA. VEC estimation results also suggest that, except for the significant response of EVA to policy uncertainty and EVA to oil price, the responses of oil price to EVA and oil price to policy uncertainty have shown to be significant in the medium term but weaker in the short- and long-run. The responses of policy uncertainty to EVA and policy uncertainty to oil price are highly and significantly fluctuating around the neutral zone. Shocks to oil price and policy uncertainty cause weaker fluctuations in EVA, and the variation of the fluctuations in EVA due to the shocks to oil price is considerably significant. The suggestions and implications of these findings for industry policymaking are discussed.
Keywords: Fama-French regression: Economic value addition: Crude oil price: Policy uncertainty; Value chain economics; Granger-causality; Vector autoregression: Variance decomposition.
Natural Gas Treatment by Membrane- Case Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Plant of Arzew-Algeria
by Amina MEZOUAGH, Belkacem ABSAR, Maghnia HAMOU MAAMAR, Omar BELHAMITI
Abstract: A calculation method for predicting the performances of multicomponent gas mixture through a membrane permeator is presented. Two mathematical models are developed to study the effect of the circulation of feed and permeate inside the membrane module. The circulation modes explored are the co-current and the countercurrent flow pattern. The mathematical model developed in the case of countercurrent flow pattern is subject to the split boundary value problem. To solve this problem a numerical approach is developed combining the (0,2) Jacobi multi-wavelets method and the decoupling and quasi-linearization iterative technique. The developed models are then used to predict the performances of a membrane module designed for the treatment of a natural gas load (case study of the Liquified Natural gas plant of Arzew-Algeria). The obtained results show clearly the efficiency of the countercurrent compared to the co-current flow pattern: high product purity is obtained for the same recovery rate.
Keywords: Membrane gas separation; mathematical modeling; (0,2) Jacobi multi-wavelets method; cocurrent and countercurrent flow pattern.
Hydrocarbon potential, maturity and depositional environment of the source rocks in the southwestern part of the Naga Schuppen Belt, India
by Mousumi Gogoi, T. Satish Kumar, Neeraj Mathur, Temsulemba Walling, Sarat Phukan
Abstract: The organic matters in the Oligocene Laisong and Jenam Formations, exposed along the Dimapur-Kohima road section in the Naga Schuppen Belt, Nagaland, have been characterised by Rock-Eval pyrolysis, biomarker analysis and organic petrographical analysis. The organic matters are mostly mixed type II & III and type III kerogens in the Laisong Formation and, type III and IV kerogens in the Jenam Formation deposited mostly in an oxic deltaic-terrigenous environment. The organic matters of both formations generally show poor hydrocarbon generative potential. Maturity parameters of are indicative of presence of immature to early mature organic matters in the Laisong Formation and early to mid-mature organic matters in the Jenam
Formation. This is quite unusual as the Jenam Formation overlies the Laisong Formation. This mismatch was possibly caused by many episodes of rapid differential heating to high temperature followed by cooling related to active tectonics of the Naga Schuppen Belt. [Received: 14 August 2019; Accepted: 07 August 2020]
Keywords: Barail Group; Oligocene; Naga Schuppen Belt; Rock-Eval pyrolysis; biomarkers; organic petrology; source rock potential; depositional environment; India.
Risk assessment in oilfield services project management
by Mladen Radisic, Ognjen Radisic, Maja Radisic
Abstract: The paper aims to present the importance of project risk assessment within exploration and production (E&P) sector, namely oilfield services. In this paper some major project related issues in the field have been highlighted, such as potential risks present within drilling rig preparation projects. The central research of this paper includes systematic risk overview of the several already undertaken drilling rig preparation projects. Furthermore, based on the applied risk assessment methodology the proposals how to successfully identify, analyze and respond to project risks are given. Therefore, presented results of the paper provide oilfield services project managers with an easy-to-use risk assessment guideline.
Keywords: API Q2; drilling rig; project management; risk management; risk analysis.
Optimisation of gas lift performance using artificial neural network
by Ahmed A. Elgibaly, Mohsen Elnoby, Moataz Eltantawy
Abstract: Gas lift is one of the most widespread methods of artificial lift technologies used when wells production rate declines. Gas is employed to maintain the production by injecting gas into the tubing through a gas lift orifice. Lifting costs are generally low. However, capital costs of compression are very high, so it is necessary to optimise gas lift wells. In this paper, conventional nodal analysis models were used to predict the optimisation parameters based on wells system parameters. Artificial neural network (ANN) models were also used based on gas lift databases. ANN models were trained then tested against Nodal analysis models. Also, this paper presents a new theory about the relative importance of gas lift system inputs on output parameters of gas lift system. [Received: June 9, 2020; Accepted: August 7, 2020]
Keywords: gas lift performance and optimisation; prediction; artificial neural network; ANN; optimum oil rate; optimum gas lift rate; Pipesim; MATLAB.
Structural and swelling study of Karharbari coal with various combinations of solvent
by Yash Jaiswal, Sunder Lal Pal, Lav Kush
Abstract: Swelling kinetics of Karharbari coal in various combinations of solvents such as T/PY, T/PNT, T/FLT, T/ANT, T/MNAP, T/NAP, T/FL, T/D were studied using the solvent swelling technique. The values of equilibrium swelling ratio Qe and diffusional exponent n were calculated to find the nature of diffusion while changing temperature and solvent combinations. Results conclude that with an increase in swelling temperature the nature of swelling shifts from relaxation controlled diffusion to the Fickian diffusion controlled. The activation energies with different solvents were also calculated to suggest the actual energy barrier for swelling of coal. Structural changes in coal due to penetration of solvents were also determined by using FTIR analysis of all combinations of solvents. The resultant energy barriers for swelling of coal was found to be hydrogen bond (H-bond). This work also includes the percentage extraction of H-bond obtained for all combinations of solvents. The results obtained firmly conclude that the solvent combination of tetralin and pyrene (T/PY) is the best combination of solvents for the pretreatment of coal for coal liquefaction. [Received: October 24, 2019;
Accepted: July 30, 2020]
Keywords: coal swelling; Karharbari coal; Structural shange of coal; H bond extraction; yield.
Study on CO2 Diffusion Process in Heavy Oil Saturated Porous Media Using Experiment and Simulation
by Wei Liu, Lin Du, Wen Liu, Xiaoyuan Qin, Xin Luo
Abstract: CO2 diffusion coefficient is an important and fundamental parameter for CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and storage. In this paper, a mathematical model was developed to simulate the CO2 diffusion process in the heavy oil saturated porous media. Theoretically, the mathematical model was integrated with the gas state equation to calculate the CO2 diffusion coefficient in porous media. Then, the pressure decay methodology was applied to measure the CO2 diffusion coefficient in the heavy oil saturated porous media. Experimentally, the diffusion coefficient was determined by fitting the experiment data with the pressure decay model. Using the measured diffusion coefficient as an input parameter, the CO2 diffusion process in porous media was simulated and the factors that affected the diffusion process was analyzed in this paper. The simulation results show that diffusion direction on the rock surface is in the tangential direction of the rock and points to where the CO2 concentration potential decreases. Furthermore, the diffusion process was also affected by the size of pores and throats, and the contact area of CO2 and heavy oil.
