Open Access Article

Title: Future directions in risk science

Authors: Margit Westphal; Gregory M. Paoli; Melvin E. Andersen; Mustafa Al-Zoughool; Maxine C. Croteau; Daniel Krewski

Addresses: McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Suite 123, 850 Peter Morand Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1G 3Z7, Canada ' Risk Sciences International, 55 Metcalfe Street, Suite 700, Ottawa, ON K1P 6L5, Canada ' ScitoVation, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA ' Department of Community and Environmental Health, College of Public Health and Health Informatics, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ' McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Suite 123, 850 Peter Morand Crescent, Ottawa, ON, K1G 3Z7, Canada ' McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, 850 Peter Morand, Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3Z7, Canada; Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, 451 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8M5, Canada; Risk Sciences International, 55 Metcalfe Street, Suite 700, Ottawa, ON K1P 6L5, Canada

Abstract: The NexGen framework published in Environmental Health Perspectives integrates three different views on the future of chemical risk assessment. The NexGen framework emulates a fundamental change towards in chemical testing for toxicity, as outlined 2007 NRC report, Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy. This framework integrates population health approaches with chemical risk assessment methods, by integrating determinants of health into the risk assessment process. Additional perspective comes from the recommendations of the 2009 NRC report, Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment. The report also calls for changes within the risk assessment process, including the enhanced role of problem formulation, the unification of non-cancer and cancer methods for deriving dose-response relationships, and cumulative risk assessment. The integration of these three driving concepts is discussed in this review expanding the strengths of these three frameworks and what they brought to the NexGen framework for risk science.

Keywords: NexGen; risk science; chemical risk assessment; risk management; risk characterisation toxicity pathway; systems biology; environmental agents; population health; toxicity testing; safe chemicals; chemical safety assessment; problem formulation; dose-response relationships.

DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2017.082567

International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 2017 Vol.20 No.1/2/3, pp.240 - 260

Available online: 27 Feb 2017 *