Title: Analysis of pesticide residue in fruits and vegetables using analytical protocol based on application of the QuEChERS technique and GC-ECD system
Authors: Jolanta Stocka; Marek Biziuk; Jacek Namieśnik
Addresses: Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza Str. 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland ' Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza Str. 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland ' Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza Str. 11/12, 80-233 Gdansk, Poland
Abstract: The QuEChERS sample preparation method was used for the determination of ten pesticides and their metabolites in fruits (apples, grapes) and vegetables (tomatoes, peppers), coupled to gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The experimental parameters including the amount of the sample, types of solvents, extraction time and types of sorbents at the purification stage were optimised. The GC-ECD method was validated in terms of its linearity, selectivity and recovery. The limits of detection for all investigated analytes ranged from 0.003 to 0.011 mg kg−1 and limits of quantification ranged from 0.009 to 0.03 mg kg−1. The mean recoveries from four matrices for development method ranged from 70 to 120%, with relative standard deviations in the range of 3.9 to 7.2% for all ten test compounds. The method has been demonstrated to be convenient and reliable for routine monitoring of pesticides and their metabolites in fruits and vegetables. The QuEChERS approach takes advantages of the wide analytical scope and high degree of selectivity and sensitivity, It is simple, rapid and requires low solvent consumption, which, in the era of green chemistry, represents a significant advantage. Therefore, this technology is of great interest because of its favourable toxicological, environment and economic aspects.
Keywords: fruit; GC-ECD; metabolites; pesticides; QuEChERS; pesticide residue; vegetables; apples; grapes; tomatoes; peppers; gas chromatography; electron capture detector; solvent consumption; green chemistry.
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 2016 Vol.15 No.1/2, pp.136 - 150
Received: 12 May 2014
Accepted: 21 Oct 2014
Published online: 24 Jan 2016 *