Keywords: CO2; Heavy oil; Porous media; Diffusion coefficient; Simulation analysis.
Stress-seepage Bidirectional Coupling Analysis of a Horizontal Well with Multi-Stage Fractured Fractures
by Shubo Zhang, Gang Wang, Ke Wang, Hengjie Luan, Letang Sun, Wei Han
Abstract: To explore the gas production performance of a horizontal well with multi-stage fractured fractures in a shale gas reservoir, a mathematical model considering stress-seepage bidirectional coupling and the stress sensitivity of permeability was developed. A finite element model of the shale gas reservoir and a horizontal well with multi-stage fractured fractures was established in this study, and the coupling calculation between the two dimensions of the fracture-reservoir was performed. The results show that the influence of the stress-seepage interaction cannot be neglected for shale gas production from the reservoir. The key factor affecting the production of the reservoir is the complexity of the fractured fractures, and a higher complexity indicates a higher productivity. This result also implies that it is unreasonable to consider only primary fractures in the fractured horizontal well analysis. The higher initial reservoir permeability does not necessarily result in higher gas production under coupling conditions. However, in the early stage of production, the higher initial reservoir permeability leads to a considerable gas production rate. The permeability of fractures and the bottom hole pressure have less influence on the reservoir productivity.
Keywords: shale gas reservoir; fractured horizontal well; stress-seepage bidirectional coupling; productivity.
Modelling Hydrocarbon Generation and Migration in Tertiary Source Rocks of Deepwater, Phu Khanh Basin, Offshore Vietnam
by Huy Nguyen Xuan, Dung Ta Quoc, Trang Nguyen Thi Thu, Hoang Cu Minh, Min Baehyun, Delia Anne-Marie Androne, Binh Kieu Nguyen
Abstract: This study modelled a petroleum system to analyze the history of basin evolution, maturity, and hydrocarbon generation in the deepwater of the Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Vietnam. The paleo heat flow, surface-water interface temperatures, and paleo water-depth were modelled using existing wells occurring in shallow to deep marine environments. Based on the geochemical analysis, the Oligocene and Lower-Middle Miocene source rocks are predominantly a mixture of type II and type III kerogens, with differences in distribution and maturation level. In the Phu Khanh Basin, hydrocarbon generation started during the Early Miocene. Petroleum migrated to a trap and accumulated in an uplift structure in the sandstone and carbonate reservoirs of the Lower Miocene formation. The results of this study can assist in defining the distribution of reservoir locations for future field development planning in the Phu Khanh Basin.
Keywords: Phu Khanh Basin; hydrocarbon generation; migration; heat flow; source rock.
Invaded water flowback capability of high volatile bituminous coal after nitrogen displacing: From a perspective of fracture and seepage pore structural complexities
by Xin Li, Xuehai Fu, Jijun Tian, Xueliang Liu, Yanyan Ge, Meng Wang, Shun Liang
Abstract: Water-based fracturing is applied for stimulating coal reservoir. However, invasion of water can result in low flowback efficiency and low coalbed methane (CBM) yield. Nitrogen injection is an effective method to enhance CBM production. In this study, nitrogen displacing water experiments using water saturated high volatile bituminous coal were conducted, during which magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests were applied to determine flowback capability. To research the relationship between flowback capability and complexities of fracture and seepage pore, characterizing methods including Micro-CT and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) were used. The results show that flowback capabilities of complex structural seepage pores and fractures were low. Water is easily flooded into simple structural seepage pores and fractures, and water flowback capabilities of these simple spaces are relative higher, compared with those of the complex ones. Water phase trapping during nitrogen displacing water happens due to water imbibition and Jamin effect occurring in complex structural seepage pores and fractures.
Keywords: coalbed methane; retained water; permeability; magnetic resonance imaging; pore structure; flowback; nitrogen injection; high volatile bituminous coal.
A new approach for the prediction of combustible sulfur in coal in terms of coal washability data and calorific value
by Gokhan Sarihan, Sait Kizgut, Serdar Yilmaz, Mehmet Bilen
Abstract: In this study, determination of petrographical properties and washability characterization for Uzulmez District (Zonguldak Coal Basin) coals were realized. Float and sink analysis was carried out on the samples taken from Uzulmez Basin (4 coal seam) and their washability figures were obtained. In the context of this study, it was proposed that each coal seam has its own function for total sulfur content and calorific value. Finally, not only sulfur percentages in each float and sink fraction and each size group were determined but also sulfur percentages in ash of corresponding coal seam samples were obtained. Repeatedly, total sulfur and calorific value diagrams were plotted and the corresponding correlation coefficients were obtained. The reason behind calorific value steep decrease from float fraction to sink fraction and corresponding total sulfur amount increase from sink fraction to float fraction was discussed. The discussion furtherly resulted in understanding of combustible and non-combustible distribution of sulfur and a new method of determining this proportion was proposed. The above mentioned diagrams showed that the combustible sulfur percentages analyzed (both in coal and ash) and predicted has correlation coefficients of 0.90 for PIC (R2=0.90) coal seam, 0.78 for PIRIC (R2=0.78) coal seam, 0.79 for NASIFOGLU (R2=0.79) coal seam and 0.90 for PIC (R2=0.85) coal seam, respectively.
Keywords: Zonguldak Coal; petrographic analysis; density float; washability; size fractions; combustible and non-combustible sulfur.
Impact of Temperature Increases on Formation of Carbon Monoxide during Lignite Storage
by Petr Buryan
Abstract: This article presents our research on formation of carbon monoxide through low temperature oxidation of lignite coal during its long-term storage in the coal bunkers of fluidized bed boilers. We analyzed lignite samples from B
Keywords: storage; lignite; carbon monoxide; coalbunker.
Forming Optimization and Mechanical Analysis of an Expandable Profile Liner for Leakage Plugging in Oil and Gas Wells
by Le Zhao, Qingquan Duan
Abstract: The preliminary application of expandable profile liner technology (EPLT) provides an effective solution for operational challenges associated with borehole instabilities and drilling troubles control without wellbore shrinkage. This study simulates the forming and expansion processes of four kinds of differently cross-sectional shapes of expandable profile liners (EPLs) by using the finite element software ABAQUS. The results of the simulation reveal that the eight-shaped cross section has lower residual stress, better forming stability, and easier expansion characteristics. Aiming to attain the cross section with minimum residual stress and strain, we studied two forming processes with considering the mold assemblies, loading sequences, and loading displacements to optimize the section shape of a ?241.3 mm EPL, which is meaningful for engineering applications. By simulating and analyzing the expansion process of EPLs made of three different materials with three different wall thicknesses, this study obtains data on the internal pressure strength and collapse strength to provide a basis for selecting the best EPL to meet the engineering strength requirements.
Keywords: expandable profile liner; forming optimization; residual stress and strain; internal pressure strength; collapse strength.
