Title: Cellulose nanocrystals and carboxymethyl cellulose from olive stones and their use to improve paper sheets properties
Authors: Mohammad L. Hassan; Ragab E. Abou-Zeid; Shaimaa M. Fadel; Mohamed El-Sakhawy; Ramzi Khiari
Addresses: Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt; Centre of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Group, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt ' Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt ' Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt ' Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt ' Unité de Recherche de Chimie appliqué et environnement, Département de Chimie, Faculté des Sciences Monastir, Monastir 5019, Tunisie; Laboratoire de Génie des Procédés Papeteirs (LGP2), UMR CNRS 5518, Grenoble INP-Pagora – 461, rue de la papeterie – 38402 Saint-Martin-d'Héres, France
Abstract: Olive stones wastes were used to prepare cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the prepared nanocrystals had width and length of about 5-7 nm and 174-234 nm, respectively. Mixtures containing CMC and CNC in water were prepared and the effect of CNC ratio (from 2.5-10 wt.% based on CMC) on viscosity of CMC solution was studied. Films casted from CMC/CNC mixtures were characterised regarding their crystallinity, tensile strength, and dynamic mechanical thermal properties. In addition, the prepared mixtures were used for coating of paper sheets and the effect of coating on mechanical properties (breaking length and tear factor), water absorption, and air permeability of paper sheets was studied. Presence of CNC in the coating mixtures resulted in improving mechanical properties and decreasing water absorption and air permeability of paper sheets as compared to paper sheets coated with neat CMC coating mixture.
Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals; olive stones; carboxymethyl cellulose; CMC; paper coating; tensile strength; tear factor; breaking length; air permeability; water absorption; paper sheets; nanotechnology; viscosity.
International Journal of Nanoparticles, 2014 Vol.7 No.3/4, pp.261 - 277
Received: 02 May 2014
Accepted: 02 Sep 2014
Published online: 17 Feb 2015 *