Open Access Article

Title: Coastal inundation multi-hazard analysis for a construction site in Malaysia

Authors: Carl B. Harbitz; Gunilla Kaiser; Sylfest Glimsdal; Christian Jaedicke; Athanasios T. Vafeidis; Stephan E. Göthlich; Øyvind Armand Høydal; Finn Løvholt; Farrokh Nadim

Addresses: Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 OSLO, Norway ' Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 OSLO, Norway ' Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 OSLO, Norway ' Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 OSLO, Norway ' Coastal Risks and Sea-Level Rise Research Group, Institute of Geography 'The Future Ocean' Excellence Cluster, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 14, 24098 Kiel, Germany ' Robert Bosch GmbH, Lorenzstraße 7-9, 70435 Stuttgart-Zuffenhausen, Germany ' Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 OSLO, Norway ' Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 OSLO, Norway ' Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, P.O. Box 3930 Ullevål Stadion, N-0806 OSLO, Norway

Abstract: Coastal inundation due to multiple hazards was analysed for a potential manufacturing plant at the Batu Kawan Industrial Park in Penang state, Malaysia. The analysis accounted for river floods, rainfall and flash floods, cyclones, tides, storm surges, sea-level rise, and tsunamis. Earthquakes, volcanoes, and the effects of climate changes were also briefly evaluated. The proposed site elevation of 2.60 m LSD (land survey data level; 30 cm above mean sea level) will probably be reached by both the 100-year flood and the 100-year combined tide and storm surge. The flooding risk is low, but coincidence with storm surge or high tide will aggravate the situation. Sea level rise over the next 100 years is assumed less than 0.55 m. The relative level for the other hazards was found to be lower. A further comparison of the various hazard levels is not meaningful without considering also the consequences (i.e., the risk).

Keywords: multi-hazard analysis; river floods; rainfall; flash floods; cyclones; tides; storm surge; sea-level rise; SLR; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanos; Penang State, Malaysia; coastal inundation; coastal flooding; manufacturing sites; climate change; flooding risk; risk assessment; site selection; photovoltaics manufacturing; high technology; high tech factories; Bosch Solar Energy AG; solar energy; solar power; case study; natural hazards.

DOI: 10.1504/IJRAM.2016.074444

International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management, 2016 Vol.19 No.1/2, pp.142 - 164

Received: 17 Sep 2014
Accepted: 26 May 2015

Published online: 27 Jan 2016 *