Petroleum crude slate effect on H-Oil performance
by Dicho Stratiev, Ivelina Shishkova, Ilian Kolev, Dobromir Yordanov, Vesislava Toteva
Abstract: 16 petroleum crudes and an imported atmospheric residue originating from Russia, Azerbaijan, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, and USA have been processed in the LUKOIL Neftohim Burgas (LNB) refinery, and their effect on the ebullated bed vacuum residue H-Oil hydrocracking (EBVRHC) performance has been evaluated. The vacuum residue conversion in the LNB H-Oil EBVRHC varied between 55 and 82% depending on the crude blend processed in the LNB refinery. It has been established that among all vacuum residue SARA fractions during EBVRHC, the resins have the highest conversion, followed by the naphtheno-aromatics while the saturates shows the lowest conversion. Depending on the petroleum crude origin the behavior of the most problematic VR asphaltene fraction has been found to be different suggesting distinct propensity of the asphaltenes from the different petroleum crudes to participate in radical recombination reactions leading to the formation of additional amounts of core-condensed asphaltenes.
Keywords: petroleum crude; hydrocracking; vacuum residue; SARA; conversion; sedimentation.
Study on Application Timing and Solution Performance Optimization of Composite System after Polymer Flooding
by Leiting Shi, Shijie Zhu, Xiaoqin Zhang, Yuchi Zhou, Zhongbin Ye
Abstract: The appropriate application timing and application system of compound flooding can maximize the recovery after polymer flooding. Taking a polymer flooding heavy oil reservoir as an example, the application timing and solution performance of the composite system are analyzed and studied respectively. The results show that the application time of composite flooding should be at the end of the effective mobility control time of polymer flooding after the disappearance of polymer action. The timing is also when the adsorption and retention of polymer solution in porous media has little influence on the water cut law in the subsequent water flooding process. Viscosity of polymer solution has little effect on the mobility control of subsequent water flooding, but RRF has greater effect. Increasing RRF can effectively prolong the effective flow control of polymer flooding. Among the solution properties of the composite system, the contribution of solution viscosity is relatively larger, accounting for 54.88%. After considering the effect of the complete polymer flooding control process (polymer flooding + subsequent water flooding = displacement of 0.44 PV), a composite system with a viscous system as the main component (100200 mPa
Keywords: polymer flooding; mobility control; combination flooding; application timing; oil displacement effect.
The spatial distribution of the strike angles derived from EIGEN 6C4 gravity model a new possibility for oil and gas exploration?
by Jaroslav Klokočník, Jan Kostelecký, Aleš Bezděk, Václav Cílek
Abstract: We discovered a correlation between the combed strike angles (one of the gravity functions derived from a gravity field model) and regions with oil, gas, shale gas deposits or ground water, paleolakes or impact craters. The spatial distribution of the combed strike angles may indicate a new cheap and accessible geophysical tool for recognition of some potential oil and gas areas. We work with the global gravity field model EIGEN 6C4 providing a ground resolution of about 10 km and a precision typically 10 mGal. First we test the well-known oil/gas fields; this attests the success of the proposed methodology. Then we extrapolate outside the known zones. The new method may be an inexpensive tool for frontier areas in terms of decreasing the risk of deposit exploration. An extensive supplementary material is added. [Received: March 29, 2020; Accepted: September 18, 2020]
Keywords: oil/gas exploration theory; oil/gas exploration methodology; physical geodesy; satellite gravimetry; earth’s gravity field models; EIGEN 6C4 gravity field model; geoapplications; gravity aspects; gravity disturbances; Marussi tensor; gravity aspects; virtual deformations; combed strike angles; correlation between combed strike angles and oil/gas deposits; impact craters.
An Efficient Design for a Downhole Water Loop to Control Water Production from Oil Wells
by Mohammadsajjad Zeynolabedini, Mehdi Assareh
Abstract: Water production in oil and gas wells is an important problem regarding water treatment costs and environmental constraints. Down-hole water loop (DWL) production is one of the techniques to decrease water production. This method produces water from upper part of water zone and reinjects water back to lower part of this zone to prevent water upward movement to oil zone. An optimized design of DWL is important to decrease produced water, which is addressed in this work based on a case study from literature. At the beginning, a comparative study of conventional production and DWL is performed, to show DWL relative importance, based on decrease in watercut and increase in oil production rate. The net present value (NPV) of DWL technique is 4.52E+07 [$], while the NPV of conventional production is 3.26E+07 [$]. Prior to optimization, DWL sensitivity to the opening lengths, distance between upper and lower openings in water zone (water drainage-injection distance or D/I spacing) and water drainage rate are analyzed. Two different optimization procedures, sequential and simultaneous, are applied to find an optimized design. The NPVs are improved in this way considerably, from 4.52E+07 [$] to 7.07E+08 [$] in simultaneous mode and 6.99E+08 [$] in sequential mode. Finally, anisotropy effects are analyzed, and it is shown that by increasing the anisotropy ratio, NPV decreases, since tendency of water invasion to oil zone increases.
Keywords: Production operation; Down-hole water loop; Oil wells; Stochastic optimization; Water production Control.
Investigation on Surfactant Desorption Isotherm to Enhance Oil Spontaneous Recovery in a Low Permeability Core
by Ichhuy Ngo, Ronald Nguele, Yuichi Sugai, Kyuro Sasaki
Abstract: Surfactant enhanced oil recovery depends on the interfacial tension (IFT) reduction and wettability alteration in the rock/oil/brine system. An adequate amount of surfactant within the system is vital during the application. The aforementioned problem becomes more sensitive in a low permeability formation when the adsorption is much higher than the desorption. This study, therefore, investigated the surfactant desorption isotherm using sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) as a surfactant and tight Berea sandstone as adsorbent. The desorption of SDBS was found to follow a Langmuir type isotherm. Owing to the Langmuir characteristics, the desorption increased up to 4 folds by reducing the salinity of the process water from 3 to 1wt.%. The study was extended in a spontaneous imbibition tests for oil recovery. The desorbed SDBS enables an increase in total oil recovery by 2%. The results were subsequent to a more favorable IFT and a mitigation in the narrow-pore blockage.
Keywords: Surfactant adsorption; surfactant desorption; enhanced oil recovery; spontaneous imbibition; Langmuir isotherm; sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; low permeability; Berea sandstone; surfactant precipitation; pore blockage.
Methanol Thiolation: A Feasible Process Solution for H2S Recovery in Refineries
by Mohammad Reza Shabani, Mohammad Ali Moosavian, Sayed Javid Royaee, Yahya Zamani
Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide and methanol can react with each other in the methanol thiolation reaction to produce methan-ethiol. In this paper, the methanol thiolation process is investigated to remove H2S in refineries. A feasibility study to replace sulfur recovery units in refineries with a methanol thiolation unit was conducted. The methanol thiola-tion process is simulated, and concept of process is developed. Also, the main equipment are sized, the capital cost is estimated, the operating cost is calculated, and the financial parameters are evaluated for the methanol thiolation unit. The financial results are compared with a conventional process consisting of amine and sulfur recovery unit (SRU). The result of the economic evaluation of purposed units shows that capital cost reduction of 70%, an oper-ating cost increase of 95%, and an internal rate of 79.7%. The above results showed that the mentioned unit is fea-sible due to the economical evaluation point of view.
