Title: Development of a lower extremity model for high strain rate impact loading

Authors: Rebecca A. Fielding; Reuben H. Kraft; Andrzej Przekwas; X.G. Tan

Addresses: Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Computational Biomechanics Group, The Pennsylvania State University, 341 Leonhard Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA ' Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Computational Biomechanics Group, The Pennsylvania State University, 341 Leonhard Building, University Park, PA 16802, USA ' CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL, 35805 USA ' CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL, 35805 USA

Abstract: In recent military conflicts, the incidence of underbody blasts has led to severe injuries, specifically in the lower extremities. The development of a lower extremity model may lead to a better understanding of injury patterns and mechanisms. A computational finite element model of the lower extremity was developed based on geometry made available in an anatomical repository. The portion of the extremity model below the knee was used in initial comparisons between simulations and experimental data. Impact was applied via a loading plate with a vertical velocity of 5 m/s, 10 m/s, and 12 m/s. Resultant axial force was compared to experimental data. Results of these simulations fall within the range of available experimental data, which gives confidence that this model represents advancement in lower extremity modelling capabilities. Bone fracture has also been modelled and shows consistency with injuries typical of underbody blast scenarios.

Keywords: finite element method; FEM; modelling; computational mechanics; high strain rate; lower extremities; biomechanics; underbody blast; injury scoring; fracture mechanics; simulation; anatomical modelling; impact loading; military conflicts; injury patterns; axial force; lower extremity injuries; lower limb injuries; bone fracture.

DOI: 10.1504/IJECB.2015.070427

International Journal of Experimental and Computational Biomechanics, 2015 Vol.3 No.2, pp.161 - 186

Available online: 05 Jul 2015 *