Title: Endocrine disrupting compounds in water and wastewater and their treatment options - a review
Authors: C. Nirmala Rani; S. Karthikeyan
Addresses: Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai-600025, India ' Centre for Environmental Studies, Anna University, Chennai-600025, India
Abstract: Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) constitute an important class of emerging environmental contaminants which pose an increasing threat to aquatic organisms as well as to human health. The present study is an overview of literature on 'endocrine disruptors' and their treatability in water and wastewater by various treatment processes and their combinations. This review also includes the discussion on the sources and occurrence of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are among the most suspected EDCs that interfere with the hormonal systems of humans and wild life. Different remediation techniques such as biological processes, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), adsorption, membrane processes and combined methods were evaluated and compared. Though ozonation, Fenton/photo-Fenton and semiconductor photocatalysis were the most tested methodologies, photocatalysis with titanium oxide (TiO2) had been widely used due to its greater potential for complete degradation and mineralisation. Integrated processes that combine any two of the above mentioned processes seem to be the best solution for the treatment of effluents containing EDCs especially those using renewable energy and by products materials.
Keywords: endocrine disrupting compounds; EDCs; persistent organic pollutants; POPs; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; PAHs; polychlorinated biphenyl; PCBs; photocatalysis; membrane processes.
International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 2016 Vol.19 No.5/6, pp.392 - 431
Accepted: 12 Jan 2017
Published online: 12 Apr 2017 *