Title: Inhibition of nucleation and crystallisation of kidney stone (calcium oxalate monohydrate) using Ammi Visnaga (khella) plant extract
Authors: E.A. Abdel-Aal; A.M.K. Yassin; M.F. El-Shahat
Addresses: Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo, Egypt ' Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box: 87 Helwan, Cairo, Egypt ' Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Abstract: Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) is the major constituent of kidney stones; it represents about 70% to 80% of all types of human urinary stones. Kidney stone patients are often given aqueous therapy of Ammi Visnaga plant in many Middle and Near Eastern countries. Ammi Visnaga is known in Egypt as (khella). The mode of action of khella as a kidney stone therapy is not well understood. Induction time was determined under different super saturations ranging from 1.63 to 4.51 ratios at 37°C using conductivity method. The results showed that, the induction time decreased exponentially with increasing super saturation ratio whereas the induction time was increased with addition of an aqueous Egyptian khella extract compared to without additive. The surface energy of COM was increased from 7.77 mJ/m2 to 9.14 mJ/m2 without and with extract addition, respectively. The nucleation rates at a super saturation ratio of 2.79 were 3.14 × 1029 nuclei/cm3.s and 1.54 × 1029 nuclei/cm3.s without and with additive, respectively. The number of molecules required for formation of stable nucleus was calculated depending on the super saturation ratios and the presence of khella extract. The crystallite sizes of the formed crystals without and with additive are 93 nm and 25 nm, respectively.
Keywords: super saturation; nucleation; crystal morphology; calcium compounds; crystallisation; kidney stones; calcium oxalate monohydrate; Ammi Visnaga; khella extract; plant extract; human urinary stones; induction time; induction time; aqueous solutions; Egypt; surface energy.
International Journal of Nano and Biomaterials, 2016 Vol.6 No.2, pp.110 - 126
Received: 10 Jan 2016
Accepted: 01 May 2016
Published online: 09 Oct 2016 *