Title: Identification of diagnostic biomarkers for early detection of anthrax from human aortic endothelial cells

Authors: Hae Eun Joe; Young Kee Shin; Joon-Seok Choi; Sang Gyu Park; Tae Jin Kang; Jee Cheon Kim

Addresses: Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, South Korea ' Laboratory of Molecular Pathology, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, 1Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 08826, South Korea ' College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk, 38430, South Korea ' College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, 16499, South Korea ' College of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, 815, Hwarang-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 01795, South Korea ' Agency for Defense Development, P.O. Box 35, Yuseong, Deajeon, 31486, South Korea

Abstract: Bacillus anthracis, an endospore-forming, gram-positive bacterium, causes anthrax in livestock and humans. Anthrax spores are one of the most threatening biological weapons and were used in the 2001 anthrax attacks in the USA. However, tools for early diagnosis and prediction of prognosis of anthrax patients did not exist until now. Here, our research focused on identifying biomarkers secreted from human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) that could be applied to monitor anthrax patients. Biomarker candidates were identified by analysing the secretomes of HAECs after treating anthrax toxins by nano-liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). We identified three secreted biomarker candidates: lactotransferrin (LTF), pregnancy zone protein (PZP), and sarcolemmal membrane-associated protein (SLMAP); these were also confirmed by immunoblot analysis. The results suggested that these novel biomarkers from anthrax toxin-treated HAECs could be utilised as diagnostic biomarkers of anthraxin future serological testing.

Keywords: Bacillus anthracis; anthrax toxins; human aorta; aortic endothelial cells; HAECs; secretome; diagnostic biomarkers; early detection; biological weapons; lactotransferrin; LTF; pregnancy zone protein; PZP; sarcolemmal membrane-associated protein; SLMAP; serological testing.

DOI: 10.1504/IJNT.2016.077091

International Journal of Nanotechnology, 2016 Vol.13 No.4/5/6, pp.413 - 425

Published online: 19 Jun 2016 *

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