Title: Examining the corporate social responsibility orientation in developing countries: an empirical investigation of the Carroll's CSR pyramid

Authors: Ike C. Ehie

Addresses: Management Department, Kansas State University, 1A Calvin Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA

Abstract: We investigate the seminal Carroll's corporate social responsibility (CSR) hierarchy using a sample from Nigerian companies. Carroll (1991) outlined four major components of CSR in a cumulative framework with economic responsibilities at the base and philanthropic responsibilities at the top of the pyramid with the legal and ethical components in between. The relevance of Carroll's CSR pyramid in the African context has been questioned and the need for an empirical study on the appropriateness of the CSR pyramid in Africa has been called for. This study is in response to this call to empirically test the relevance of the Carroll's CSR pyramid in the sub-Saharan Africa region. The study also tests the proposition that CSR is viewed through the lens of philanthropy in Africa. The findings empirically validate Visser's (2006) proposition that the philanthropic component weighs heavier than both the legal and ethical components of the CSR pyramid. The results provide a basis for the reliance on corporate philanthropy and guide CSR managers in sub-Saharan Africa in understanding the orientation that would lead to a more effective CSR implementation.

Keywords: CSR orientation; CSR pyramid; corporate philanthropy; sub-Saharan Africa; SSA; developing countries; Nigeria; law; ethics.

DOI: 10.1504/IJBGE.2016.076337

International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, 2016 Vol.11 No.1, pp.1 - 20

Accepted: 25 Sep 2015
Published online: 04 May 2016 *

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