Title: The effect of Twitter on sports fans' information processing: an analysis of the controversial referee's decision in the 2012 London Olympic Games

Authors: Min Kyo Lee; Sangyoon Ryu; Galen Clavio; M. David Lovell; Choong Hoon Lim; Paul M. Pedersen

Addresses: Sport Management, Indiana University, 1025 E. 7th Street, SPH 112, Bloomington, IN 47405-7109, USA ' Sport Management, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 104 George Huff Hall, 1206 S 4th St., Champaign, IL 61820, USA ' Indiana University, Indiana University Sport Management 1025 E. 7th Street, SPH 112, Bloomington, IN 47405-7109, USA ' Sport Management, Indiana University, 1025 E. 7th Street, SPH 112, Bloomington, IN 47405-7109, USA ' Global Sport Management Program, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Building 71, Room 411, 151-742, Seoul, Korea ' Sport Management, Indiana University, 1025 E. 7th Street, SPH 112, Bloomington, IN 47405-7109, USA

Abstract: Although Twitter is one of the fastest-growing social media platforms in the sport industry, few studies have examined how Twitter messages influence sport fans' perception levels. To examine the effects of Twitter messages and user sources, a 2 (message valences: positive or negative toward the referee's decision) × 2 (user sources: professional or non-professional) between-subjects design was employed. The results of the analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed that Twitter messages had significant effects on sport fans' information processing. However, there were no significant user source effects on source evaluation. Professional sport journalists and non-professional writers were perceived to be equally reliable and likeable. Moreover, sport fans' cognition levels were differently shaped by types of message. Induced attitudes by the messages were transferred to the related topics.

Keywords: user-generated content; UGC; Twitter; effectiveness; user sources; source credibility; source evaluation; priming theory; framing theory; referees; refereeing decisions; social media; experimental design; sports fans; information processing; controvery; controversial decisions; London Olympics; 2012 Olympic Games; ANOVA; cognition levels; professionals; non-professionals.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2014.072006

International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2014 Vol.15 No.3/4, pp.102 - 119

Available online: 28 Sep 2015 *

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