Title: Triple bottom line extended - a bipolar approach of implementation, assessment and reporting of sustainable business models and sustainable business practices

Authors: Göran Svensson; David Eriksson; Carmen Padin

Addresses: Oslo School of Management, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway ' Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden ' Applied Economics, Vigo University of Spain, Vigo, Spain

Abstract: The objective is to describe the applicability and relevance of the consensus formula in the context of the triple bottom line (TBL) approach. A bipolar approach with an empirical example is provided to introduce an extended approach of TBL, namely TBLx2. TBLx2 extends the standard TBL, thus demonstrating a counterview, compatibility and counterview to TBL. The approach provides opportunities for further research beyond contemporary practices and previous studies, shifting the focus from current status towards future direction in the implementation, assessment, reporting of sustainable business models and sustainable business practices. TBLx2 contributes to expanding the current approach of TBL that is mainly unilateral in theory and practice, so as to become bilateral through addressing the other side of the coin - namely, what is not implemented, assessed and reported in company efforts at business sustainability in the marketplace and society as a whole.

Keywords: triple bottom line; TBL; business sustainability; performance; sustainable business models; sustainable business practices; consensus formula.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBEX.2016.078016

International Journal of Business Excellence, 2016 Vol.10 No.2, pp.139 - 151

Available online: 25 Jul 2016 *

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