Authors: Federica Marcolin
Addresses: Department of Management and Production Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Abstract: As the interest in human face grows, facial landmarks become more and more important for a large variety of fields and applications. Multipurpose medical is evidently leading in this sense, but others such as skull study for crime scenes, sex estimation, and attractiveness quantification, morphological and cephalometric analyses are present. A cluster analysis of the examined papers is performed depending on scope, landmarking method, and facial database features. The purpose is to face these topics by providing the reader with a comprehensive view of what 3D facial landmarks are and what "they have been up to" in 2014 and 2015. The aim is to offer to users the very up-to-date scenario, the best outcomes, i.e., the latest frontier of landmarks' talents and skills. The third dimension allowed to select the most prominent contributions, especially in terms of scientific advance innovativeness.
Keywords: Landmarks; soft-tissue landmark; hard-tissue landmark; fiducial point; 3D face; cluster analysis.
International Journal of Biometrics, 2017 Vol.9 No.4, pp.279 - 304
Received: 29 Jan 2017
Accepted: 05 Jul 2017
Published online: 30 Nov 2017 *