Title: Inclusion in entrepreneurship, especially of women, youth and unemployed: status and an agenda for research in Middle East and North Africa

Authors: Ayman Ismail; Ahmed Tolba; Seham Ghalwash; Ayman Alkhatib; Emine Esra Karadeniz; Khalid El Ouazzani; Fatima Boutaleb; Lotfi Belkacem; Thomas Schøtt

Addresses: School of Business, American University in Cairo, AUC Avenue, P.O. Box 74, New Cairo 11835, Egypt ' School of Business, American University in Cairo, AUC Avenue, P.O. Box 74, New Cairo 11835, Egypt ' School of Business, American University in Cairo, AUC Avenue, P.O. Box 74, New Cairo 11835, Egypt ' Jordan Enterprise Development Corporation, SME Observatory, P.O. Box 7704 Amman, 11118, Jordan ' Department of Economics, University of Yeditepe, Istanbul, Turkey ' Faculty of Law, Economic and Social Sciences, University of Hassan II Casablanca, Km 8 El Jadida Road Oasis, Casablanca, Morocco ' Faculty of Law, Economic and Social Sciences, University of Hassan II Casablanca, Km 8 El Jadida Road Oasis, Casablanca, Morocco ' LaREMFiQ, IHEC, University of Sousse, B.P. 40 Sahloul III, 4054 Sousse, Tunisia ' Department of Entrepreneurship and Relationship Management, University of Southern Denmark, Universitetsparken 1, 6000 Kolding, Denmark

Abstract: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) has a desire to include more people in entrepreneurship, especially women, youth, and unemployed. The question here is, how are gender, age, and occupation affecting entry, including entry pulled by opportunity and pushed by necessity? The study analyses a large representative sample of adults around MENA, surveyed by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Analyses show in detail how occupations depend on gender and age, and show the potential for turning intention into upstarts, especially in disadvantaged segments. Policies for entrepreneurship in MENA may utilise some of the findings. Notably, the study shows that inclusion of women, youth, and unemployed may be potentially be considerably enhanced through policies. These disadvantaged segments frequently intend to become entrepreneurs, but they tend not to enact their vocational intents.

Keywords: inclusion; women; youth; unemployed; intention; upstart.

DOI: 10.1504/WREMSD.2018.10014599

World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 2018 Vol.14 No.4, pp.528 - 547

Received: 25 Aug 2017
Accepted: 12 Sep 2017

Published online: 30 Jul 2018 *

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