Title: Determinants of SME brand adaptation in global marketing

Authors: Ho Yin Wong, Bill Merrilees

Addresses: School of Marketing and Tourism, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland 4702, Australia. ' Department of Marketing, Griffith Business School, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, PMB 50 Gold Coast Mail Centre, Queensland 9726, Australia

Abstract: Previous studies have focused on the degree of standardisation or adaptation and, to a lesser extent, on the determinants of adaptation. This paper advances the literature in four respects. Firstly, we are able to evaluate the relative importance of internal (commitment, experience) versus external (culture, economic) determinants of adaptation. Secondly, we have examined several firm size categories, so we can evaluate how the relative roles of internal and external factors vary by firm size. Thirdly, rather than treat adaptation as one of adjusting one or more of the four Ps, we use a more holistic concept of adaptation, namely brand adaptation, which subsumes marketing mix adaptation. A scale has been developed to capture this holistic concept. Fourthly, we have developed a new culture scale, one based on the perceptions of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprise (SME) businesses, using domestic operations as a benchmark.

Keywords: international marketing; global branding; culture; brand adaptation; small and medium-sized enterprises; SMEs; firm size; marketing mix; small business; standardisation; brand repositioning; cultural differences.

DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2006.009288

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 2006 Vol.3 No.3/4, pp.477 - 497

Published online: 15 Mar 2006 *

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