Title: Scaling relationship of patent counts vs. population size: regional and population subgroup analysis of 50 states in the USA

Authors: Yu Sang Chang; Yoo-Taek Lee; Jong-Hyun Yi

Addresses: Department of Management, Gachon Center of Convergence Research, KDI School of Public Policy and Management, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701, Korea ' Operations and Technology Management Department, Susilo Institute for Ethics in the Global Economy, Boston University, Questrom School of Business, 595 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215, USA ' College of Business, Gachon University, 1342 Seongnamdaero, Sujeong-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 461-701, Korea

Abstract: The scaling relationship between the number of patents granted and the population size of individual states in the USA between 1992 and 2010 was examined. An increasing return to scale or superlinear relationship for the total sample of 50 states was found. It was also discovered that this relationship was relativity stable during the time period. When the relationship was examined by the subgroups of more populous vs. less populous states, it was found that the subgroup of more populous states showed a more pronounced superlinear relation. On the other hand, the subgroup of less populous states displayed a sublinear relation. When the relationship was analysed among the four regions, the West showed a superlinear, while the other three regions displayed sublinear relations. Next to population size, income per capita and population density often positively influenced the outcome of patent counts. Implications from these findings will be presented.

Keywords: patents; patent counts; population size; regional analysis; population analysis; scaling relationship; sublinear relations; superlinear relations; USA; United States; US states; income per capita; population density.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTPM.2016.081657

International Journal of Technology, Policy and Management, 2016 Vol.16 No.4, pp.304 - 325

Received: 30 Jul 2015
Accepted: 13 Mar 2016

Published online: 19 Jan 2017 *

Full-text access for editors Full-text access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article