Keywords: Methanol thiolation; Sulfur recovery; Off-gas; Hydrogen sulfide; Refinery.
CO2 Sequestration Potential in The Near-Future Depleted CO2 Reservoir: Dodan CO2 Field, Turkey
by Sukru Merey
Abstract: Dodan field is a natural CO2 reservoir located in Siirt, Turkey. Since 1986, CO2 produced from Dodan field have been injected into Bat? Raman Heavy Oil Field of Turkey in Batman to make heavy oil mobile in porous media. CO2 sequestration into aquifers and depleted reservoirs is widely investigated to decrease CO2 emission and to slow down global warning. In this study, it is aimed to investigate whether it is possible to inject CO2 into Dodan field after depletion. The source of CO2 to be injected might be supplied from cement factories near this field. CO2 injection into Dodan field was simulated by using TOUGH + RealGasBrine. According to the output results of these simulations, CO2 injection is much more difficult and slow processes compared to CO2 production. Due to water influx into the reservoirs in Dodan field during CO2 production, approximately 61.2 % of initial CO2 in-place (6.74 MMMSCM) might be injected into Dodan field in a long-term period.
Keywords: CO2 sequestration; CO2 flow; porous media; greenhouse emission; Dodan field.
Environmental Analysis of Turkish Upstream Petroleum Sector
by Emre Ozgur
Abstract: In this manuscript, an environmental analysis of Turkish Upstream Petroleum Sector has been performed from the methane emission point of view. Methane is emitted during the production of crude oil and natural gas. Although methane's lifetime in the atmosphere is much shorter than carbon dioxide, methane is more efficient at trapping radiation than carbon dioxide. The flared gas amount of Turkey resulting from upstream petroleum activities were estimated and compared with the satellite data, which shows consistency. It is observed that the flared gas amount of Turkey based on the upstream petroleum activities is low due to the production level and the characteristics of crude oils. The annual flared volume of associated gas is estimated as 15 million m3 and the vented methane is estimated as 3 million m3. Carbon dioxide emission of the sector were also estimated with some assumptions.
Keywords: Upstream petroleum; flaring; greenhouse gas; emission.
Gas permeability evolution characteristics of limestone under different stress conditions
by Qiangxing Zhang, Jianfeng Liu, Zhide Wu, Lu Wang
Abstract: The increasing demand on energy storage has drawn worldwide attention on the construction of underground gas storage (UGS) project. As gas permeability is a key parameter in evaluating the sealing capacity of caprock in underground gas storage facilities, a comprehensive test on limestone concerning gas permeability and triaxial compression under different stress conditions was conducted using hydro-mechanical (HM) coupling testing platform in the laboratory. Also, the rock damage evolution of limestone during triaxial compression was monitored with an acoustic emission (AE) machine. Initial permeability of intact limestone ranges between 10?18 m2 and 10?16 m2 under different confining pressures, while permeability of fractured limestone is below 10?14 m2. Relationships between porosity vs. confining pressure and initial permeability vs. confining pressure are negative exponential, and both porosity and initial permeability decrease with increasing confining pressure. The permeability - axial strain curves of limestone show two different evolution laws under different confining pressures, which is highly related to the crack volume deformation characteristics. Spatial localization of AE events can accurately reflect the growth of internal cracks and explain the basic rules of permeability evolution.
Keywords: Limestone; Gas permeability; Acoustic emission; Caprock; UGS facilities.
Recent Advances of Cementing Technologies for Ultra-HTHP Formations
by Wenjun Cai, Jingen Deng, Ming Luo, Yongcun Feng, Jing Li, Qiang Liu
Abstract: Ultra-high-temperature-high-pressure (ultra-HTHP) formations are usually those formations having a temperature over 200
Keywords: ultra-HTHP; cementing; fluid loss; displacement efficiency; complex downhole conditions.
Injection of Gel Systems for CO2 Leakage Remediation in a Fractured Reservoir
by Peixi Zhu, Shayan Tavassoli, Jenny Ryu, Michael Pyrcz, Matthew Balhoff
Abstract: We perform a reservoir simulation study to investigate injection of gel systems, including crosslinked polymer gels and silica gels, as a treatment method for fracture sealing and leakage remediation in CO2 storage reservoirs. An adsorption and permeability reduction approach were adopted to model the fracture sealing by the gel. The results show that for both gel systems a successful treatment can reduce CO2 leakage by 103 times over 25 years of post-treatment CO2 injection. The effects of operating conditions, reservoir heterogeneity, and associated uncertainty on the treatment results were investigated by changing the injection time, injection rate, crosslinked polymer or silica concentration, reaction frequency factor, average reservoir permeability, and spatial correlation length. The simulation results show that selecting the appropriate operating conditions for specific reservoir properties are important to the success of CO2 leakage remediation.
Keywords: Gel treatment; CO2 sequestration; CO2 storage; leakage remediation; silica gel; crosslinked polymer gel; heterogeneity; Dykstra-Parsons coefficient; spatial uncertainty; reservoir simulation.
A novel model for predicting tight sandstone reservoir permeability
by Lili Sun, Xining Hao, Hong En Dou, Caspar Daniel Adenutsi, Wenli Liu
Abstract: In order to solve the problem of low accuracy of permeability prediction in tight sandstone reservoirs, two new parameters namely effective movable fluid saturation and capillary-bound fluid saturation were proposed, to quantitatively evaluate the flow capacity of reservoir fluids based on the analysis of the state of fluid occurrence in pore space. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and high-pressure mercury injection experiments were used to establish the relationships between permeability and the new parameters and a new permeability prediction model was proposed in tight sandstone reservoirs. The method was verified by comparing permeability computed using existing models and measured data from the field. The results showed that the proposed model in this paper gave R2 and root mean square error values of 0.839 and 0.0428, respectively, which were better than that given by the SDR and the Coates models. Thus, the proposed model in this research significantly improved the accuracy of permeability prediction in tight sandstone reservoirs. This provides a new method for permeability prediction and field development in tight sandstone reservoirs.
Keywords: effective movable fluid saturation; capillary-bound fluid saturation; permeability; tight sandstone reservoir; nuclear magnetic resonance; T2 cutoff.
Experimental investigation on enhanced oil recovery by multi-thermal fluid in mid-deep heavy oil reservoirs
by Cheng Wang, Liguo Zhong
Abstract: Multi-thermal fluid mainly consists of steam, N2 and CO2 and is a new heat-carrier introduced into the petroleum reservoir development in recent years. Multi-thermal fluid is more suitable for the development of mid-deep heavy oil reservoirs. In this paper, the PVT tests under different conditions were carried out to research the properties of heavy oil-CO2/N2 system. Then, a series of 3D simulation experiments were conducted, including steam flooding simulation experiment, multi-thermal fluid flooding simulation experiments and steam flooding to multi thermal fluid flooding simulation experiments, to analyze the production characteristics of multi-thermal fluid flooding and optimize the gas-water ratio of multi-thermal fluid flooding. Finally, the best way to develop mid-deep heavy oil reservoirs was investigate, according to the production characteristics of steam flooding and multi-thermal fluid flooding. This study provided a feasible way to development mid-deep heavy oil reservoirs with multi-thermal fluid.
