Authors: Atif Awad; Ishak Yussof; Tamat Sarmidi; Rahmah Ismail
Addresses: Alsharjah University, UAE ' National University of Malaysia, Malaysia ' National University of Malaysia, Malaysia ' National University of Malaysia, Malaysia
Abstract: Several studies examine the UNDP's 1996 hypothesis regarding the existence of a two-way relationship between economic growth and human development. This implies that improving human development could enhance economic growth opportunities and vice versa. Using Sudan time series data (1960-2012), the present study seeks to examine whether this hypothesis may vary between males and females. The empirical findings of the present study suggest that such relationships may vary between gender and over time. More specifically, whilst education and training improves the capability of females to contribute positively and significantly to a country's economic growth in the long run, improving male health reduce and significantly affects economic growth. In addition, household expenditure tends towards improving the human development of females compared to males over time. The results suggest that improving gender equality in Sudan, in addition to human development generally, also constitutes a means of attaining better economic performance, particularly in the long run.
Keywords: education; training; human development; autoregressive distributed lag; ARDL; economic growth; gender equality; Sudan; males; females; household expenditure.
African Journal of Economic and Sustainable Development, 2015 Vol.4 No.1, pp.74 - 108
Published online: 04 Apr 2015 *Full-text access for editors Full-text access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article