Title: An analysis of the commercial waste characterisation in a tourism city in Vietnam

Authors: Song Toan Pham Phu; Fujiwara Takeshi; Hoang Minh Giang; Pham Van Dinh

Addresses: Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Kita, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan; The University of Danang, University of Technology and Education, 48 Cao Thang Road, Thanh Binh Ward, Hai Chau District, Danang City, 50209, Vietnam ' Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Kita, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan ' Department of Environmental Engineering, National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Vietnam ' Graduate School of Environmental and Life Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima, Kita, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan; Department of Environmental Engineering, National University of Civil Engineering, 55 Giai Phong Road, Hai Ba Trung, Ha Noi, Vietnam

Abstract: This study provided a detailed description of the waste generation, composition, and characterisation of the commercial activities in a tourism city in Vietnam. Whereby, solid waste from 55 restaurants, 110 shops, 27 handcraft facilities and five markets were collected and classified into 17 categories. Then, physical and chemical characterisations of waste were analysed. The results showed that the commercial waste accounted for 35.1% of municipal waste, in which restaurants were the most significant waste source by 74.5%. The composition of commercial waste was 66.8% for biodegradable waste, 20.1% for recycling materials, 11.3% for combustible waste, and 1.8% for the others. Also, the high moisture content and density, and the low heating value were the characteristics of the commercial waste in a tourism city in Vietnam. Solutions of waste minimisation and improvement of waste quality for incineration were suggested toward the sustainable solid waste management practice.

Keywords: characterisation of solid waste; commercial waste; Hoi An City; market waste; restaurant waste; shop waste; solid waste composition; solid waste generation; tourism city; Vietnam.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEWM.2019.099015

International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 2019 Vol.23 No.3, pp.319 - 335

Available online: 12 Mar 2019 *

Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article