Keywords: Multi-thermal fluid; Mid-deep heavy oil reservoir; Experimental investigation; Parameter optimization; PVT test.
CO2 Capture Analysis in Different Combustion Methods for CO2 Utilization and Storage
by Weijia Huang
Abstract: The high energy consumption of CO2 capture is the main issue of the application of CO2 capture, utilization and storage, new CO2 capture methods based on oxy-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion are receiving considerable attention. However, the energy consumption performance of these methods is rarely compared when they are used as the CO2 source for CO2 utilization and storage. This work analyzed both the new developing and traditional methods of CO2 capture process to obtain their energy consumption performances. The CO2 capture processes of the oxy-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion were respectively built and simulated under pressure varied from 0.1 MPa to 8.0 MPa. The captured CO2 product of each process was set to the same level of parameters for transportation, and a calculation method was developed to convert all types of energy consumption to equivalent power consumption. The results show that both the new CO2 capture methods have notable potential of low energy consumption, especially under higher combustion pressures. If the air separation process is considered, the oxy-fuel combustion CO2 capture requires further technical development to defeat the post-combustion CO2 capture, although it has the advantage of high CO2 concentration. The impacts of pressures of inlet gas and process sequence are analyzed to be the key reasons for energy performance.
Keywords: pressurized oxy-fuel combustion; chemical looping combustion; process simulation; energy consumption; CO2 capture.
Optimisation of smart water shock flooding in carbonates: effect of soaking time
by Mahmood Fani, Peyman Pourafshary
Abstract: Smart water shock flooding (SWSF) is proposed as an alternative to the conventional method of employing low salinity water. It is confirmed that the asserted method is financially viable when compared to the conventional method. The effect of soaking time after SWSF was studied in order to mend the enactment of engineered slug shock injection. The depicted scheme provided enough time for the smart water to intensify the interaction at the surface of the formation rock; hence, it causes fluctuation in the wettability condition of the overall process. Contact angle measurements were used, in addition to pH evaluations, to detect an optimum soaking time for the flooding. Experiments showed that soaking the sample in the smart water during core
flooding experiments leads to drastically higher incremental recovery, compared to the conventional injection scheme. Hence, the proposed method can inexpensively improve oil recovery by combining the effects of soaking and SWSF.
Keywords: smart water; enhanced oil recovery; conventional oil reserves; unconventional oil reserves; low salinity water flooding; smart water shock flooding; optimisation; petrochemistry; surface chemistry.
Experimental study on risk analysis of gas explosion in a steeply inclined longwall gob: A case study of Dongxia Colliery
by Hetao Su, Yunzhuo Li, Yingke Liu, Xiaolin Song, Jiang Lv
Abstract: An explosive concentration can occur during mining due to the irregularity of methane emission and ventilation processes in the working face, making the explosion risk uncontrollable. This paper aimed at characterizing the gas explosion risk in a steeply inclined longwall gob (52
Keywords: airflow direction; ventilation velocity; oxygen concentration; methane migration; explosion risk.
Comprehensive evaluation of water utilization during shale gas exploration and exploitation in China
by Cong Dong, Xiucheng Dong, Congyu Zhao, Qingzhe Jiang
Abstract: This study comprehensively evaluates the impact of shale gas exploration and exploitation on water utilization from the perspective of geological heterogeneity in China. With the application of a process-based life cycle inventory (LCI) model, we quantitatively analyze the water environment in three major shale gas regions in China and calculate the specific and detailed consumption of local water resources during shale gas extraction in the Changning-Weiyuan, Fuling and Yanchang areas. The results show that the water consumption amount during shale gas extraction in the Changning-Weiyuan area is 21594.26 m3, which is smaller than the amount of 28105.94 m3 in the Fuling area, and the water consumption amount during shale gas extraction in the Yanchang area is estimated to be between the consumption amounts in the above two areas, at approximately 25000 m3. The water shortage in these three regions under the impact of shale gas extraction is then further measured by the water supply and demand index. Comparison reveals that the Changning-Weiyuan region contains the most abundant water resources, and Yanchang is confronted with water scarcity during shale gas development. Considering that the water demand during shale gas extraction is high, these conclusions provide a reference for the sustainable development of shale gas projects in China.
Keywords: shale gas; water utilization; geological heterogeneity; LCI; China.
Mapping urban form and land use with deep learning techniques: a case study of Dongguan City, China
by Feihao Chen, Jin Yeu Tsou
Abstract: Precise urban form and land use data are crucial for various modeling simulations. Approaches using spectral features of remote sensing (RS) images have been widely adopted to capture land surface patterns. However, challenges arise concerning the accurate classification of built areas due to high levels of heterogeneity. An effective way to address this issue is to incorporate spatial contextual information. Deep learning techniques have recently been applied to RS image classification, and impressive results have been reported. This research undertook a case study of Dongguan City, which is a core Chinese city characterised by high density and heterogeneity. A culturally neutral classification scheme called local climate zone was adopted for land surface classification. The default random forest classification was used as a benchmark, and the moving window approach and several pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN) models were also applied for comparison. The moving window approach achieved the highest mapping accuracy with a
window size of 5 x 5. Although the CNN models failed to achieve state-of-the-art results, they still exhibited an excellent performance considering the small
number of input features and small input patch size. They can also reduce the
salt-and-pepper phenomenon effectively. [Received: October 23, 2020; Accepted: January 24, 2021]
Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural network; CNN; land use/land cover; classification; local climate zone; LCZ; China.
Mobilisation and stabilisation flow of multiple oil slugs in a capillary model
by Alexandre Gutierry Melo De Oliveira, Liming Dai
Abstract: This research aims to investigate the mobilisation and flow of multi-oil slugs in a capillary model saturated with water, for simulating the motion of oil droplets trapped inside the porous medium of an oil reservoir. The mobilisation and stabilisation points of multi-oil slugs in the model are quantified under various experimental conditions with different numbers of oil slugs. The maximum pressure required to mobilise the oil slugs is identified. For generating a stabilised flow, the oil slugs are all found experiencing consecutively the following pressure and movement change patterns: motionless slowly increased pressure drop dramatically increased pressure drop flow impending flow stabilised. An analysis comparing the pressure drop and oil slugs travelling displacements for one, two, and three oil slugs are carried out. The research contributes to a better comprehension of the mechanism of mobilisation and the flow of multi-oil slugs subjected to capillary force and externally applied pressure. [Received: July 31, 2020; Accepted: October 26, 2020]
Keywords: oil recovery; porous media; multi-slugs; water flooding; pressure drop.
