Title: Surfing safe waves: integration of water quality modelling in the evaluation of potential health risks

Authors: Rita Marteleira; Pedro Bicudo; António Guerreiro De Brito; Pedro Santos Coelho

Addresses: IN+ Centre for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research, Technical Institute of Lisbon, University of Lisbon, Taguspark Campus, Av. Prof. Dr. Cavaco Silva, 2744-016 Porto Salvo, Lisbon, Portugal ' Physics Department, Technical Institute of Lisbon, University of Lisbon, Campus Alameda, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal ' Department of Bio-Systems Sciences and Engineering, School of Agronomy, University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon, Portugal ' Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal

Abstract: Surfing is becoming an important asset for local development, despite engaging water quality concerns is often limited to bathing season - thus, a tool for decision support is required to yearly forecast the water quality, in order to minimise health risks and support water management decisions. The QUAL2E model was used on a watershed, in Peniche, a coastal city in Portugal. This study area was chosen due to complaints related to the water quality by the local surfing community. Results returned a total coliform concentration of 1,500 MPN/100 mL, with pig farming effluents being the major contamination source. These results constitute evidence that surfing here may represent a health risk - as winter months are more favourable to wave sports. Therefore, it would be of the uttermost importance to improve monitoring and mitigate the potential health risk. This should include a more profound analysis of the contribution of diffuse sources and to extend the current bathing season monitoring scheme during winter times.

Keywords: recreational waters; health hazards; simulation models; decision support systems; surfing; water quality.

DOI: 10.1504/IJHST.2018.090892

International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology, 2018 Vol.8 No.2, pp.105 - 119

Received: 24 Dec 2016
Accepted: 01 Feb 2017

Published online: 03 Apr 2018 *

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