Title: Substitutes for leadership among the faculty of institutions of higher education and their moderating effects on leadership styles and individual outcomes

Authors: Ghulam Hussain; Wan Khairuzzaman Bin Wan Ismail; Muhammad Amir Rashid; Fareeha Nisar

Addresses: Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan ' International Business School, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ' COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan ' Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal, Pakistan

Abstract: We test (a) the direct effects of leadership styles and substitutes for leadership on followers' outcomes and (b) the moderating effects of substitutes for leadership on the relationship between leadership styles and followers' outcomes. We use a random sampling technique to define a sample of 416 PhD faculty members of institutions of higher education who are on the list of Higher Education Commission (HEC)-approved PhD supervisors. Using structural equation modelling, we find that leadership styles and substitutes for leadership have significant effects on followers' outcomes and that some of the substitutes for leadership also significantly moderate the relationship between leadership styles and followers' outcomes in a manner consistent with the substitutes for leadership proposition. Discussion, implications, and limitations of the study are offered.

Keywords: higher education; leadership styles; leadership substitutes; higher education; individual outcomes; PhD supervisors; structural equation modelling; SEM.

DOI: 10.1504/IJMIE.2016.077507

International Journal of Management in Education, 2016 Vol.10 No.3, pp.250 - 277

Received: 23 Sep 2014
Accepted: 28 Sep 2015

Published online: 04 Jul 2016 *

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