Prediction of Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Ratios for the CH4-CO2-H2S Systems Using Artificial Neural Networks
by Alireza Shams
Abstract: Acid gas removal is an important part of natural gas processing which is designed based on the type and concentration of impurities and the final specifications for the outlet gas. The typical process for removing acid gases involves their absorption from natural gas into a regenerative solvent. The efficiency of this process is affected by the mass transfer process between gas and liquid phases; so, it is necessary to study the phase equilibrium encountered in acid gas mixtures at different pressure and temperatures. In this work, an artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium ratio (KLV) for the CH4-CO2-H2S binary and ternary systems. Results show that a neural-network-based method provides an accurate estimation (93-98%) of KLV while considering all affecting parameters, compared to limited reported correlations. This work can be considered as an introduction to using ANNs for predicting the physical properties of mixtures.
Keywords: Natural gas processing; Equilibrium; Artificial Neural Network; Prediction.
Obtaining biodiesel from seeds of Ricinus communis: methodological proposal.
by Manuel Flota-Bañuelos, Carlos Victoria-Graniel, Liliana San-Pedro, Emanuel Hernández-Núñez, Luis Díaz-Ballote, Laura Paniagua-Solar, Carlos Victoria-Pérez, Nallely Téllez-Méndez
Abstract: In the present research it was studied the obtaining of biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oil contained in the wild seeds of Ricinus communis, using methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a catalyst, varying the oil/methanol ratios in the reactor of transesterification. To determine the possibility of using biodiesel as a fuel in internal combustion engines, the final product was characterized according to the criteria specified by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the European Organization Standardization (EN), in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214, respectively. The results indicate that the 1:9 molar ratio is the most efficient, the biodiesel obtained meets most of the parameters established by the ASTM and the EN. Thus, the methodology proposed to produce biodiesel from ricino seeds is feasible, since the final biodiesel presents favorable characteristics for its use as an alternative biofuel.
Keywords: biodiesel; methoxid; Ricinus communis; transesterification; methodology; biofuel; oil; seeds; catalysis; cold extrusion.
Influence of Coal Mechanical Properties and Water Content on Generation Characteristics of Coal Particles
by Yingchun Wei, Maolin Cui, Zheng Yao, Anmin Wang, Baolei Cui, Zhejun Pan
Abstract: Coal particles have a great importance in the production of coalbed methane. To reveal the relationship between the coal mechanical properties and the coal particles characteristics generated by the coal samples with different coal rank, coal failure experiments in the natural state and water-saturated state under triaxial compression are performed. The characteristics of coal particles from these different experiments are then analyzed. The effects of coal rank, coal mechanical properties and water content on the characteristics of coal particles generated are investigated. The results show that the water-saturated sample has a lower compressive strength than the corresponding natural sample. As coal rank increases, the compressive strength increases first and then decreases. The bituminous A (meager coal) has the highest compressive strength. Coal with different rank shows various fracturing modes after failure. Compared with the natural sample, the water-saturated sample generates more amount of coal particles. As coal rank increases, the amount of coal particles shows a U shape trend, while there is a negative exponential correlation between the amount of coal particles and the compressive strength of coal. The vitrinite content of the coal particles generated by the water-saturated sample is less than that generated by the natural sample, but more than the vitrinite content in the original coal sample.
Keywords: Coalbed methane; Coal particles; Mechanical properties; Water Content.
Evaluation of Ionanofluid for Chemical-Enhanced Oil Recovery for Matured Crude Oil Reservoirs
by Ankit Sharma, Abhijit Kakati, Sivabalan Sakthivel, Prashant Jadhawar, Jitendra Sangwai
Abstract: Interest on smart fluids are growing rapidly in different domains of petroleum industry owing to their unique properties and environmental safety. One such smartfluid which has not yet been explored for oil industry applications is ionanofluid. The purpose of present work is to evaluate applicability of ionanofluids for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications. Two different ionanofluids has been prepared for this study by adding silica nanoparticles into two different ionic liquids (tripropyl ammonium sulfate and triethyl ammonium sulfate) solutions. The effect of nanoparticle and ionic liquid on the interfacial tension of crude oil-nanofluid and their enhanced oil recovery performances have been evaluated. Ionanofluids has the ability to reduce the interfacial tension to a significantly low value. Results indicates that ionanofluids has much higher enhanced oil recovery efficiencies in comparison to nanofluid and ionic liquid alone. Therefore, ionic liquids has the potential to be used as an excellent future EOR agent.
Keywords: Enhanced Oil Recovery; Interfacial Tension; Ionic liquid; Ionanofluid; Nanofluid.
Estimation of heat capacities of amine-based solvents for CO2 absorption process using ANFIS model
by Ali Jalali, Marzieh Lotfi, Amir H. Mohammadi
Abstract: In this investigation, the Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) has been successfully developed as a method of predicting the heat capacity (Cp) of certain amine-based solvents, using concentration of the solvent, system temperature, and an apparent molecular weight as input parameters. To reach a modelling system, 1253 and 278 experimental data points were extracted from the studies for binary and ternary systems respectively, and were afterwards separated into training and testing subdivision. Model coefficients were predicted using the training sets, and model validation was achieved in every system through the use of the mentioned testing sets. Comparing of the model result with experimental amount was done by investigating the some statistical parameters like mean square deviation (MSD), , R squared (R2) and average relative deviation (ARD) for assessing the ability and veracity of the developed model. The developed models ARD for binary and ternary systems are -0.937% and -0.036% respectively. Model show a great validation with experimental data, especially for a ternary system. Furthermore, the effects of temperature on Cp values of conventional amines at different concentrations were investigated. Outcomes revealed that the developed ANFIS model could be applied as a practical method in simulation of CO2 removal processes by amine based solvent for both mentioned systems.
Keywords: CO2 capture; ANFIS model; Heat capacity; Amine - based solvents; Prediction.
Influences of reservoir rock and fluid properties on cyclic steam stimulation efficiency in naturally fractured reservoirs
by L. Saif Elkamel, Behnam Sedaee
Abstract: Steam injection in NFRs provides an extremely challenging problem as well as a potentially efficient EOR method. Coupling of the two distinct and contrasting matrix and fracture systems results in more complicated as a result of steep changes in fluid properties due to the thermal effects of steam injection. In this research effort, attempts have been made to simulate the cyclic steam stimulation in NFRs containing heavy-oil and also analyse the influences and contribution of different reservoir parameters on oil recovery (RF), cumulative steam oil ratio (COSR) and cumulative water oil ratio (CWOR). The results obtained show the advantage of a fracture system in conducting heat into the rock matrix, because of the large surface area exposed to heating. The results obtained from the Sobol analysis show that oil viscosity, fracture horizontal permeability, matrix wettability and capillary pressure are the most effective reservoir parameter which affect the performance significantly. [Received: 4 August 2020; Accepted: 17 October 2020]
Keywords: cyclic steam stimulation; CSS; naturally fractured reservoir; NFR; heavy oil; recovery factor; RF; technical sensitivity analysis.
