Authors: Paul Codani; Marc Petit; Yannick Perez
Addresses: Group of Electrical Engineering – Paris (GeePs), UMR CNRS 8507, CentraleSupelec, Univ Paris-Sud, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Gif-Sur-Yvette, 91190, France ' Group of Electrical Engineering – Paris (GeePs), UMR CNRS 8507, CentraleSupelec, Univ Paris-Sud, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Gif-Sur-Yvette, 91190, France ' RITM Lab, University of Paris-Sud, Orsay 91400, France
Abstract: Using electric vehicles (EV) as distributed storage units could be a solution to take advantage of the good availability of EVs and reduce their total cost of ownership. The scientific literature features frequency control as one of the most profitable electric markets for EV fleets. This paper presents an economic evaluation of the expected remuneration for a fleet of EVs participating in primary frequency control in France in 2020. First, the modelling of a French EV fleet is addressed. Simulations of the participation of this fleet in the French primary frequency control market are then performed. Two regulation strategies are considered: in the first one, only unidirectional power exchanges are allowed between EVs and the grid, while in the second one bidirectional exchanges are allowed. Results show that the expected remuneration is highly dependent on the ability to charge at work, the power level of the charging stations, and the bidirectional capabilities of the cars.
Keywords: EVs; electric vehicles; vehicle-to-grid; V2G; frequency control; DSR; demand side response; economics; smart grids; France; distributed storage units; electric markets; EV fleets; modelling; simulation; power level; charging stations; bidirectional capabilities.
International Journal of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles, 2015 Vol.7 No.3, pp.233 - 249
Received: 09 Mar 2015
Accepted: 26 Mar 2015
Published online: 04 Sep 2015 *