Authors: David F.J. Campbell, Wolfgang H. Guttel
Addresses: University of Klagenfurt, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies (IFF), Department of Higher Education Research (HOFO), Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Vienna, Austria. ' Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Department of Human Resource Management, Althanstrasse 51, A-1090 Vienna, Austria
Abstract: Research and Development (R&D) expenditure grew during the 1980s and 1990s. The USA ranks first, Japan second and the EU third. Business R&D displays a cyclical pattern, university research, on the contrary, expanded more gradually. Interestingly, basic research grew faster than applied research. The consequences of this are paralleling efforts for different R&D activities, a re-conceptualisation of applied and university-related research and an increased demand, but also more opportunities, for direct university/business linkages. We will focus in this article on firms, identifying which options they have to meet these challenges. We propose the concept of the ||academic firm||. Through a limited ||scientification|| of business R&D and participation in research networks, firms can enhance their knowledge production.
Keywords: knowledge production; knowledge-based economies; knowledge-based societies; basic research; applied research; experimental development; research networks; parallel R&D; research and development; business R&D; academic firms; university research; innovation.
International Journal of Technology Management, 2005 Vol.31 No.1/2, pp.152 - 175
Published online: 30 Mar 2005 *Full-text access for editors Access for subscribers Purchase this article Comment on this article