Effect of headspace air conditions on total organic acids dissolved in transformer oil
by Kobra Pourabdollah
Abstract: The aim of this work was studying the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature and humidity level of headspace air on the acidification of insulation oil. The novelty is assessment and classification of those parameters based on the acidity level, induction time and the rate of oil acidifying. Two gas-washers containing insulation oil and deionised water were in contact with the bubbling streams of O2/N2 containing different humidity levels. The acidity of two phases was determined based on TAN number and pH values, respectively. The results revealed that O2/N2 weight ratio, insulator temperature and the level of air humidity control the acidity strength, the induction time of acid production and the rate of oil acidifying, respectively. Reduction of O2/N2 weight ratio in the headspace air decreased the level of the produced organic acids, while reduction of temperature extended the onset time of acid formation. [Received: July 31, 2020; Accepted: January 12, 2021]
Keywords: dissolved gas analysis; DGA; oxidation; organic acid; insulation oil; humidity.
Geomechanical modelling using artificial neural networks combined with geostatistics
by Pham Son Tung
Abstract: The principal minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) plays an important role in reservoir simulation. Experimental formulas were established to determine Shmin along the wellbore. These formulas must be calibrated with LOT data whose number is usually limited or even sometimes unavailable. However, the empirical formulas of one field might not be accurate for others. This study presents a new approach to solve the problem of Shmin estimation by a combination of artificial intelligence and geostatistics. The method consists of using artificial neural network to build a model of Shmin estimation from relevant parameters such as true vertical depth, pore pressure and vertical stress, then combined with Kriging interpolation to obtain the distribution in space of Shmin. Hence, this method can estimate the minimum horizontal stress with a limited amount of available data and therefore we do not need to drill new wells or to find empirical formulas for each survey area.
Keywords: artificial neural network; ANN; geostatistics; logging; minimum horizontal stress; geomechanic.
A novel semi-analytical model for Oil-water two-phase flow of a fractured vertical well in triple media carbonate reservoir
by Yong Wang, Xin Ma, Wenqing Wu
Abstract: Carbonate reservoir is one of the important reservoir in the world. Because of the characteristics of carbonate reservoir, vertical well and acid fracturing have become a key technology for efficiently developing carbonate reservoir. Establishing corresponding mathematical models and analyzing transient pressure behaviors of this type of well-reservoir configuration can provide a better understanding of fluid flow patterns in formation as well as estimations of important parameters.rnrnA mathematical model for a oil-water two-phase flow fractured vertical well in triple media carbonate reservoir by conceptualizing vugs as spherical shapes is presented in this article. A semi-analytical solution is obtained in the Laplace domain by using source function theory, Laplace transformation, and superposition principle. Analysis of transient pressure responses indicates that several characteristic flow periods of fractured vertical wells in triple media carbonate reservoir can be identified. Parametric analysis shows that water saturation of matrix, vug and fracture system and half-length can significantly influence the transient pressure responses of fractured vertical wells in triple media carbonate reservoir. The model presented in this article can be applied to obtain important parameters pertinent to reservoir or fracture by type curve matching, and it can also provide useful information for optimizing fracture parameters.rn
Keywords: acid fracture; oil-water two-phase flow; fractured vertical well; transient pressure analysis; triple media carbonate reservoir.
Special Issue on: ICCESEN-2019 Sustainable Research on Geo-Energy and Geo-Environmental Sciences
Investigation of the effect of L5Cu compound in diesel fuel on In-cylinder Pressure, Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions
by Ali Oz
Abstract: This study was conducted to investigate the effect of diesel fuels on in-cylinder pressure, engine performance and exhaust emissions. In this study, common-rail diesel engine was used with a cylinder volume of 1,500 cc. The engine was operated at 1,750 rpm and 40-100 Nm fixed engine loads. Besides, diesel fuel without any addition and L5Cu-added diesel fuel with four variables at 60 Nm of engine torque was examined by multivariate regression analysis, and pressure equations were produced. As a result, the engine at loads of 40 and 60 Nm, which was also fed with L5Cu additive, was found to have reduced the specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency by 1.9% and 0.73% respectively; however, at 80 and 100 Nm loads, it was found to have increased by 0.3% and 0.7% respectively. It was concluded that while the L5Cu additive at all engine loads caused a severe reduction in HC emission. [Received: March 30, 2020; Accepted: April 26, 2020]
Keywords: common-rail diesel engine; L5Cu additive; engine performance; in-cylinder pressure; exhaust emissions; multivariate regression method.
Automated char classification using image analysis and artificial intelligence
by Alpana ., Satish Chand, Subrajeet Mohapatra, Vivek Mishra
Abstract: Coal is one of the most available resource of energy worldwide, and is used vigorously. Char particles are formed by devolatising of coal during combustion of it and signify the foremost step in the ignition method. Char particles are categorised into two reactive phases based on their morphologies by experts, namely reactive and non-reactive. These are taken into consideration to estimate the impact of coal on the burners performance. Presently, the semi-automatic method is followed by industries to determine the classification of char groups. This conventional method is time-consuming and subjective. Char characterisation may be executed automatically with advantages like fast processing and consistency. In this article, we attempt to suggest an automated scheme for classification of char into its reactive and non-reactive groups using image analysis and artificial intelligence methods. Subsequently, the proposed system is recognised to be an efficient technique for characterisation of char with more accurate results in reduced computational time. [Received: 20 December 2019; Accepted: 26 April 2020]
Keywords: coal; char; image analysis; artificial intelligence; deep learning.
A new algorithm to improve energy efficient of coal-fired thermal power plant by determining optimum excavation parameters in opencast lignite
by Ali Can Ozdemir, Ahmet Dag
Abstract: An essential problem in the production of lignite is the produced lignite fail to meets the working conditions of the coal-fired thermal power plant. This leads both an increase in the unit energy cost and a decrease in energy efficiency. This study was aimed that these problems would be eliminated by determining the optimum excavation parameters which minimised the standard deviation value of the calorific value. Therefore, computer software was developed for the lignite mines having low calorific value and working with the bucket wheel excavator. This software was applied to Kislakoy lignite mine and it was observed that a total of 576 alternatives were evaluated and the optimum excavation alternative was determined. Also, the variance reduction ratio calculated with the input and output variance is 0.14. These results indicated that this software is a solution to problems in the coal-fired thermal power plant and the importance of using it.
Keywords: thermal power plant; opencast lignite mine; excavation parameter; optimisation; energy efficiency.
Growth Kinetics of Coliform Bacteria Isolated from Food
by Gizem Özlük Cilak, Hilal Selamoglu Ata, Kadir Halkman
Abstract: It was aimed to obtain the growth kinetic parameters of food related coliform bacteria so that the industry can take action against not only to well-known Escherichia coli but also all. Isolates of Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were obtained from food samples and pure cultures were inoculated to 3 different media (Tryptic Soy Broth, Lauryl Sulphate Tryptose Broth and Lactose Broth) and incubated at 2 different temperatures (28
Keywords: coliform; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella pneumonia; Citrobacter freundii; Enterobacter aerogenes; Enterobacter cloacae; kinetic factors; specific growth rate; generation timernrn.
