Title: Sensors for lightning mitigation at hydraulic fracturing storage facilities

Authors: Sterling S. Rooke; Miroslaw J. Skibniewski

Addresses: X8, Inc., 1121 Annapolis Rd. #214, Odenton, MD 21113, USA ' Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maryland, 1188 G.L. Martin Hall, College Park, MD 20742-3021, USA; Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical and Applied Informatics, ul. Bałtycka 5, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland

Abstract: Lightning is a threat to hydrocarbon storage sites in the hydro fracking industry. Unmitigated fires and explosions will be shown to cause $10 million USD per direct strike in some lightning risk zones. Lightning has stood as an unresolved threat to hydrocarbon storage facilities for over 100 years. Research has shown that 33% of all modern hydrocarbon tank accidents are due to lightning. Others have predicted that cloud-ground lightning strikes should increase by 50% this century. An overlay of the current US National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) risk map and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) shale play map clearly show the lightning threat only increasing with the migration of future shale activities. Lightning is an increasing threat to a critical component of the world's energy security.

Keywords: lightning strikes; sensors; hydrocarbon storage facilities; hydraulic fracturing; hydro fracking industry; risk assessment; disaster mitigation; independent protection layer; IEC 61511; FGS; fires; explosions; shale gas; hydrocarbon tanks; energy security.

DOI: 10.1504/IJFE.2015.075285

International Journal of Forensic Engineering, 2015 Vol.2 No.4, pp.293 - 311

Available online: 09 Mar 2016 *

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