Authors: Simplice A. Asongu; Ivo J. Leke
Addresses: Graduate School of Business, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa ' College of Education, University of Saskatchewan, 28 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X1, Canada
Abstract: The study assesses how external flows influence inclusive human development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The findings reveal that remittances and FDI increase inclusive development whereas foreign aid has the opposite effect. There are three other strands of findings. First, remittances are negatively associated with: 1) middle income countries compared to low income countries where the effect is not significant; 2) French civil law countries compared to English common law countries where the effect is positive; 3) resource-rich countries compared to their resource-poor counterparts where the effect is positive. Second, foreign aid is more negatively linked to low income, French civil law, Islam-dominated, un-landlocked, resource-rich and politically-unstable countries. Third, FDI is positively associated with: 1) low income, French civil law and landlocked countries compared to respectively middle income, English common law and un-landlocked countries where the effect is insignificant; 2) politically-stable countries compared to their politically-unstable counterparts where the effect is negative.
Keywords: foreign investment; remittances; foreign aid; inclusive development; Africa.
International Journal of Happiness and Development, 2019 Vol.5 No.1, pp.33 - 56
Received: 28 Jul 2017
Accepted: 04 Jan 2018
Published online: 22 Feb 2019 *