Authors: Koffka Khan; Wayne Goodridge
Addresses: Department of Computing and Information Technology, The University of the West Indies, W.I., Trinidad and Tobago ' Department of Computing and Information Technology, The University of the West Indies, W.I., Trinidad and Tobago
Abstract: Multiple video players competing at a bottleneck link give rise to overlapping ON-OFF traffic patterns. These patterns may introduce the problem of overlapping oscillatory effects amongst players resulting in poor video quality, frequent flickering and video freezes. We propose a distributed heuristic hybrid-based approach called B-DASH to address this problem. B-DASH implements two mechanisms: 1) message exchange; 2) adaptation. During message exchange, a broadcast mechanism is used to send information to neighbouring players. Based on the information present in this exchange, players can adapt to different network conditions. In this adaptation approach, B-DASH players with the higher estimated bandwidth are forced to reduce their bitrate request, while players with the lowest estimated bandwidth increase their bitrate request. This action reduces the oscillatory effects of the ON-OFF traffic patterns. Adaptive video streaming players using the B-DASH approach are compared to other players using conventional, PANDA and ELASTIC approaches. Experimental evaluation of B-DASH indicates good quality of experience (QoE) characteristics for players. Possible trade-offs for players using the B-DASH approach is investigated under various network conditions. The results show improvements of up to 5% bandwidth utilisation, 79% fairness, 27% re-buffering ratios, 57% stability and 9% quality.
Keywords: ON-OFF traffic; oscillatory; quality; B-DASH; flickering; freezes; distributed; heuristic; bitrate requests; quality of experience; QoE; fairness; stability.
International Journal of Autonomous and Adaptive Communications Systems, 2019 Vol.12 No.1, pp.50 - 74
Received: 21 Jul 2017
Accepted: 22 Feb 2018
Published online: 30 Oct 2018 *