Title: Earthquake and resultant apocalypse of Shimla city

Authors: Harkanchan Singh; Pradeep Singh Siwach

Addresses: Department of Management, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 303007, India ' School of Vocational Programmes, JECRC University, Ramchandrapura, Sitapura Extension, Jaipur, Rajasthan, 303905, India

Abstract: Vulnerability of cities largely depends upon rising population, its unchecked constructional growth and failure in lifeline infrastructure. Shimla city lying in the lapse of Western Himalayas was founded by the British in the early 19th century. The region is seismically active and lies in Zone IV of India with modified Mercalli (MM) intensity scale of VIII and peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 4.0 metres per second squared. The objective of this conceptual and empirical research paper is to evaluate Shimla city's earthquake vulnerability with regard to past and present scenario of infrastructures within it, supported by local residents' perspective. This study sought out the awareness of seismicity among the residents of Shimla, their opinion and knowledge, related to earthquake resistant houses, lifeline structures, earthquake measures and trust in city authorities. The comparison between primary data and available secondary data is indicative of the high seismic vulnerability levels and concludes with suggestions, for both authorities and residents of Shimla city.

Keywords: vulnerability; earthquake; Himalayas; Shimla.

DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2018.095791

International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 2018 Vol.21 No.4, pp.332 - 358

Accepted: 07 Feb 2018
Published online: 22 Oct 2018 *

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