Title: The relationship between energy consumption, trade, GDP (economic growth), population growth and carbon emissions: a recent evidence from South Africa

Authors: Fortune Ganda

Addresses: Faculty of Management and Law, Turfloop Graduate School of Leadership, University of Limpopo, P.O. Box 756, Fauna Park 0787, South Africa

Abstract: This article examines the long-run as well as causal relationship between energy consumption, trade, GDP (economic growth), population growth and carbon emissions in South Africa over a 39-year period (1975 to 2013). Unit root tests procedures determined that the series was stationary and the Johansen co-integration tests proved that they were co-integrated. The VEC model indicated the existence of four forms of long-run relationships in which all variables determined carbon emissions, energy consumption, GDP (economic growth) and trade, respectively within the South African scenario, with the exception of population growth. Granger-causality tests showed that trade and energy consumption develop bidirectional relationships with carbon emissions while GDP (economic growth) and population growth form unidirectional relationships with such emissions. Furthermore, impulse-response analysis showed that carbon emissions' response to both GDP (economic growth) and population growth is insignificant while that to both trade and energy consumption is significant and indicated a constant trend within the considered 30-year period horizon.

Keywords: carbon emissions; energy consumption; trade; GDP (economic growth); population growth; South Africa.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSE.2018.090716

International Journal of Sustainable Economy, 2018 Vol.10 No.2, pp.99 - 122

Received: 24 Dec 2016
Accepted: 14 May 2017

Published online: 13 Dec 2017 *

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