Title: Motives of sport spectators in China: a case study of the Chinese Super League

Authors: Chengcheng Wang; Hirotaka Matsuoka

Addresses: School of Economic and Management, Shanghai University of Sport, 399# Changhai Road, Yangpu District, Shanghai, 200438, China ' Waseda University, 3-4-1 Higashifushimi, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 202-0021, Japan

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the motives of spectators of Chinese professional football, in particular, the Chinese Super League (CSL). Based on the results of a focus group and a comprehensive literature review, a 12-motive, 38-item scale was developed. Questionnaires were distributed among CSL spectators in Shanghai. The 333 usable questionnaires were divided into two groups, and two confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to validate the scale. Finally, a 9-motive, 24-item scale was developed. Results indicated that sport interest, achievement, and socialisation were the most important motives for CSL spectators. Further, male spectators were more interested in football than female spectators were, attended more games, and were more willing to attend future games. Similar to previous studies, female spectators were more motivated by individual players. The results of the multiple linear regression showed that achievement could explain 30.8% of the dependent variable of intention of future attendance. Suggestions and implications for sport managers and marketers are given.

Keywords: Chinese Super League; CSL; spectator motives; sport spectators; China; case study; professional football; professional soccer; sport management; sport marketing; intention to attend; sport interest; achievement; socialisation; fan motivation; male spectators; female spectators; gender; football fans.

DOI: 10.1504/IJSMM.2014.069101

International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 2014 Vol.15 No.1/2, pp.57 - 74

Accepted: 29 Dec 2014
Published online: 27 Apr 2015 *

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