Title: Water and wastewater management in antiquity in the context of an ethically oriented environmental protection

Authors: Ioannis K. Kalavrouziotis; Prodromos H. Koukoulakis; Panagiotis A. Drakatos

Addresses: School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Aristotelous 18, 26 335, Patras, Greece ' Soil Science Institute of Thessaloniki, GR-570 01, Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece ' Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Patras, 26504, Patras, Greece

Abstract: The environmental aspects of modern and ancient wastewater reuse management are comparatively examined. The contribution of the scientific technology and know-how to protect the environment along with a loving, eucharistic and friendly behaviour of humans towards maintenance of a desirable environmental quality, is emphasised. The religious and spiritual relation of the ancient humans with the environment is compared to the often aggressive exploitation of the environment by the vicarious mania of modern humans, with use of up-to-date technology and scientific know-how. Also, the endeavours for the protection and restoration of the damaged agro-ecological environment due to heavy metal soil pollution from the various anthropogenic interventions such as the wastewater reuse, are reported. It is concluded that the successful facing of the environmental protection is the achievement of a balance between sustainable development and protection of the environment. The problem of environmental protection is basically an ethical (moral) issue.

Keywords: modern man; environmental protection; ethical issues; ethics; wastewater reuse; water management; wastewater management; antiquity; ancient humans; heavy metals; soil contamination; environmental pollution; sustainable development; sustainability.

DOI: 10.1504/IJGENVI.2015.071847

International Journal of Global Environmental Issues, 2015 Vol.14 No.3/4, pp.226 - 237

Received: 16 Jun 2014
Accepted: 12 Jul 2014

Published online: 21 Sep 2015 *

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