Title: Economic, environmental and congestion impact on the life-cycle cost of ownership: a case study in the Delhi transit bus system

Authors: Rajeev Goswami; Gireesh Chandra Tripathi

Addresses: NTPC School of Business, Plot No. 5-14, Sector 16-A, Noida-201301, India ' NTPC School of Business, Plot No. 5-14, Sector 16-A, Noida-201301, India

Abstract: Fast urbanisation and motorisation growth have resulted in degraded air quality and increased burden on most of the cities, globally. Cities utilise two-thirds of the global energy and account for about 70% of GHG emissions. Therefore, it is important to consider electric buses as an eco-friendly alternative to the conventional buses. To study financial and environmental impacts on the life cycle cost of ownership of conventional and electric buses, we have established the total cost of ownership (TCO) model by considering direct cost (acquisition and operation: owned by the fleet owner) and indirect cost (environmental damage and congestion: owned by the society). This study showed that EV's TCO would be economical, giving 30-40% advantage on fuel and maintenance. Further, EVs powered with renewable energy mix could prove to be a positive multiplier for socio-economic and environmental gain.

Keywords: urban transport; sustainability; electric bus; environment; government policy; congestion cost; noise pollution.

DOI: 10.1504/IJEHV.2019.098719

International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, 2019 Vol.11 No.1, pp.59 - 72

Received: 13 Sep 2018
Accepted: 30 Sep 2018

Published online: 25 Mar 2019 *

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