Title: The effects of livestock methane emission on the global warming: a review

Authors: Abdelmajid Moumen; Ghizlane Azizi; Kaoutar Ben Chekroun; Mourad Baghour

Addresses: Faculté Pluridisciplinaire Nador (FPN), Université Mohamed 1er, Observatoire de la Lagune de Marchica de Nador et Région Limitrophes (OLMAN-RL), B.P: 300, Selouane 62700, Nador, Morocco ' Faculté Pluridisciplinaire Nador (FPN), Université Mohamed 1er, Observatoire de la Lagune de Marchica de Nador et Région Limitrophes (OLMAN-RL), B.P: 300, Selouane 62700, Nador, Morocco ' Faculté Pluridisciplinaire Nador (FPN), Université Mohamed 1er, Observatoire de la Lagune de Marchica de Nador et Région Limitrophes (OLMAN-RL), B.P: 300, Selouane 62700, Nador, Morocco ' Faculté Pluridisciplinaire Nador (FPN), Université Mohamed 1er, Observatoire de la Lagune de Marchica de Nador et Région Limitrophes (OLMAN-RL), B.P: 300, Selouane 62700, Nador, Morocco

Abstract: The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the agricultural sector account for about 25.5% of total global anthropogenic emission. Methane is one of the most important GHGs and it has 21 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Ruminant livestock contributes the major proportion of total agricultural emission of methane. The CH4 produced by ruminants is not only related to environmental problems, but is also associated with energy losses. This article reviews various attempts to reduce methane emission, mainly through improved genetic selection, modification of dietary composition, or through rumen microbial manipulation. Vaccines against methanogenic bacteria or monensin as antimicrobial are widely used in ruminants to improve performance. Increases in the understanding of the environmental impacts of livestock farming and methods of mitigating them are likely to occur and more effective approaches to designing systems of mitigation will be developed.

Keywords: global warming; livestock methane emissions; review; ruminants; agricultural methane sources; greenhouse gases; GHG emissions; methanogenesis; plant extracts; defaunation; ionophore; dietary composition; animal selection; vaccines; bacteriocins; immunisation; mitigation strategies; genetic selection; rumen microbial manipulation; methanogenic bacteria; monensin; environmental impact; livestock farming.

DOI: 10.1504/IJGW.2016.074956

International Journal of Global Warming, 2016 Vol.9 No.2, pp.229 - 253

Available online: 27 Feb 2016

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