Title: The challenge of quantifying and modelling risk elements within collaborative infrastructures

Authors: Kirsty E. Lever; Kashif Kifayat

Addresses: PROTECT: Research Centre for Critical Infrastructure Computer Technology and Protection, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK ' PROTECT: Research Centre for Critical Infrastructure Computer Technology and Protection, School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK

Abstract: The rapid integration and dependence upon information and communication technologies (ICT) within varying industries, has augmented cyber interdependencies along with increasing other elements of risk such as complexity, cascading failure and single points of failure within collaborative infrastructures. Current solutions are inadequate, and incapable of adapting to the scale and complexity of these infrastructures. Furthermore, they are extremely rigid, focusing upon a specific risk, attack, vulnerability, and are industry specific. As a result, systems-of-systems (SoS) are failing directly owing to these significant risk elements. Our research demonstrates that while ICT has evolved quickly, solutions that attempt to identify issues and model large complex networks have failed to evolve at the same pace. In this paper we summarise the challenges and vulnerabilities which impact collaboration, and review significant risk elements which impede SoS, including existing solutions and methods which attempt to quantify risk. In addition, we outline our current and future work.

Keywords: collaborative infrastructures; system of systems; SoS; risk elements; cyber interdependency; cascading failure; complexity; single points of failure; SPoF; risk modelling; risk assessment; complex networks; information and communications technology; ICT; information technology; vulnerabilities; collaboration.

DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2016.077376

International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 2016 Vol.19 No.3, pp.167 - 193

Received: 07 Oct 2014
Accepted: 28 Jul 2015

Published online: 26 Jun 2016 *

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