Title: A framework for understanding the different research avenues of living labs

Authors: Seppo Leminen; Mika Westerlund

Addresses: Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Vanha maantie 9, 02650 Espoo, Finland; Department of Marketing, School of Business, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland ' Sprott School of Business, Carleton University, 305 Saint Patrick's Bldg., 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada

Abstract: This study identifies eight prevailing research avenues of living labs, an increasingly popular innovation approach, based on a comprehensive literature review. So doing, the study contributes to the literature of living labs by discussing perspectives that scholars in the field have taken to understand living labs and by providing an integrative framework to position these perspectives as distinct research avenues. Moreover, the study shows that the identified avenues share the view of living labs as real-life environments and recognise the crucial role of users in innovation.

Keywords: living labs; living laboratories; living labbing; innovation practices; open innovation; research avenues; literature review.

DOI: 10.1504/IJTMKT.2016.079731

International Journal of Technology Marketing, 2016 Vol.11 No.4, pp.399 - 420

Received: 23 Mar 2015
Accepted: 08 Feb 2016

Published online: 07 Oct 2016 *

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