Title: Tip of the iceberg in white-collar crime convictions: lack of detection or lack of prosecution

Authors: Petter Gottschalk; Lars Gunnesdal

Addresses: Department of Leadership and Organizational Behavior, BI Norwegian Business School, Nydalsveien 37, 0484 Oslo, Norway ' Manifest Center for Social Analysis, Kolstadgata 1, 0652 Oslo, Norway

Abstract: Based on the research method of expert elicitation, the tip of the iceberg in white-collar crime in Norway is estimated at 10%. We know that the magnitude of convicted white-collar crime is 696 million Norwegian kroner (approximately $87 million). Given that these convicts only represent 10% of the estimated offender population, the total magnitude of white-collar crime in Norway is 6.96 billion Norwegian kroner (approximately $870 million). With a population of 5 million inhabitants as compared to the USA with 321 million inhabitants, the equivalent of $870 million detected in Norway would be $56 billion in the USA. Lack of detection is the main reason for the size of the iceberg under the water, followed by lack of investigation, lack of prosecution, and lack of conviction.

Keywords: white-collar crime; expert elicitation; dark figures; Norway; detection; prosecution; investigation.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBCRM.2017.086068

International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management, 2017 Vol.7 No.2, pp.113 - 126

Received: 15 Dec 2016
Accepted: 03 Feb 2017

Published online: 17 Aug 2017 *

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