Special Issue on: Industrial Internet of Things for Oil, Gas and Coal Technology
Research on the Preparation of Coal Water Slurry with High Chloride and Concentrated Brine
by Chang-Ji Wang, Han-Xu Li
Abstract: In this paper, we focused on the simulation of high-salinity waste water to determine the effects of Cl- on the performance of coal water slurry.We found a feasible method for brine pulping and acquired an effective way to use the acquired brine. In this paper, NaCl and anhydrous CaCl2 were mixed with deionized water and used to configure the brine. The effects of the simulated brine with a different concentration on the slurry properties of the sample were investigated. The feasibility of the preparation of the coal water slurry for coal gasification with high-concentration brine was demonstrated by comparing the data with the actual high concentration brine. The experiment showed that highly concentrated salt water was used to replace the pulping water; the slurry concentration, the viscosity, the melting characteristic, and the stability, and the industrial pulping requirements were achieved. This technology had an increasing application and popularization.
Keywords: high-salinity waste water; slurrying.
Evaluation of tight sandstone reservoir in Es4 member of Yi176, Bonan Oilfield, China
by Meiling Jiang, Yunfeng Zhang, Yang Liu
Abstract: The Yi-176 block is located in the Yi-176 Boshen-4 fault step zone of the Bonan oilfield in the south of the Bonan sag. The Es4 member is considered as the target interval for this study. This interval was subjected to strong late diagenetic transformation, leading to irregular development of reservoir pore throats, hence, a strong reservoir heterogeneity. Therefore, a systematic study of reservoir microscopic characteristics is carried out, through core observation, casting thin slices, scanning electron microscope and high-pressure mercury intrusion in order to study the structure and type of conventional pores and nano-micrometer pores in the member and to determine the petrological and structural characteristics of the reservoir in the study area. Specifically, the characteristics and configuration relationship of reservoir pore throat are studied to determine the pore types, throat types, and fracture types. Consequently, sedimentation and diagenesis are identified as the main controlling factors of the reservoir quality. Moreover, using mercury intrusion test parameters, the reservoir types in the study area are divided into four categories through cluster analysis, followed by prediction of the planar distribution of different types of reservoirs. The results show that the development of Type I reservoirs is relatively mature, while, is Type II and Type III reservoirs are considered as the main exploration and development direction in the future.
Keywords: reservoir heterogeneity; reservoir microstructure; main controlling factors; reservoir types; the planar distribution.
Theoretical and experimental study on identification of the soft interlayer in coal mine roadway roof
by Guangdong Yu, Guoying Meng, Xuewen Feng, Binglin Song, Shuaishuai Shang, Yuhang He
Abstract: To identify the weak interlayer in roofs during the coal mine roadways support process and prevent roof-related accidents, this study proposes a soft interlayer roof detection system for mine roadways while drilling, whose drilling parameters can be detected using a pneumatic bolt machine, sensor, and controller. The torque and speed of the pneumatic motor and the pressure and speed of the leg cylinder were used to detect the soft interlayer in the roadway roof. The calculation formula of the drilling parameters of the roof rock was derived and the effectiveness of the system is verified by finite element simulation.A test system for the roof rock formation identification system was developed and the identification test data were compared with the rock uniaxial compressive strength test data. The proposed system has three advantages: the roof rock layer interface (weak interlayer) can be identified; owing to the installation of the pneumatic electric proportional valve and controller, unmanned operations can be performed by the functions present in the computer control system; and by testing the drilling parameters of the pneumatic bolt rig system, the strength and position of each rock layer of the roof can be calculated.
Keywords: roof rock stratum; pneumatic; MSE of rock fragmentation; weak interlayer.
Technical research and Engineering demonstration of "Coal to Electricity" in villages and towns in China
by Qian Miao, Dong Qing You
Abstract: The environmental pollution has become increasingly serious, since energy consumption, especially coal and other fossil energy increase dramatically in China. It is an urgent task for our country to deepen air pollution control, and construct an overall economic, safe and clean energy supply system. The electricity heating, compared with traditional coal-fired heating, has benefits, including high thermal efficiency, high degree of automation, safety and reliability, and flexible operation modes. Furthermore, electricity heating is zero emission, which doesnt produce dust, waste residue, exhaust gas or any other pollutant, as a significant means to solve the haze. China is strongly advocating and promoting the electricity heating (transform heating from coal to electricity) project in order to give full play to electric energys convenient, safe, clean, efficient and other advantages. Provided that an electricity heating project is combined with the utilization of wind curtailment and other resources during off peak hours at night, it can improve the absorptive proportion of clean energy, reduce effectively the load difference between peak and valley of power grid, increase the utilization efficiency of power generating equipment, and cut the cost, etc. The paper introduces State Grids first centralized demonstration project of coalto-electricity, and expounds in detail the project implementation program, operation effect, necessary supporting policy mechanism for future projects. The paper aims to guide the whole society to raise awareness of environmental protection, change consumption concept of energy, and provide a reference for air pollutions prevention and control in our country based on the successful experience of demonstration project.
Keywords: electricity heating; absorption of wind curtailment; electric boiler; energy storage technology; large consumer’s direct trading.
Application of stability analysis in surrounding rock control and support model of deep roadway
by Jianfeng Cui, Weijun Wang, Chao Yuan
Abstract: At present, there are more than 30 state-owned key coal mines with a mining depth of 1000 m, and the maximum mining depth is close to 1500 m, which is increasing at the rate of 8-12 m depth extension every year. In order to realize the sustainable development of the coal industry, the deep mining has become an important issue that the coal industry must solve. Before the exploitation of underground coal resources, the coal and rock mass are in the original stress state. After the mining activities, the original stress balance state of the coal and rock mass is destroyed, resulting in stress concentration, stress transfer and other stress changes, forming mining stress field around the mining space. It is the change of stress in the coal and rock mass that causes the deformation of surrounding rock, the movement of rock strata and the instability of rock strata structure, which leads to the occurrence of various disasters. The rock mass of deep roadway is in the state of original rock stress. After mining, the original stress equilibrium state of coal and rock mass is destroyed, and stress concentration, stress transfer and other stress changes are produced. Therefore, the mining stress field is formed around the mining space. The change of stress in coal and rock mass causes the deformation of surrounding rock, the movement of rock and the instability of rock structure, which leads to the occurrence of various disasters. Therefore, in-situ stress and mining stress are the basic driving forces of coal mining strata disaster. In this paper, the distribution characteristics, laws and influencing factors of in-situ stress field in deep coal mines are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the distribution range, peak value and spatial position of the advance bearing pressure in the working face are analyzed. According to the characteristics of high in-situ stress and strong influence of mining in deep roadway, this paper introduces the support method, reinforcement method and stress control method suitable for deep roadway. The stability test results show that the model of surrounding rock control and support proposed in this paper can reduce the instability of rock structure, which has a certain reference value for the stability study of deep roadway.
Keywords: Deep roadway; original rock stress; stress concentration; stress transfer; stability.