Title: Intellectual capital assets and brand value of English football clubs

Authors: João Leitão; João Baptista

Addresses: Department of Management and Economics, NECE – Research Centre in Business Sciences, University of Beira Interior, Estrada do Sineiro, 6200 209 Covilhã, Portugal; CEG-IST, Instituto Superior Técnico, C-MAST, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Instituto Multidisciplinar de Empresa, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain; C-MAST, University of Beira Interior, Portugal ' Department of Management and Economics, University of Beira Interior, Estrada do Sineiro, 6200 209 Covilhã, Portugal

Abstract: This article makes an attempt to assess to what extent the use of intellectual capital assets by football clubs provides added brand value. To accomplish this, a set of selected indicators concerning the distinct dimensions of intellectual capital is analysed, in order to assess its ability to generate added brand value. The data originally collected by Deloitte are based on a sample of 35 English football clubs, which participated in the English Premier League, in the 1992-2010 period. A panel data approach is adopted, using both static and dynamic model specifications. The empirical evidence reveals that intellectual capital associated with football clubs, when properly managed, is a critical set of assets that generate added brand value; the final position reached in the national league, salaries of human resources and football clubs' gross profit have a positive effect on brand value; whereas long-term debt influences football clubs' brand value negatively.

Keywords: brand value; football; intellectual capital; human capital; organisational or structural capital; relational capital.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2019.097002

International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2019 Vol.19 No.1/2, pp.8 - 34

Received: 19 Oct 2017
Accepted: 12 Feb 2018

Published online: 14 Dec 2018 *

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