Title: How arterial pressures affect the consideration of internal carotid artery angle as a risk factor for carotid artherosclerotic disease

Authors: Matthew D. Sinnott; Paul W. Cleary; Simon M. Harrison; Sharen J. Cummins; Richard Beare; Velandai Srikanth; Thanh G. Phan

Addresses: CSIRO Computational Informatics, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia ' CSIRO Computational Informatics, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia ' CSIRO Computational Informatics, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia ' CSIRO Computational Informatics, Private Bag 33, Clayton South, Victoria 3169, Australia ' Department of Medicine, Stroke and Aging Research Group, Monash University, Australia; Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia ' Department of Medicine, Stroke and Aging Research Group, Monash University, Australia; Menzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia ' Department of Medicine, Stroke and Aging Research Group, Monash University, Australia; Stroke Unit, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia

Abstract: Patient-specific geometric factors together with traditional risk factors may aid the early identification of patients at high risk of developing carotid artery disease requiring surgical intervention. Recent studies have linked aspects of carotid geometry to the pathogenesis of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. Abnormal wall shear stress (WSS) is found for large ICA angles. Low WSS is believed to correspond to plaque formation whereas high WSS may result in plaque rupture and clotting. Here, the meshless method, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, is used to simulate Newtonian flow through a clinical, rigid walled, carotid bifurcation. The resulting flow field and WSS are reported for a range of different ICA angles. Varying the angle without changing boundary pressure conditions produces minimal change in flow and WSS. Greater ICA downstream pressures appear important for maintaining well-behaved flow through the bifurcation by suppressing flow separation downstream of the stenosis resulting in more uniform wall stress.

Keywords: smoothed particle hydrodynamics; SPH; blood flow; stroke risk; wall shear stress; WSS; artherosclerosis; carotid artery disease; mesh-free numerical methods; arterial pressures; internal carotid artery; ICA angles; ICA stenosis; risk factors; Newtonian flow.

DOI: 10.1504/PCFD.2015.068817

Progress in Computational Fluid Dynamics, An International Journal, 2015 Vol.15 No.2, pp.87 - 101

Received: 08 May 2021
Accepted: 12 May 2021

Published online: 13 Apr 2015 *

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