Title: Hydraulic fracturing process by using a modified two-dimensional particle flow code - case study
Authors: Luqing Zhang; Jian Zhou; Zhenhua Han
Addresses: Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China ' Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China ' Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China; College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract: By using a modified PFC2D model, the authors conducted a series of simulations to examine the influences of in-situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, anisotropy of laminated rocks, and perforation parameters on hydraulic fracturing process. The simulations indicated that: 1) larger in-situ stress ratio will induce smaller breakdown pressures and faster propagation, and hydraulic fractures will extend along the direction of the maximum principal stress or approach to this preferred path; 2) smaller difference of in-situ stresses or faster fluid injection rate is helpful for creation of complex fracture network; 3) weak layers are preferred locations and directions for fracture initiation and propagation in the laminated rocks; 4) hydraulic fractures initiate easily at the bottoms of perforation channels, and propagate generally along or approaching to the direction of maximum principal stress.
Keywords: particle flow code; modified PFC; 2D PFC; isotropic medium; laminated rocks; in-situ stress ratio; fluid injection rate; dip angle; bedding planes; hydraulic fracturing; fracking; case study; simulation; perforation parameters; breakdown pressures; fluid injection rate; fracture initiation; fracture propagation; hydraulic fractures; perforation channels; maximum principal stress.
Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, An International Journal, 2017 Vol.17 No.1, pp.13 - 26
Published online: 23 Jan 2017 *